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HISTORY OF ENGLAND
LIVES OF ENGLISHMEN.
GEOKGE GODFKEY CUNNINGHAM.
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LONDON AND EDINBURGH
A. FULLARTON AND CO.
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nrr.LARTON AND MACNAB, PBINTEKS, I.KITH WALK.
CONTENTS OF VOL. V.
575. Daniel Waterland,
576. Archbishop Boulter,
577. Andrew Snape, .
I. POLITICAL SERIES.
578. Daniel Neal, .
541. George II
579. Archbishop Potter,
542. Frederick, Prince of Wales,
580. Bishop Gibson,
543. William, Duke of Cumberland,
581. Philip Doddridge,
544. Charles Edward Stuart, .
582. Conyers Middleton,
545. Henry Stuart, Cardinal York,
583. William Whiston,
546. Lord King,
584. Joseph Butler,
54-7. William Shippen, .
585. Bishop Berkeley,
548. Sir John Fortescue Aland, .
586. Simon Browne,
549. Sir John Balchen,
587. Bishop Wilson, .
550. Sir John Norris,
588. Bishop Conybeare, .
551. Sir Cha loner Ogle, .
589. Arthur Sykes,
552. Admiral Mathews,
590. Archbishop Herring,
553. Sir Peter Warren, .
591. James Hervey,
554. Horatio, Lord Walpole,
592. Samuel Chandler, .
5J5. Admiral Vernon,
593. Bishop Hoadly, .
556. Admiral Byng,
594. Bishop Sherlock,
557. Sir Paul Methven, .
595. William Law,
558. Spencer, Duke of Marlborough
596. Bishop Lavington, .
559. Major-general Wolfe, .
597. John Mason,
560. Lord George Murray,
598. John Leland, .
561. Admiral Hoscawen.
599. Nathaniel Lardner,
562. Dodington, Lord Melcombe,
600. Archbishop Seeker,
563. George, Lord Anson,
601. George Whitefield,
564. James, Earl Waldegrave,
602. John Jortin,
565. John Carteret, Earl Granville,
566. Philip, Earl of Hardwicke,j
Hi. LITERARY SERIES.
