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George Godfrey Cunningham.

Lives of eminent and illustrious Englishmen, from Alfred the Great to the latest times, on an original plan (Volume 3) online

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3 3433 06728230 5




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LIVES OF EMINENT



AND



ILLUSTRIOUS ENGLISHMEN.



LIVES OF EMINENT






AND



ILLUSTRIOUS ENGLISHMEN,



FROM



ALFRED THE GREAT TO THE LATEST TIMES,



an



EDITED BY



GEORGE GODFREY CUNNINGHAM.



ILLUSTRATED BY A SERIES OF FINELY EXECUTED PORTRAITS, SELECTED FROM THE
MOST AUTHENTIC SOURCES, AND ENGRAVED BY EMINENT ARTISTS.



VOLUME III.



GLASGOW:

A. FULLARTON & CO., 34-, HUTCHESON STREET;
AND 31, SOUTH BRIDGE, EDINBURGH.



MDCCCXXXV.




GLASGOW:

KULLAKTON AND CO., PRINTERS, VliLAFIELD.



CONTENTS OF VOL. III.



FIFTH PERIOD.






287.


I POLITICAL SERIES




Continued.


288.


Pag


289.


253. Charles II., . ..',. 1


290.


254. Sir George Ayscough, . . 8


291.


255. Sir Edward Spragge, . . 9


292.


256. Edward, Earl of ^Clarendon, 11


293.


257. Sir William Morice, . .18


294.


258. Bulstrode Whitelocke, . 19


295.


259. Cavendish., Duke of Newcastle, 22


296.


260. Sir Matthew Hale, . . .23


297.


261. Dig-by, Earl of Bristol, . 29


298.


262. Andrew Marvell, . . 32


299.


263. Sir Henry Blount, . . 38


300.


264. Lord William Russell, . .39


301.


265. Algernon Sydney, yl . 44


302.


266. Finch, Earl of Nottingham, . 50


303.


267. Lord Guilford, . . . 51


304.


268. Cooper, Earl of Shaftesbury, 53


305,


269. Charles Fleetwood, . . 56


306.


270. Villiers. Duke of Buckingham, 57


307.


271. Judge Jcfferies, . . 58


308.


272. Edmund Ludlow, . . 64


309.


273. Saville, Marquess of Halifax, 70


310.


274. Sir William Temple, . 71


311.


275. James II., . . .76


312.




313.


II. ECCLESIASTICAL SERIES.


314.




315.


276. Archbishop Bancroft, . 80


316.


277. Bishop Andrews, . . 82


317.


278. Bishop Carleton, . . 84


318.


279. Henry Ainsworth, . . 86


319.


280. Robert Brown, ... 87


320.


281. George Herbert, . . .90


321. '


282. Archbishop Abbot, . . 91


322.


283. William Ames, ... 96


323.


284. Joseph Mede, . . . 97


324. '


285. Bishop Davenant, . . .99


325.


206. Bishop Bedell, 101


326.



Page

Archbishop Laud, . . 103

William Chilling-worth, . Ill

Henry Burton, . . .115

Archbishop Williams, . 117

Bishop Hall, . . .121

Thomas Gataker, . . 125

Henry Hammond, . . 125

Thomas Fuller, . . 126

Brian Walton, . . .130

Henry Holden, . . 133

Bishop Gauden, . . . 133

Archbishop Juxon, . . 134

John Goodwin, . . .136

Dr Burgess, . . . 138

Dr Cheynell, . . .139

Edmund Calamy, . . 139

Jeremy Taylor, . . .142

John Hales, . . . ]48

William Spurstowe, . .149

Isaac Ambrose, . . 149

Joseph Allein, . . 150

Anthony Tuckney, . . 151

Edmund Staunton, . . 152

Vavasour Powell, . . 152

Bishop Wilkins, . I-' . 153

Philip Nye, . . . 154

Bishop Hacket, . . .155

Joseph Caryl, . . 156

H. P. Cressey, . . .156

John Lightfoot, . . 158

Isaac Barrow, . . . 162

John Tombes, . . 167

Archbishop Sheldon, . .168

Archbishop Bramhall, . 169

Thomas Manton, . .170

Theophilus Gale, . . 171

Matthew Poole, . . .173

Thomas Goodwin, . . 176

Stephen Charnock, . .176

Richard Allein, . 177



VI



CONTENTS.



