Copyright
George Francis Hill.

The medallic portraits of Christ, The false shekels, The thirty pieces of silver online

. (page 1 of 11)
Online LibraryGeorge Francis HillThe medallic portraits of Christ, The false shekels, The thirty pieces of silver → online text (page 1 of 11)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


The MeT>^ALLIC:
TORTR^ITS of CHRIST

By G. F. Hill



J




Medal in the British Museum. Busts of Christ and St. Paul.



THE



MEDALLIC PORTRAITS
OF CHRIST



THE FALSE SHEKELS



THE THIRTY PIECES OF SILVER



By G. F. hill



FELLOW OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY



OXFORD
AT THE CLARENDON PRESS

19x0






Oxford University Press
London Edinburgh Glasgow New York

Toronto Melbourne Cape Town Bombay
Humphrey Milford Publisher to the University



PREFACE

OF the essays included in this volume, those which deal
with the Medallic Portraits of Christ and False Shekels
were originally published in the Reliquary and Illustrated
Archaeologist in 1902, 1904, and 1905. Constant inquiries con-
cerning these subjects are addressed to the British Museum and
doubtless to other similar institutions. It seemed, therefore,
worth while to place on record what is known about them ;
not so much, it must be confessed, in the hope of dissipating
certain picturesque superstitions, which continue to show every
sign of a long and happy life ; but rather to make it easier for
scholars to answer the inquiries addressed to them. At the same
time, some few of those who are curious in such matters are
interested to learn the truth ; others are occasionally convinced
by the printed word where the mere assurance of a Museum
official would be received with passionate incredulity. The
research, once undertaken, proved to have attractions of its own,
although the portion concerned with the medals of the later
sixteenth century has been worked out more from a sense of duty
than because of any interest in the banal types produced in that
period ; and the whole is, I fear, anything but easy reading.

The essay on the Thirty Pieces of Silver, being more or less
akin to the others, seemed not unfitting to accompany them. It
was read before the Society of Antiquaries of London in 1904,
and printed in Archaeologia, vol. lix.

I am indebted to Messrs. George Allen & Co., the present
proprietors of the Reliquary, and to the Council of the Society
of Antiquaries, for their kind permission to republish the essays,
which have been revised and in great part rewritten in the light
of more recent investigation. My thanks are also due to the
Directors of foreign museums and to the private collectors, by
whose courtesy I am able to publish illustrations of a number
of pieces not represented in the British Museum ; and to my
colleague Mr. O. M. Dalton, who has been so good as to read the
proofs and make various useful suggestions.

G. F. HILL.



British Museum,
March, 1920.



■775548



LECTORES DOCILES PAGINA NOSTRA VOCAT

Godfrey of Viterbo



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

FIG. PAGE

Frontispiece. Medal in the British Museum. Busts of Christ and St. Paul . 2

1. Medal by Matteo de' Pasti. Collection of Mr. Henry Oppenheimer . 10

2. Sketch for Medal of Christ in the Recueil Vallardi. From Heiss, Med.

de la Renaissance . . . . . . . . . .11

3. Repousse medallion. Victoria and Albert Museum .... 12
4 a and h. Medal in the Collection of the late Don Pablo Bosch {rev. Inscrip-
tion) . 13, 14

5. Plaquette in the British Museum . . . . . . -15

6. Detail from altar-piece by Montagna. Brera . . . . .16

7. Medal at Berlin {rev. Inscription) . . . . . . .18

8. Medal at Berhn 19

9. Medal in the Victoria and Albert Museum ...... 20

10. Medal in the Ashmolean Museum {rev. Inscription) . . . .21

11. Medal in the British Museum. Bust of St. Paul ..... 22

12. Medal in the British Museum {rev. Bust of a monk) . . . -23

13. Medal in the British Museum {rev. Inscription) . . . . .24

14. Medal in the Collection of Mr. Henry Oppenheimer. Bust of St. Paul

{rev. Inscription) ........

15. Stone Relief at Poitiers. From Gaffre, Portraits du Christ

16. German engraving at Dresden ......

17. Engraving by Hans Burgkmair ......

18. German woodcut of 1538 .......

19. Panel portrait of Christ. Berlin Gallery. School of Jan van Eyck

20. Tile with Head of St. John Baptist. British Museum .

21. Miniature in the Trivulzio Collection, Milan

22. Medal in the Collection of Mr. Maurice Rosenheim {rev. Trigram of Jesus

23. Reverse of Medal in the British Museum (Pieta) ....

24. Illustration from Rouille, Promptuaire des Medailles

25. Medal in the possession of Dr. Thomas Henderson {rev. Hebrew Inscrip

tion) ...........