567. Pulteney, Earl of Bath, .
603. Alexander Pope,
568. Sir John Barnard,
604. Jonathan Swift,
569. Holies, Duke of Newcastle,
605. Richard Savage, .
570. Arthur Onslow, .
606. James Thomson,
571. George, Lord Lyttelton, .
607. Ambrose Philips,
572. Stanhope, Earl of Chesterfield
608. Aaron Hill,
609. William Cheselden, .
II. ECCLESIASTICAL SERIES
610. Sir Hans Sloane,
611. Thomas Carte, .
573. Thomas Woolston, .
612. Richard Mead,
574. William Derham,
613. Edward Cave, .
614 Henry Fielding, . . 221
615. John Henley, . . .227
616. David Hartley,
617. Edward Moore, . . .230
618. John Dyer, . . 231
619. Nicholas Hardinge, . . 232
620. Colley Gibber, . . 232
621. William Collins, . . .' 235
622. Samuel Richardson, . 239
623. William Oldys, . . .243
624. James Bradley, 246
625. William Shenstone, . 247
626. Charles Churchill, . . 249
627. Robert Dodsley, . . 253
628. William Hogarth, . . 256
629. Lady Mary Wortley Montague, 263
630. Henrietta, Countess of Suffolk, 270
631. David Mallet, . . 274
632. Edward Young, . .277
633. Thomas Birch, . . 279
634. Richard Dawes, . . .280
635. Zachary Grey, . . 282
636. James Quin, . . .28
637. Laurence Sterne, . . 284
638. William Duncombe, . . 288
639. James Merrick, . . 288
640. Alexander Monro, . 290
641. Mark Akenside, . . 292
64-2. John Dollond, . . .295
643. Tobias Smollett, . . 299
644. Christopher Smart, . . 302
645. John Harrison, . . 303
HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION, . 305
I. POLITICAL SERIES.
646. George III.
647. Charles To%vnshend, . . 329
648. Manners, Marquess of Granby, 330
649. Charles Yorke, . 332
150. John, Duke of Bedford, . 333
151. Henry Fox, Lord Holland, 334
552. Clive, Baron Plassey, . . 336
653. Pitt, Earl of Chatham, . 343
654. Captain Cook, . . . 352
5. Sir William Blackstone, . 360
656. Edward, Lord Hawke, . 363
657. Wentworth, M. of Rockingham,367
658. Sir Hyde Parker, . . 374
659. Dunning, Lord Ashburton, 375
GGO. George, Viscount Sackville, 377
561. Jonas Hanway,
662. Lord Viscount Keppel, . 385
663. Sir William Draper, . 388
364. John Shebbeare, . . 389
665. Norton, Lord Grantley, . 394
366. General Gage, . . 396
667. Lord Heathfield, . . 399
668. Yorke, Earl of Hardwicke, . 402
669. Colonel Barre, . . 404
670. Sir John Eardley Wilmot, 405
671. Montague, Earl of Sandwich, 406
672. George, Lord Rodney, . 409
673. Sir George Pocock, . 411
674. North, Earl of Guildford, . 412
675. Stuart, Marquess of Bute, 420
676. Lieutenant-general Burgoyne, 425
677. Murray, Earl of Mansfield, 43]
678. William, Viscount Barrington, 441
679. Charles Pratt, Earl Camden, 442
680. Sir Edward Hughes, . . 454
681. Marshal Conway, . . 455
682. Sir Henry Clinton, . . 457
683. Sir Hugh Palliser, . . 460
684. Jefl'ery, Lord Amherst, . 461
685. John Wilkes, ... 464
686. Lord chief-justice Eyre, . 474
687. Wellbore Ellis, Lord Mendip, 476
688. Petty, Marquess of Lansdowne, 478
689. Fitzroy, Duke of Grafton, . 481
TO SEVENTH PERIOD,
FROM GEORGE II. TO THE ACCESSION OF GEORGE IIL
WHO FLOURISHED DURING THAT PERIOD.
Paucity of historical materials Sources Sketch of the state of parties at the accps-
sion of the house of Hanover Successive ministries of George II. State of English
IT is the just remark of an eminent critic, that "no part of our do-
mestic history, since the Reformation, is so imperfectly known to us as
the interval between the accession of the house of Hanover, and the
death of George II." And yet the age which lay between these two
events was not the least important one in English history. It indeed
presented nothing like the religious agitations of the sixteenth century ;
and its civil wars of which it had two were utterly insignificant in
comparison with those of the preceding century ; yet it was an age of
political activity, abounding in cabals and intrigues, and remarkable
for the establishment and consolidation of that internal system of go-
vernment, by which the affairs of this country have been conducted
almost up to the present hour.
The fact is, the materials for modern English history are yet re-
markably scanty, and of difficult access. That materials do exist, there
can be no question ; but they are still chiefly to be found in private
collections, and family-archives. Mr Coxe, by the publication of the
Walpole papers, has done something to remove this reproach. lie was
the first to illustrate the reigns of George I. and George II., fiom
original and authentic documents ; but he treats the historical personages
of this period with as much deference and reserve as might be prudent
were they still alive, and acting their parts on the political stage.
Glover's Memoirs, though a work of some pretension, will be found of
very little value to the future historian. Lord Waldegrave's Memoirs,
however, are truly valuable ; and those of Lord Orford are all that the
historian could desire. If, to these three works, we add Bubb Docling-
ton's Diary, and Lady Suffolk's Correspondence, we shall have indicat-
ed the principal historical sources, for the period under consideration,
at present accessible to the public.
At the accession of the house of Hanover, three political parties
divided the country. The whigs by whose exertions that event
brought about, were of course the predominant party. Their strength
chiefly lay in the trading and monied interests, and the adhesion of a
few of the great aristocratical families. Opposed to the whigs, and in
some important points to each other, were the tories and Jacobites.
Betwixt their notions of indefeasible right' in the succession to the
crown, and their dread of papacy, the tories hung back, in a state of
ludicrous perplexity, from pursuing decisive measures of any kind.
They hated the house of Hanover as heartily as the Jacobites, but their
attachment to the church of England made them hesitate to adopt a
line of conduct which might ultimately terminate in the restoration of
the Catholic church. The Jacobites, though many of them were
staunch episcopalians, had no such qualms about religion. The re-
storation of the Stuart dynasty was an object dearer to them than any
The united opposition of these two parties, to the existing govern-
ment, greatly embarrassed the ministry, and drove them, in some in-
stances, to the adoption of measures opposed in spirit to their princi-
ples, and from which, under other circumstances, they would have
recoiled. Hence the large standing armies which they maintained ;
the unconstitutional powers with which they invested petty magistrates ;
and the bribery practised both within and without the houses of parlia-
ment. It was unfortunate also for the whigs, that, at this time, to use
the words of Lord Waldegrave, " they were not united in one body,
under one general, like a regular and well-disciplined army ; but might
more aptly be compared to an alliance of different clans fighting in the
same cause, professing the same principles, but influenced and guided
by their different chieftains."