327. John Owen,

328. Bishop Morley,

329. Benjamin Calamy,

330. Bishop Pearson,

331. Bishop Fell,

332. John Bunyan, .

333. George Fox, '.

334. John Flavel, .

335. Richard Baxter, .
330. John North,

337. Henry More,

338. Ralph Cudworth,



III. LITERARY SERIES.



339.
340.
341.
342.
343.
344.
345.
346.
347.
348.
349.
350.
351.
352.
353.
354.
355.
356.
357.
358.
359.



Sir Thomas Bodley,
) Francis Beaumon^
) John Fletcher,
Shakspeare,
John Bull,
William Camden,
Francis Bacon,
Sir Robert Cotton,
John Donne,
Michael Drayton,
Henry Briggs,
Thomas Dekker,
Thomas Middleton,
George Chapman, .
Ben Jonson
John Ford,
Philip Massinger,
Edward Fairfax,
Thomas Carew, .
Sir John Suckling,
George Sandys, .



(



Page




177


360.


183


361.


184


362.


185


363.


185


364.


186


365.


189


366.


191


367.


194


368.


201


369.


202


370.


204


371.




372.




373.




374.


211


375.




376.


213


377.


217


378.


223


379.


224


380.


226


381.


237


382.


240


383.


242


384.


245


385.


247


386.


248


387.


249


388.


251


389.


258


390.


260


391.


263


392.


264




265




266



Page

William Cartwright, . 267

Robert Burton, . . . 268

William Lawes, "i

i Henry Lawes, )

Richard CrasJiaw, . . 269

John Bastwick, . . 271

William Harvey, M.D., . 273

Inigo Jones, . . . 279

John Selden, . . . 283

Sir K. Digby, . 289

Abraham Cowley, . . 294

Sir William Davenaut, 297

Robert Herrick, . . .300

James Shirley, . . 301

Thomas Willis, . . .302

James Harrington, . . . ; 303

Thomas Hobbes, . . 306

John Milton, . . . 314j

Samuel Butler, . . .324
Wilmot, Earl of Rochester, 331

Sir Thomas Browne, . 333

Izaak Walton, . . .338

Edmund Castell, 343

Thomas Otway, . . .344

Edmund Waller, 346

Nathaniel Lee, . . . 348

Thomas Sydenham, . 350

Robert Boyle, _ . . .353

Dr Pocock, . 359

Elias Ashmole, . . . 361

Dr Busby, . . 363

Dr Beaumont, . . . 367

John Aubrey, . . 368

SIXTH PERIOD.

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION, 369



LIVES OF EMINENT



AND



ILLUSTRIOUS ENGLISHMEN,



BORN A. D. 1630. DIED A. D. 1685.