26. Three varieties of the ' Hebrew Medal '.....

27. Medal formerly in the Murdoch Collection {rev. Hebrew Inscription)

28. Medal in the British Museum {rev. Hebrew Inscription) .

29. Medal by G. A. de' Rossi in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris {rev. Adora

tion of the Magi) ....

30. Medal in the British Museum {rev. Calvary)

31. Medal in the British Museum {rev. Calvary)

32. Medal in the British Museum

33. Crystal intaglio in the British Museum

34. Medal at BerUn {rev. Bust of the Virgin)

35. Medal in the British Museum by Giovanni dal Cavino {rev. Crucifixion) 63

36. Medal by Cavino, from modern impressions made from the old dies {rev

Trinity) ..........

37. Medal by Cavino (?) in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris {rev. Trans

figuration) ........... 65



25
26

27

28

29

31
38
44

45
46
46

49

50
51

52

56
60
60
61

63
63



65



8 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

FIG. PAGE

38. Medal in the Collection of Mr. Maurice Rosenheim {rev. Christ standing) 66

39. Jubilee medal of 1550 {rev. Porta Santa) in the British Museum . . 66

40. Restored medal of Paul IV in the British Museum .... 67

41. Medal by Antonio Abondio in the British Museum {rev. Christ as Man of

Sorrows) ........... 68

42. Medal in the British Museum {rev. the Fall) . , . . .68

43. Pendant by Gaspare Mola in the British Museum {rev. Bust of the Virgin) 69

44. Medal (with obverse by Flotner) in the Berlin Museum . . -71

45. Medal by Hagenauer in the British Museum {obv. Bust of Count Thomas

of Rheineck) .......... 72

46. Medal (Viennese) in the British Museum ...... 73

47. Medal of 1549 in the Collection of Mr. Maurice Rosenheim {rev. Agnus

Dei) . . . .74

48. Medal of 155 1 in the Collection of Mr. Maurice Rosenheim {rev. Agnus

Dei) . 74

49. Medal in the British Museum {rev. Agnus Dei) ..... 74

50. Medal at Munich {rev. Arms of Johann Schmauser, Abbot of Ebersberg) 75

51. Medal at Munich {rev. Arms of Johann Schmauser, Abbot of Ebersberg) 76

52. Medal by Valentin Maler in the British Museum {rev. The Church between

Poverty and Gratitude) ......... 77

53. Medal by Valentin Maler in the Victoria and Albert Museum {rev. Christ

supporting the Cross) ......... 77

54. Genuine Jewish Shekels and Half-shekels of the First Revolt (British

Museum) ........... 79

55. Genuine Jewish Shekel of the Second Revolt (British Museum) . . 80

56. Becker's forgery of the Shekel of the First Revolt (British Museum) . 81

57. The ' Censer Shekel ' (British Museum) . . . . . .82

58. Waser's illustration of the Half- Shekel ...... 84

59. Waser's illustration of the One-third-Shekel ...... 84

60. Censer Shekel from Villalpandus ....... 85

61. Shekel from Postel . . . . . . . . . -87

62. Variety of the Censer Shekel in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris . . 88

63. Silver Coins of Rhodes, fifth to fourth century B.C. (British Museum) . 105

64. Medal of Judas Iscariot and Rhodian Coin, from Rouille . . .110

65. Fifteenth-century reproduction of a Rhodian Coin, in the Bibliotheque

Nationale, Paris . . . . . . . . . .114

66. Stater of Tyre (British Museum) . . . . . . • 115

67. Stater of Antioch (British Museum) . . . . . . • 1^5

68. Denarius of Tiberius (British Museum) . . . . , • 115



I

MEDALLIC PORTRAITS OF

CHRIST iMfV

I. The Fifteenth Century

'Q (fyiXraTrj npoa 0-^19, (o TroOov/jtepr)
apaioTTjg app7jT09 virep irau yepos,
elKcoi' aypa(p09 a.ypa(l)ov p.op(P(s3ixaT09. — Christus Pattern.