Soon after the accession of George I., a schism took place amongst
the whigs, in which Lords Sunderland and Stanhope headed one party,
and Sir Robert Walpole and Lord Townshend the other. The Wai-
pole party was successful ; but from the ruins of the other, a formida-
ble opposition arose, aided by the tories under Wyndham, and the
Jacobites under Shippen, which, after twenty years of untiring efforts,
finally overturned the administration of Walpole.
The administration of Lord Granville, and Pulteney, earl of Bath,
succeeded ; but these ministers were driven from their places by the
eloquence of Pitt, seconded by their own rashness and incapacity.
A coalition ministry was put together towards the close of 1744, un-
der the administration of which every thing went wrong at home and
abroad. The Pelhams headed this unhappy ministry, which included
the duke of Bedford and Lord Sandwich, and Pitt and Fox held subor-
dinate stations in it. On the death of his brother, the duke of New-
castle endeavoured to dispense with the services both of Pitt and Fox,
but was ultimately obliged to admit the latter into the cabinet. Such,
however, was the want of confidence betwixt the duke and Fox, that the
commoner tendered his resignation ; and Newcastle, now deprived of
his ablest allies, was necessitated to follow his example within a few days.
The duke of Devonshire was now intrusted with the formation of a
ministry. He immediately made overtures to Pitt, and so indispensa-
ble was the commoner's accession found to be, that it was purchased by
the rejection of both Newcastle and Fox, with whom Pitt refused to
TO SEVENTH PERIOD.
The personal antipathy of the king to Pitt broke up the Devonshire
administration, and an interministerium of t\vo months followed. After
a variety of fruitless attempts to form a ministry to his liking, the king
was forced to accept an administration formed under the auspices of the
heir-apparent, and which long successfully conducted the affairs of the
country, foreign and domestic.
The rapid outline we have now given will suffice to direct the rea-
der's attention to the principal political personages of the period now
under consideration ; its literary history may be indicated in even fewer
words. Under a necessity which seemed to be laid upon us by the
fact, that the leading men of Queen Anne's reign, both in politics and
literature, belong almost equally to the reign of the first George, and
the difficulty we found in drawing any line of demarcation betwixt the
two reigns considered as political and literary eras, we have already in-
troduced the reader to several illustrious names, which belong not
merely to the Augustan age of Queen Anne, as it is called, but also to
the era of the first two Georges. Jn our notice of Thomson we shall
be able to point out what we must regard as a wholesome change in
the public taste of this period, we mean that true sense of the beauty
of external nature, which, for any thing we can discover in the poetry
of Pope and his school, seems to have lain dormant from the period of
the Restoration until the author of the ' Seasons' appeared a candidate
for public favours. His contemporary, Young, would probably have
achieved greater things than he did, had he not unfortunately fallen
upon imitating Pope, with whom his genius had little in common.
Smollett has been pleased to mention Glover's ' Leonidas' among the
glories of the reign of George II. ; but the Grecian style, though sup-
ported by such men as Mason, and Gray, and Akenside, with all its
classicality, and learning, and taste, was never fitted for the clime of
Britain ; it was altogether too cold, and tame, and elaborate for the coun-
try of Shakspeare, Milton, and Spenser. Collins was a lyric poet of a
higher stamp than even Gray, but he long suffered strange neglect.
Even Cowper had never heard of his name until he saw it first in John-
son's ' Lives of the Poets,' nearly thirty years after his death. Dyer
awoke a simpler and more English strain than any of his poetical
brethren betwixt Thomson and Goldsmith. The Wartons meanwhile
did good service, both as critics and as poets, by directing the attention
of the rising generation to the school of Spenser, and of the Elizabethan
age. At last Cowper arose, and English poetry was finally emanci-
pated from the unworthy bondage under which it had so long lain.