CHARLES II., son of Charles I. and Henrietta Maria of France, was
born at Whitehall, on the 29th of May, 1630. He was living at the
Hague, under the protection of his brother-in-law, the prince of Orange,
when his father was beheaded. On the announcement of that event,
he assumed the royal title, and began to concert measures for the re-
covery of the crown of England. The Scots proclaimed him their
king, at the cross of Edinburgh, on the 5th of February, 1649 ; but to
this proclamation they appended the provision, that before the new
prince should enter on the exercise of royal authority, he should give
in his adhesion to the solemn league and covenant. The Scottish par-
liament also sent commissioners to Holland for the purpose of making
a formal offer of allegiance to Charles ; but the conditions with which
they coupled it were of so embarrassing a kind, at this very critical
juncture, that Charles hesitated to pledge himself to them, and at last
dismissed the commission with an unsatisfactory answer. An invita-
tion from Ormond to land in Ireland, where the royal cause was now
predominant, presented more inviting prospects, and was accepted ; but
the charms of a mistress detained him, while on his route to Ireland,
at St Germain, until the success of Cromwell's arms had annihilated
the hopes of the royalists in that quarter. While at St Germain, he
gave Montrose a commission to raise the royal standard in the High-
lands of Scotland. On the signal failure of that attempt, with charac-
teristic perfidy, he addressed a letter to the Scottish parliament, in
which he protested that he had expressly forbidden Montrose to pro-
ceed on his expedition, and affected to rejoice in his failure. In the
same despatch he declared his willingness to take the solemn league and
covenant, to put down the catholic religion throughout his dominions,
and to govern in civil matters by advice of the parliament, in religion,
by that of the kirk. 1 These provisions satisfied the Scots, and, in

1 Thurloe, vol. i. p. 147.
III. A



2 POLITICAL SERIES. [FiKTH

June, 1649, he landed in Scotland, and was received with royal hon-
ours. On the first day of January, 1651, Charles was crowned at
Scone, after having sworn to abolish all false religions, and to establish
the presbyterial government in Scotland and in his own family. The
advance of Cromwell, and his repeated victories over the Scottish for-
ces, soon placed Charles in a position of considerable embarrassment ;
but he escaped the pressing danger of the moment by executing a ra-
pid march into England, from Stirling, in the direction of Carlisle.
The protector followed him hard, however ; and the battle of Worces-
ter, fought on the 3d of September, 1651, annihilated the dawning
hopes of the royalists, and compelled Charles once more to seek safety
in flight to a foreign country. His adventures after his escape from
the fatal field of Worcester, until he got embarked for France, were of
the most romantic description ; but are too well known to need detail
here. Suffice it to say, that the hardships which he encountered on
this occasion did him no small service, by enlisting the sympathies of
those to whom they were related, and investing his character hitherto
of little estimation in the public eye with somewhat of the qualities of
a hero and a monarch.

Paris was the place which Charles first fixed upon as a residence
during this, his second exile, but his licentious character soon stripped
him of the respect of the French court, and, in a moment of spleen, he
retired to Cologne, where he continued to relieve the tediousness of
exile in no very dignified manner. In a letter to his aunt, the queen
of Bohemia, written during the time which he passed at this latter city,
we find him complaining of the want of good fiddlers, and of some one
capable of teaching himself and his court the new dances ! ~

We have already related, in our notice of General Monk, the man-
ner in which that officer effected the restoration of Charles. It is diffi-
cult, however, to account for the very general satisfaction with which
the prince was received back to the throne of his ancestors, upon the
strength cf no other provisions than those contained in the celebrated
declaration of Breda. That document granted, 1st, A free and general
pardon to all subjects of his majesty, excepting such as might after-
wards be excepted by parliament. 2d, It declared a full toleration on
the subject of religion. 3d, It left the settlement of all differences
arising out of occurrences during the revolution, to the wisdom
of parliament. And lastly, it promised to liquidate the arrears
due to the army. Let us see how these stipulations were ob-
served. A few days after his landing in England, Charles issued a
proclamation, in which he commanded his father's judges to sur-
render themselves within fourteen days, on pain of forfeiture of life
and estate. A new act of uniformity was, ere long, promulgated, by
which every beneficed minister, every fellow of a college, and every
schoolmaster, was required to declare his unfeigned assent to all and
every thing contained in the book of common prayer ; and every mini-
ster was required publicly to declare, that it is not lawful, on any pre-
tence whatever, to take arms against the king. In less than two years
from the time of the passing of the act of uniformity, the conventicle
act was passed, for the purpose of putting down all non-conformist

* Ellis's Original Letters, 2nd series.