THE question of the artistic development of the portrait of
Christ, in itself sufficiently intricate, has been so much
complicated by contributions from writers more remark-
able for their piety than for their sense of evidence, that it is
necessary to apologize for attacking it once more. My excuse
must be that I propose practically to limit myself to the medallic
portraits of the Renaissance, only incidentally dealing with earlier
representations, and to ignore altogether, as a matter which can
hardly be proved one way or the other, the question whether the
numerous portraits bear any resemblance to the actual counte-
nance of Christ. There is, I take it, no doubt that nearly all later
representations have been much influenced by the various literary
descriptions ^ of Christ, of which the earliest seems to be that
given by John of Damascus, who died about 754.- Better known
is the famous letter supposed to have been written by Publius
Lentulus to the Roman Senate.^ A third description is given

^ Cf. F. X. Kraus, Gesch. der christ- in a tract headed, ' Ex gestis Anselmi

lichen Kunst, i, p. 177. coUiguntur forma et mores beatae Mariae

- Epist. ad Theophilum, c. 3 (Migne," et eius unici filii lesu ', on the last page

Patrol., Ser. Gr., vol. 95, p. 350). of an undated edition (end of fifteenth

^ See J. P. Gabler, Kleinere theolog. century) of St. Anselm's Opuscula ; but
Schriften (Ulm, 183 1), ii, pp. 628 f. it is not acknowledged among his genuine
Gabler comes to the conclusion that the works. The current assumption, there-
letter was concocted by some monk of fore, that it goes back to Anselm's time
the thirteenth or fourteenth century, is unfounded. I have not been able to
It appears for the first time in print, trace any manuscript containing it earlier
although not under the name of Lentulus, than the fourteenth century.

1715 . B



10 MEDALLIC PORTRAITS OF CHRIST

by Nicephorus Callisti (XanthopouUos), who died about

John of Damascus describes Christ as having meeting eye-
brows, fine eyes, long nose, curly hair, stooping shoulders, fresh
complexion, black beard, and a skin the colour of wheat, as well
as other characteristics which do not concern us here. Nicephorus
agre.e&'in most particulars with John, adding that his hair was




Fig. I. — Medal by Matteo de' Pasti. Collection of Mr. Henry Oppenheimer.

golden, not very thick, inclining to curliness ; eyebrows black,
not much curved ; beautiful eyes, bright and inclined to brown ;
long nose ; beard golden, and not very long ; hair of the head
long ; attitude somewhat stooping ; complexion wheat-coloured ;
face not round but rather pointed below, and slightly rubicund.
The letter of Lentulus describes his hair as nut-brown, smooth
to the ears, curling on the shoulders, parted in the middle ; his
forehead smooth and serene ; his face without wrinkle or blemish,
slightly rubicund ; nose and teeth good ; full beard, like his hair,
not long, but forked in the middle, &c., &c.

1 Hist. Eccl. i. 40 (Migne, vol. 145, p. 748).



MEDALLIC PORTRAITS OF CHRIST



II



The head of Christ first makes its appearance on coins in
the reign of Justinian II (a.d. 685-95).^ He is represented with
long flowing hair, moustache and beard, and a cross behind
the head. It is a full-face representation, such as was only to
be expected at the time, when it is quite the exception to find
a profile portrait on a coin. The facing bearded bust of Christ,
with various modifications, continues in use in Byzantium down




Fig. 2. — Sketch for Medal of Christ in the Recueil Vallardi.

Frmn Heiss, Med. de la Ren.

to the very end of the coinage in 1448. The beardless bust, also
facing, does not appear until the reign of Manuel I (a.d. i 143-80).^
These facing types had no influence whatever on the Renaissance
attempts at portraying the Saviour, which, so far as medals are
concerned, are invariably in profile, usually to the left. The busts
of Christ on the coins, in fact, are merely examples, on a small
scale, of the orthodox Byzantine iconography of Christ, which
Italian art discarded as soon as it felt able to do so.

1 W. Wroth, Catalogue of the Imperial Byzantine Coins in the British Museum
(1908), ii, p. 331, nos. II ff. ^ W. Wroth, op. cit., ii, p. 566.



12



MEDALLIC PORTRAITS OF CHRIST



The medals with which I propose to deal may be divided
roughly into two classes, corresponding to the fifteenth and
sixteenth centuries.