In philosophy, and prose writing, the period of the second George
can show some worthy names. Balguy, and Doddridge, and Hoadly,
and Sherlock, and Berkeley, and Butler, and Warburton, with a host
of distinguished theologians and metaphysicians, adorn this era. Hume
too had completed his ' History of England' before the third George
ascended the throne.
, by Walpole
POLITICAL SERIES. [SEVENTH
I. POLITICAL SERIES.
BORN A. D. 1G83. DIED A. D. 1760.
GEORGE AUGUSTUS, son of George I., by Sophia Dorothea of Lune-
burg-Zell, was born in Hanover, on the 30th of October, 1683. In
1705 he married Wilhelmina Carolina, eldest daughter of the margrave
of Brandenburg-Anspach. Mis youth gave no indication of his being
}>ossessed of any thing more than the very ordinary amount of talent of
his family. He succeeded to the throne of England on the llth of
Although Sir Robert Walpole had given matter of personal offence
to the queen when princess- royal, and the new monarch had even sig-
nified his intention to dismiss him, yet, to the surprise of all, the old
ministry were suffered to remain in office, and the only resignation was
that of Earl Berkeley, who gave place to Admiral Byng, the personal
friend of the premier. The secret of Walpole's triumph was his under-
taking to procure the queen a settlement of 100,000 per annum in
the event of the king's demise, while Sir Spencer Compton, whom the
king seemed at first inclined to intrust with the formation of a new
cabinet, had spoken of a jointure of only 60,000. The king and
queen both loved money ; and there is a ludicrous anecdote told of the
coolness and effrontery with which the new sovereign got over the in-
convenience of certain bequests in the late king's will. At his first
council, the archbishop of Canterbury produced the will of George I.,
and placed it in the king's hands, expecting doubtless that it would be
unsealed and read to the council. The king, however, contented him-
self with quietly slipping it into his pocket, and, as he never afterwards
alluded to it, it was supposed that the late king's testamentary arrange-
ments were not satisfactory to his son.
In the first parliament of George II., which assembled on the 23d of
January, 1728, parties dropped their old appellations, and began to be
distinguished according as they supported or opposed ministers, as the
town or court party, and the country party. The influence of the
former party was predominant in parliament, but their opponents never
tailed to offer a vigorous resistance to the imposition of fresh taxes, and
the maintenance of a large standing-army.
One of the first schemes which occupied the attention of the new
sovereign, was a project of his own for the marriage of the prince of
Wales to the eldest daughter of the king of Prussia, and a second ma-
trimonial alliance between the same families by the marriage of the
Prussian heir-apparent to the king of England's second daughter. His
minify r Prussia entertained the proposal for the first marriage ; but
ble was i ^ *^ e secon d> on the ground that his heir-apparent was quite
the reiectiJ^ t ' ie ' ian( l f tue princess-royal of England, as his august
associate * on was ^ ^ ia ^ ^ *' ie P rmcess * r y a ' f Prussia. Ultimately
otiators got into a terrible passion with each other, and
PERIOD.] GEORGE II.
seriously thought of having recourse to the laws of honour for the ad-
justment of their differences ! Their seconds were chosen, and the
place of meeting appointed ; but their ministers at last succeeded in
diverting their attention from the ridiculous design. The prince of
Wales was married, in 17-36, to the princess of Saxe-Gotha; but soon
afterwards a serious misunderstanding arose betwixt the prince and his
royal father, of which various accounts have been given. To such a
length, however, did they carry their rupture, that the heir-apparent
completely identified himself with the opposition, and held a court of
his own at Norfolk- house ; while the king issued an order forbidding
all those, who visited the court of the prince and princess, from pre-
senting themselves at any of the royal palaces.