PERIOD.] CI1AULES II.

worship. These penal severities were followed up by the Oxford act,
which enacted, that all non-conforming ministers who should refuse to
swear " not to endeavour, at any time, any alteration of government
in church or state," should be excluded from inhabiting incorporations,
and should not be suffered to come within five miles of any city or place
where they had preached. The kind of respect which he bore for the
power and authority of parliament was evinced in his speech at the
opening of the session of 1664, in which he vehemently urged the re-
peal of the triennial act, and spoke of his never suffering a parliament
to come together by the means prescribed by that bill.

Charles's council was of an exceedingly heterogeneous character. It
consisted of the royal brothers, James and Henry, Hyde the chancel-
lor, Ormond the lord-steward, Lord Culpepper master of the rolls,
and Secretary Nicholas. Then came Monk, and his friend, Morrice,
and all the surviving counsellors of the First Charles, some of whom
had maintained the cause of the parliament against the crown. Of all
these, Hyde was the presiding and master-spirit, however, and the
counsels given by him Charles implicitly adopted. The trial of the re-
gicides, and the conferences at the Savoy, the trial and death of Argyle,
and the re-establishment of episcopacy in Scotland, were among the
earliest events of Charles's reign.

In 1662, Charles married the infanta of Portugal. Bishop Burnet
says that the king met Katherine at Winchester, in the summer of that
year ; that the archbishop of Canterbury went thither to perform the
ceremony, but that the queen was bigotted to such a degree that she
would not pronounce the words of the service, nor bear the sight of
the archbishop ; and that the king alone repeated the words hastily,
whereupon the archbishop pronounced them married persons. He
adds, " Upon this, some thought afterwards to have dissolved the mar-
riage, as a marriage only de facto, in which no consent had been given ;
but the duke of York told me they were married by the. lord Aubigny,
according to the Roman ritual, and that he himself was one of the wit-
nesses ; and he added, that, a few days before he told me this, the
queen had said to him that she heard some intended to call her
marriage in question, and that if that was the case, she must call on
him as one of the witnesses to prove it." Such is the bishop's state-
ment. Lady Fanshawe, however, in her very interesting ' Memoirs,'
informs us, that " as soon as the king had notice of the queen's
landing, he immediately sent my husband that night to welcome
her majesty on shore, and followed himself the next day ; and,
upon the 21st of May, the king married the queen at Portsmouth,
in the presence-chamber of his majesty's house. There was a rail
across the upper part of the room," Lady Fanshawe continues, " in
which entered only the king and queen, the bishop of London, the
marquess Desande, the Portuguese ambassador, and my husband ; in
the other part of the room there were many of the nobility and servants
to their majesties. The bishop of London declared them married in
the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost ; and
then they caused the ribbons her majesty wore to be cut in little pieces,
and, as far as they would go, every one had some.'' This account
agrees pretty nearly with that of Bishop Kennet. The licentious
monarch now boasted of the pattern of conjugal fidelity that he would



4 POLITICAL SERIES. [FiFTH

set to his court ; and it would have been well for him, and for the
nation at large, had he adhered to his resolutions ; but his infamous
paramour, Castlemaine, resumed her imperious sway within a few days
after the king's marriage, and the poor queen was compelled not only
to receive her at court, but to treat her as a friend, and load her with
favours.

The following particulars from Pepys' diary will better illustrate the
shameful licentiousness of this ' most religious and gracious' king, and
his court, than any statements of our own : " In the privy-garden,"
says Pepys, " saw the finest smocks and linen petticoats of my Lady
Castlemaine's, laced with rich lace at the bottom, that ever I saw ; and
did me good to look at them. Sarah told me how the king dined at
my Lady Castlemaine's, and supped, every day and night the last
week ; and that the night that the bonfires were made for joy of the
Queene's arrivall, the King was there ; But there was no fire at her
door, though at all the rest of the doors almost in the street ; which
was much observed : and that the King and she did send for a pair of
scales and weighed one another ; and she, being with child, was said to
be heaviest.