The earliest of which we have any knowledge (fig. i) is the
work of the medallist Matteo de' Pasti of Verona, Pisanello's most
distinguished pupil .^ His various medals of Sigismondo Pandolfo
Malatesta and Isotta Atti bear dates from 1446 to 1457, and it is
improbable that the medal with the head of Christ is much later

than 1460. Its description is as
follows :




Ohv.



lESVS ■ CHRISTVS



DEVS ■ DEI • FILIVS • HVMANI ■
GENERIS ■ SALVATOR ■ Bust of

Christ 1., with plain circular
nimbus seen in perspective ; the
hair is brushed back from the
forehead and falls in curls on
the shoulders ; beard full, but
not forked or long ; moustache
full ; whiskers slightly curly. He
wears a vest and cloak.

Rev. OPVS • MATTHAEI •

PASTI I ■ VERONENSis • The dead
Christ, seen in half-figure in his
tomb ; his head supported by

a putto ; on the left, another putto, weeping, with hands uplifted ;

behind, the cross.

Bronze, 93 mm. Stops in the legends, inverted triangles.

The obverse of this medal bears considerable resemblance
to a drawing in the Recueil Vallardi in the Louvre. The majority
of the drawings in this album are from the hand of Pisanello
himself ; but to any one acquainted with the work of that master,
it is clear that this particular design, which I reproduce here
(fig. 2) after Heiss (p. 28), is not from his hand. The treatment of
the hair and beard differs from that on the medal : the bust has



Fig.3-



-Repousse Medallion in Victoria
and Albert Museum.



1 See especially A. Heiss, Les Medail-
leurs de la Renaissance : Leon-Baptiste
Alberti, Matteo de' Pasti, &c. (Rothschild,
Paris, 1883). M. Gustave Dreyfus's
specimen of the medal of Christ is
illustrated on pi. iii, 3, and described on



p. 26. I have to thank the pubHsher for
permitting me to reproduce the sketch
in fig. 2 from this work. The specimen
here reproduced (fig. i) by kind permis-
sion of Mr. Henry Oppenheimer, is
without a reverse.



MEDALLIC PORTRAITS OF CHRIST 13

no nimbus, and is turned to the right instead of to the left. It is,
if anything, weaker in expression than the medaUic head, which
itself is quite the poorest of Fasti's productions. On the whole,
we are justified in supposing that the drawing is a design by
Pasti himself for his medal.

This work exercised comparatively little effect on the develop-
ment of the medallic portraits of Christ. Its influence may,
however, be traced in a repousse silver medallion of the late
fifteenth century in the Victoria and Albert Museum (fig. 3).
This represents a head of Christ to 1. with a cruciferous nimbus.
The type is refined but weak, with a fairly long pointed beard,
and long hair, a lock being brushed back from the forehead over
the temple. The area of the nimbus is raised above the rest of
the field ; its circle is of cable pattern. A metrical inscription
in letters of late Gothic style runs round the bust : viva • dei ■
FACIES ■ ET ■ SALVATORis ■ IMAGO ■ Diameter, 63 mm.

In the collection of the late Don Pablo Bosch of Madrid
is a large medal (fig. 4 a, b) which belongs to the same group :

Ohv. — Bust of Christ to 1., draped, otherwise as on fig. 3 ;
across the field -in- • r • i • ; around, + respice • in • faciem •

CHRISTI -TVI • SPECIOSVS- FORMA • PRE ■ FILMS • HOMINVM (quatre-

foils as stops, where visible).

Rev. — Incised inscription : + | venite • adme : om | nes •

QVI LABORATIS ET | ONERATI ESTIS ET ■ EGORE | FICIAM • VOS ■

IVGVM • ENI I MEVMSVAVE • EST • ET | ONVS • MEVM • LEVE

Bronze gilt, 113 mm.^ The lettering, especially on the reverse of this medal, is
finely decorative, in the monumental style of about 1475. That is the time to which
we may assign the origin of the medal, approximately. A specimen (obverse only),
recently presented to the British Museum by Mr. E. G. Millar, shows the signature
PHI LIP I OPVS incised on the truncation of the bust.