The death of Queen Caroline, on the ^Oth of November, 1737, was
a severe blow to the king, who, strange to say, notwithstanding his
illicit attachments, always kept on excellent terms with his wife. It is
a fact, however incredible it may appear, that George II. never gave
his confidence to any of his mistresses, but reserved that entire for his
wife, who, much his superior in mental powers, really proved a most
judicious and forbearing adviser. Sir Robert Walpole asserts that the
king loved the queen's little finger better than Lady Suffolk's whole
body. We are at a loss to understand the exact nature of the love
which subsisted betwixt the royal consorts ; but must receive the
unanimous testimony of their court, that they kept on excellent terms
with each other, and that the king often and deeply lamented the loss
he had sustained in her majesty's death. The manner in which she
led the feebler intellect, but obstinate nature of the king, is thus ex
plained by Walpole. She always affected much ignorance of state-
affairs, and spoke of herself as quite unfit to aid her consort in the
weighty concerns of government. Even when the premier presented
himself on business which had been previously settled between him and
the king, she would rise and offer to retire, when the king, delighted
with these appearances of modesty and humility, would exclaim to the
conscious minister, " Ha ! ha I You see how much I am governed by
my wife, as they say I am ! Ha ! ha I It is a fine tiling to be govern-
ed by one's wife." She had the good sense to see and acknowledge
her errors, without manifesting any dislike to those who pointed them
out to her, and even to overlook personal affronts when an adequate
object was to be gained by her forbearance. Thus, although it was
reported to her, that when W T alpole, during the differences between
George I. and his wife, formed a scheme for upsetting the existing
ministry, and bringing the prince's party into power, he objected to
the particulars of the plan being communicated to the prince, " be-
cause," said he, " the fat , his wife, would betray our secret, and
ruin all," she at once overlooked the affront when she became sensible
that it was in Sir Robert's power to procure her a higher jointure than
was at first proposed. " Tell Sir Robert," said she to the party who
conveyed his overtures to her, "that the fat has forgiven him."
She once wished to shut up St James's park, and asked Walpole what
it would cost to do it : " Only a crown, madam," was the minister's
reply ; the queen instantly thanked him for the honesty and bluntness
of his advice.
The queen's death was perhaps more truly regretted by Walpole
POLITICAL SERIES. [SEVENTH
himself than by the king. The Spanish war was most reluctantly
entered into by the minister, but he was no longer able to make a stand
against the clamours of the populace, aided by the propensities of the
king himself for military enterprise. The miscarriage of Admirals
Vernon and Norris, in their different naval operations against Spain,
drove Sir Robert from the political helm ; but, with the full consent of
the king, an army of 16.000 men was soon after sent to Flanders, to
take part in the quarrels that were then beginning to break out on the
continent. France, in despite of the Pragmatic sanction, to which that
power had been a party, and by which the emperor Charles the Se-
cond's dominions were settled upon his daughter, Maria Theresa,
espoused the cause of the elector of Bavaria. Assailed at once by
France, Saxony, Bavaria, and Prussia, the young queen of Hungary
was about to be stripped of her inheritance, when Britain interfered on
her behalf, and was followed by Sardinia, Holland, and Russia. The
king partook of his father's fondness for his Hanoverian dominions, and
the only plausible pretext which could be offered for the interference of
Britain was, that the security of the electorate depended upon nicely
balancing the different interests of the empire. This plea, however, in
the present humour of the nation and the king, sufficed ; and a British
and Hanoverian army, commanded by the earl of Stair, marched to
operate a diversion, on the side of France, in favour of the queen of
Hungary. The French, in order to prevent the junction of this force
with the Austrian army under Prince Charles, assembled an army of
60,000 men upon the Maine, under the command of Marshal de
Noailles. Stair suffered himself to be nearly surrounded by this force,
near the village of Dettingen ; and had the French been less precipitate
in their movements, the whole British force, with the king himself, who
had by this time arrived in the camp, must have been taken prisoners.
The king behaved with great courage, if not with eminent prudence or
skill, in this engagement ; but his interference with the functions of
commander-in-chief so disgusted the earl of Stair, that he resigned his
command, which was conferred upon Prince William of Cumber-
land, whose fortunes we shall have another opportunity of relating.
His majesty, notwithstanding the want of success of the army in Flan-
ders, appears to have been highly gratified with his own share in the
campaign. An ode, in honour chiefly of the battle of Dettingen, was
set to music, and frequently performed in the great council-chamber at
St James's, before the king and court. His majesty, on these occasions,
always appeared in the dress which he had worn when serving under
Marlborough, at the battle of Oudenarde. In this suit, which had be-
came rather obsolete, did the king strut about the circle, to his own
great satisfaction, and the great amusement of his court.
The lustre of the British arms was suffering under the defeat of Fon-
tenoy, when it was somewhat restored by our naval operations under
Rowley and Warren, and the capture of Louisbourg ; but the move-
ments of the Jacobites for a time excluded every other object from the
public mind. The history of the domestic rebellion of 1745 will be
found detailed in our sketch of the chevalier, Prince Edward.
A more inglorious period of our annals is scarce to be found, than