" Mr Pickering tells me the story is very true of a child being dropped
at the ball at court ; and that the king had it in his closet a week after,
and did dissect it ; and making great sport of it, said that in his opinion
it must have been a month and three hours old ; and that, whatever
others think, he hath the greatest loss, (it being a boy, as he says,)
that hath lost a subject by the business. He told me also how loose
the court is, nobody looking after business, but every man his lust
and gain ; and how the king is now become besotted upon Mrs Stew-
art, that he gets into corners, and will be with her half an hour together
kissing her to the observation of all the world ; and she now stays
by herself and expects it, as my Lady Castlemaine did use to do : to
whom the king, he saj r s, is still kind, &c.

" Coming to St James's, I hear that the queen did sleep five hours
pretty well to-night. The king, they all say, is most fondly disconsolate
for her, and weeps by her, which makes her weep ; which one this day
told me he reckons a good sign, for that it carries away some rheum
from the head ! She tells us that the queen's sickness is the spotted
fever ; that she was as full of the spots as a leopard : which is very
strange that it should be no more known ; but perhaps it is not so.
And that the king do seem to take it much to heart, for that he hath
wept before her ; but, for all that, that he hath not missed one night
since she was sick, of supping with my Lady Castlemaine ; which I
believe is true, for she says that her husband hath dressed the suppers
every night ; and I confess I saw him myself coming through the street
dressing up a great supper to-night, which Sarah says is also for the
king and her ; which is a very strange thing.

" Pierce do tell me, among other news, the late frolick and debauchery
of Sir Charles Sedley and Buckhurst running up and down all the
night, almost naked, through the streets : and at last fighting, and
being beat by the watch and clapped up all night ; and how the king
takes their parts ; and my Lord-chief-justice Keeling hath laid the
constable by the heels to answer it next sessions ; which is a horrid
shame. Also how the king and these gentlemen did make the fiddlers



I'KKJOD.] CHARLES II. 5

of Thetford, this last progress, to sing them all the obscene songs they
could think of! That the king was drunk at Saxam with Sedley,
Buckhurst, &c. the night that my Lord Arlington came thither, and
would not give him audience, or could not : which is true, for it was
the night that I was there and saw the king go up to his chamber, and
was told that the king had been drinking. He tells me that the king
and my Lady Castlemaine are quite broke of, and she is gone away,
and is with child, and swears the king shall own it ; and she will have
it christened in the chapel at White Hall so, and owned for the king's,
as other kings have done ; or she will bring it into White Hall gallery,
and dash the brains of it out before the kino's face ! He tells me that
the king and court were never in the world so bad as they are now,
for gaming, swearing, women, and drinking, and the most abominable
vices that ever were in the world ; so that all must come to nought.

" They came to Sir G. Carteret's house at Cranbourne, and there were
entertained, and all made drunk ; and, being all drunk, Armerer did
come to the king, and swore to him by God, ' Sir,' says he, ' you
are not so kind to the duke of York of late as you used to be.' ' Not
I ?' says the king. ' Why so ?' ' Why,' says he, ' if you are, let
us drink his health/ ' Why let us,' says the king. Then he fell on
his knees and drank it ; and having done, the king began to drink it.
' Nay, Sir,' says Armerer, ' by God you must do it on your knees !'
So he did, and then all the company : and having done it, all fell a-
crying for joy, being all maudlin and kissing one another! the king the
duke of York, and the duke of York the king ! and in such a maud-
lin pickle as never people were : and so passed the day I"

These licentious courses kept the royal finances in a wretchedly low
state. With the infanta, Charles had received a portion of 350,000.
This sum afforded but a temporary relief to the needy monarch. The
chancellor suggested the sale of Dunkirk to the French king as a means of
recruiting the royal finances ; the proposal was eagerly caught at, and
a bargain was ultimately concluded for 5,000,000 of livres. This base
transaction roused the public indignation, and Charles was ultimately
compelled to dismiss his chancellor, who sought his own safety in exile.