The same type also occurs on a well-known baiser de paix^^
of which the specimen in the Plaquette Room of the British
Museum is illustrated here (fig. 5 , 89 by 66 mm.). Christ is repre-
sented in profile to 1., with cruciferous nimbus ; at the sides of the
head, the letters 1 • N R • 1 ; above, the Holy Spirit between Sun
and Moon. Molinier dates the piece to the end of the fifteenth

1 I have to thank the late owner for BerHn (Ital, Bronzes, 1305). M. Valton
the photographs from which the illustra- possessed a variety, now presumably in
tions in the text are made. the Paris Cabinet, without the symbols

2 MoUnier, Les Plaquettes, ii, p. 73, above, and with INRI on a label below,
no. 461. Other specimens in the British Cf. Armand, Les Medailleurs italiens, iii,
Museum, at South Kensington, and at p. 149 C



14



MEDALLIC PORTRAITS OF CHRIST



century. The way in which the bust is cut off is characteristic.
The same type (apart from accessories) is exactly reproduced
on a lead medallion (diameter, loo mm.) found in the cemetery
of Sainte-Livrade (Lot-et-Garonne).i The bust is flanked by
the letters i N, and the field of the medaUion decorated with




Fig. 4 a. — Medal in the Collection of the late Don Pablo Bosch, Obverse.



incised ornaments. On the reverse is a Hebrew inscription, to
which we shall return when dealing with the medals of the
sixteenth century. M. de la Tour^ thinks that this medallion
is as late as the seventeenth century, and the work of an Italian
artist. Although it reproduces a fifteenth-century type, there

1 Published by M. G. Tholin, Bull, de la Soc. Nat. des Antiquaires de France,
1898, pp. 276 f. 2 Bulletin de la Soc. Nat., p. 281.



MEDALLIC PORTRAITS OF CHRIST



15



is, I think, no doubt that it cannot be earlier than the second half
of the sixteenth century.

It is interesting to note that Fasti's medal, or something
very like it, was known to the painter Bartolommeo Montagna.
In his altar-piece in the Brera, dated 1499, and representing the




Fig. 4 h. — Medal in the Collection of the late Don Pablo Bosch. Reverse.

Madonna and four saints ,1 he has introduced two decorative
medallions, of which one (fig. 6) seems to me to be suggested by
the type of Fasti's medal. The medalHons which are used thus
by many painters from the second half of the fifteenth century
onwards to decorate their architecture are not often, I believe,
derived from modern medals, although, as in the case of actual

^ T. Borenius, The Painters of Vicenza, p. 44.



i6



MEDALLIC PORTRAITS OF CHRIST



architecture of the time, the influence of Roman coins is strong.
But a careful examination of ItaHan paintings from this point
of view might reveal some interesting features.

We now come to a much more important group of medals.^
The chief peculiarities of the type of Christ on these medals are
the retreating forehead, the thick fleshy nose and lips, the
moustache which leaves the upper lip almost bare, starting from

the wing of the nose, the short
forked beard, the cruciferous
nimbus with circles in the
arms of the cross. The ob-
verse inscription is, in one
form or another, YHS XPC

SALVA TOR MVNDI.

a. (Fig. 7). — )?HS in in-
scription ; stops, lozenges ;
moustache on front of upper
lip indicated ; field slightly
sunk. Rev. — In wreath, in-
scription in fifteen lines :

PRESENTES | FIGVREAD-

SIMILI I tvdinemdominmheI

SV" SALVATORIS- NOSTRI | ET ■
APOSTOLI ■ PAVLI ■ IN ■ AMI i
RALDO ■ IMPRESSE • PER ■ MAG
Nl THEVCRI ■ PREDECESSORES-
AN I TIA- SINGVLARITER ■ OB-
SERVA I TE ■ M ISSE ■ SVNT ■ AB •
IPSO • MAG I NO ■ THEVCRO • S • D ■ N ■ PAPE | INNOCENCIO • OCTAVO ■
PRO ■ SI I NGVLARI • CLENODIO ■ ADHV | NC EINEM ■ VT ■ SWM ■ FRA
TREM • CAPTIWM t RETINERET




Fig. 5. — Plaquette in British Museum.