In 1663, a rupture took place with Holland, which, as it proceeded
from commercial rivalry, was willingly supported by the nation. The
commons voted a supply of 2,500,000 for the expenses of the war,
and James, as lord-high-admiral, soon put to sea with ninety-eight sail
of the line. Victory crowned the English fleet, after a tremendous en-
gagement off Lowestoffe, on the 3d of June 1665 ; but the breaking out
of the plague in London so depressed the public mind that the intelli-
gence of the triumphant success of the national arms was received with-
out any adequate demonstration of joy. The great fire of London, by
which two-thirds of the metropolis were reduced to ashes, added to the
national gloom and Charles's embarrassment. An insurrection in the
west and south of Scotland, provoked by the intolerance of the episco-
pal party, next engaged the distracted attention of the ministry. It
was repressed by the efforts of Dalziel ; but in appearance only. An un-
subdued spirit of opposition to prelacy, and a keen sense of injury, still
burned in the bosoms of the Scottish whigs, or covenanters, as they
were called, and the new and rigorous laws passed by the parliament
of Scotland in 1669, 1670, and 1672, aided by the still more tyranni-



6 POLITICAL SERIES. j FIFTH

cal regulations of the privy council, and the sanguinary administration
of that heartless ruffian, Lauderdale, soon drove them once more into
open insurrection.

The successful conclusion of Sir William Temple's mission to the
Hague in 1668, for the purpose of negotiating an alliance against
France, was one of the few public measures of this reign which deserve
approbation ; but whatever merit was due to the king himself, in this
transaction, was more than neutralised by the secret treaty which he
entered into with France in less than two years thereafter, for the pur-
pose of changing " the religion and subverting the constitution of Eng-
land." Of this treaty little was certainly known at the time. All the
parties concerned observed an impenetrable secrecy respecting it. It
is now known that the principal articles were 1st. That the king of
England should publicly profess himself a catholic, at such time as
should appear to him most expedient, and, subsequently to that profes-
sion, should join with Louis in a war against the Dutch republic : and
2dly. That, to enable the king of England to suppress any insurrection
which might be occasioned by the avowal of his conversion, the king of
France should grant him an aid of 2,000,000 of livres, besides assist-
ing him with an armed force. It is uncertain when Charles II. first
thought of becoming a catholic. But it is a fact that in the beginning
of the year 1659, the duke of Ormond accidentally detected him on his
knees at mass, in a church at Brussels. He imparted the secret to
Clarendon and Southampton, who judged it prudent to conceal the
truth. Accordingly, the act ' for the better security of his majesty's
person and government' provided that to affirm the king to be a papist
should be punishable by disability to hold any office in the state, civil,
military, or ecclesiastical.

Nothing could be more disgraceful than Charles's utter abandon-
ment of every principle of honour, and justice, and morality, from the
time that he threw himself into the hands of the five unprincipled
ministers, Arlington, Clifford, Buckingham, Lauderdale and Ashley,
collectively called the Cabal. In 1677, however, he performed a po-
pular act by marrying his niece, the princess Mary, to the prince of
Orange.

The next year was distinguished by the pretended discovery of the
popish plot, founded upon the monstrous fictions of Titus Oates and
Bedloe. The fears of the country were now so effectually excited, that
the duke of York found it prudent to retire to Brussels, and Charles
was obliged to grant his consent to that great palladium of civil liberty,
the habeas corpus bill. At last, the king came to an open rupture
with his parliament, and finding that he could not bend it to his own
purposes, he resolved to govern without it. Already had the blood of
Russell and of Sidney flowed upon the scaffold, and new and still
fiercer measures were preparing for extinguishing the last spark of li-



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