^ I may note, in passing, that all the
medals of Christ of the fifteenth and
earlier sixteenth centuries are un-
doubtedly cast, not struck. M. de Mely
speaks [Gaz. des Beaux- Arts, 1898,
tome xix, p. 490) as if some of them were
struck. In view of the misapprehensions
which prevail regarding the processes
of medal-making, I may be excused for



reminding my readers that the stages
through which a cast medal passes are
{a) the original model in relief, positive ;
{h) the mould, hollow, negative, made by
impressing a into moulding material ;
{c) the cast from the mould, i.e. the com-
plete medal. Further, it may be well
to say a word as to the way in which
varieties, such as those which are to be



MEDALLIC PORTRAITS OF CHRIST



17



Lettering, late Gothic ; N is invariably reversed ; stops, lozenges. For ANT I A and
E I N EM read ANTE A and F I N EM . Bronze, 85 mm., Berlin.i Another specimen is m
the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (Fortnum Collection) ; a third at Milan {Bull,
de la Soc. des Ant. de V Quest, 1889, p. 87) ; a fourth, apparently cast from, or else the
original of, the Milan specimen, is in the Victoria and Albert Museum. It has the same
breaks in the margin, and is pierced in exactly the same place. A fifth (83 mm.) with
loop for suspension is in the British Museum ; it reads FIN EM, but is a poor cast.

A medallion cast from the obverse of a similar medal is
inserted in a bell, cast in 15 15 by Georgius Wagheuens, in the




Fig. 6. — Detail from Altar-piece by Montagna.

church of St. Olaus at Helsing0r in Denmark. See F. Uldall,
Danmarks Middelalderlige Kirkeklokker (Copenhagen, 1906),



described, came into existence. It was
not necessary to build up an entirely
new model. The artist could take an
old medal and do one of two or three
things. He could work on it with
a graver, chasing and altering details,
even cutting out one inscription and
replacing it by another, or wholly
modifying the bust. He could then
make from this as many new casts as he
pleased. Or, taking his old medal he
could impress it in moulding material
and make certain alterations at that stage ;
but it is doubtful whether much could
be done in this way which could not
more easily be effected by a third
1715 c



method. That was to make a wax cast,
reproducing the old medal exactly, and
then work on it as one pleased ; this
would then be the model from which
the new variety could be cast. It is
probable that not one of the varieties
of the Salvator medal to be described
was made from a new model, built up
freehand in imitation of an original ;
the moulds were doubtless in all cases
made mechanically from older speci-
mens, and all specimens are the lineal
descendants of one original.

1 Dr. H. Dressel kindly sent me casts
of this and the next medal.










\






.i;* .^> a'



Fig. 7.— Medal at Berlin.



MEDALLIC PORTRAITS OF CHRIST



19



pp. 303 f. This medal was also reproduced at Nancy, in the
church of St. Evre, on a bell cast in 1576, but now no longer
existing. 1

b. (Fig. 8). — YHS • XPC in legend ; stops, pellets (two at the
end). The field is roughened ; the area of the nimbus is sunk
and filled with incised rays, the arms of the cross are also filled
with incised lines. The whole medal is strongly tooled, especially




Fig. 8. — Aiedal at Berlin.

as regards the hair and the modelling of the face (note, e.g., the
way in which the temple is sunk).

Rev. — In wreath, inscription as on preceding, with the
following differences : at beginning, small cross ; stops, pellets ;
AO for ad; inpresse ; antea ; svmt ; dono for clenodio ;

FINEM ; RETINEAT.

Bronze, 84 mm., Berlin. Published by W. Bode, Zeitschr. f. chr. Kunst, 1888,
pp. 347 f. ; cf. Gaz. des Beaux-Arts, 1898, vol. xix, p. 489.

The whole aspect of the lettering of this medal is somewhat earlier than that
of a ; the D for instance is of a Gothic form ; the A has a more defined horizontal
bar at the top. But the medal, to judge by the workmanship, has all the appearance of
being a later modification of a. The artist, who realized that some people ^ might be

1 Bull, de la Soc. des Ant. de rOuest, who in Bull, de la Soc. des Ant. de I'Ouest,
1889, pp. 87 f. 1889, p. 77, commits himself to the state-

■^ Such as Mgr. Barbier de Montault, ment that the word has no meaning.



20 MEDALLIC PORTRAITS OF CHRIST

puzzled by the word CLENODIO (treasure, KX(iv(abi,ov, cf. the German Kleinod),
has replaced it by DONO.


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Online LibraryGeorge Francis HillThe medallic portraits of Christ, The false shekels, The thirty pieces of silver → online text (page 1 of 11)