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PiXoovoc dvf2F*^i ^>'^ itdvtac aXxisa- (Diodor. xz. 66).

fuvoc xaria^aU' ' Diodor. xiii. 79.

The Carthaginians, after their * Xenpph. Hellen. i. 1, 87.




B.C. ^)f which raised such powerful sympathy and mouming
in Athens. The war now raging in the jQgean, between
Athens and Sparta with their respective allies, doubtless
contributed to deaden, throughout Central Greece, the im-
pression of calamities sustained by Greeks at the western
extremity of Sicily. But within that island, the sympathy
with the sufferers was most acute, and aggravated by terror
for the future. The Carthaginian general had displayed
a degree of energy equal to any Grecian officer throughout
the war, wii^h a command of besieging and battering ma-
chinery surpassing even the best equipped Grecian cities.
The mercenaries whom he had got together were alike
terrible from their bravery and ferocity ; encouraging Car-
thaginian ambition to follow up its late rapid successes bv
attacks a^inst the other cities of the island. No such
prospects indeed were at once realized. Hannibal, having
completed his revenge at Himera, and extended the Car-
thaginian dominion all across the north-west comer of
Sicily (from Selinus on the southern sea to the site of EEi-
mera or Therma on the northern), dismissed his mercenary
troops and returned home. Most of them were satiated
with plunder as well as pay, though the Campanians, who
had been foremost at the capture of Selinus, thought them-
selves unfairly stinted, and retired in disgust. 2 Hannibal
carried back a rich spoil, with glorious trophies, to Car-
thage, where he was greeted with enthusiastic welcome
and admiration. 3

Never was there a time when the Greek cities in
B.C. 409-408. Sicily — and Syracuse especially, upon whom the
New i t - ^*^®^^ would greatly rest in the event of a se-
tine discord cond Carthaginian invasion — had stronger mo-
injyracuse tives for keeping themselves in a condition of
kratds" efficacious defence. Unfortunately, it was just
comes to ^t this moment that a new cause of intestine
^* ^' discord burst upon Syracuse; fatally impairing

her strength, and proving in its consequences destructive
to her liberty. The banished Syracusan general Hermo-
krates had recently arrived at Messene in Sicily; where he
appears to have been, at the time when the fugitives came
from Himera. It has already been mentioned that he, with
two colleagues, had commanded the Syracusan contingent

» Herodol. vi. 28. « Diodor. xiii. 62-80.

* Diodor. xiii. C2.




serving with the Peloponnesians under Mindarus in Asia^
After the disastrous defeat of Kyzikus, in which Mindarus
was slain and every ship in the fleet taken or destroyed,
sentence of banishment was passed at Syracuse against the
three admirals. Hermokrates was exceedingly popular
among the trierarchs and the officers ; he had stood con-
spicuous for incorruptibility, and had conducted himself
(so far as we have means of judging) with energy and abil-
ity in his command. The sentence, unmerited by his be-
haviour, was dictated by acute vexation for the loss of the
fleet, and for the disappointment of those expectations
which Hermokrates had held out ; combined witn the fact
that Dioklesandthe opposite part^r were now in the ascend-
ent at Syracuse. When the banished general, in making
it known to the armament, complained of its injustice and
illegality, he obtained warm sympathy, and even exhor-
tations still to retain the command, in spite of orders from
home. He forbade them earnestly to think of raising
sedition against their common city and country :i upon
which the trierarchs, when they took their last and affection-
ate leave of him, bound themselves by bath, as soon as
they should return to Syracuse, to leave no means untried
for procuring his restoration.

The admonitory words addressed by Hermokrates to
the forwardness of the trierarchs, would have He levies
been honourable to his patriotism, had not his ^{^JJS*,,*^
own conduct at the same time been worthy of retam hj
the worst enemies of his country. For imme- 'o"®-
diately on being superseded by the new admirals, he went
to the satrap Pharnabazus, in whose favour he stood high;
and obtained from him a considerable present of money,
which he employed in collecting mercenary troops and
building ships, to levy war against his opponents in Syra-
cuse and procure his own restoration. 2 Thus strengthened,
he returned from Asia to Sicily, and reached the Sicilian
Mess^ne rather before the capture of Himera by the Car-
thaginians. At Messene he caused five fresh triremes to
be built, besides taking into his pay 1000 of the expelled
Himerseans. At the head of these troops, he attempted
to force his way into Syracuse, under concert with his

i Xenopfa. Hellen. i. 1, 38. 01 S' ' Xenopb. Hellen. i. 1, 31 ; Biodor.

iauTuiv ie6Xiv, Ac.




178 HISTOllY or GKEECE. Pabt tL

friends in the city, who engaged to assist his admission by-
arms. Possibly some of the trierarchs of his armament,
who had before sworn to lend him their aid, had now re-'
turned and were among this body of interior partisans.

The moment was well chosen for such an enterprise.
As the disaster at Kyzikus had exasperated the Syracusans
B.C. 409.408. against Hermokrates, so we cannot doubt that
He is there must have been a strong reaction against

ret"re*-he^ Diokl^s and his partisans, in consequence of the
establishes fall of Selinus Unaided, and the subsequent ab«
tiio^ ru^/n8*of andonment of Himera. What degree of blame
Selinus, may fairly attach to Diokles for these misfor-
?!!?« *?f***Ko tunes, we are not in a condition to judge. But

againot the , ' • .1 ^ *'' ® . -i*

Carthagi- such revcrses m themselves were sure to dis-
"»*^»- credit him more or less, and to len^ increased

strength and stimulus to the partisans of the -banished
Hermokrates. Nevertheless that leader, though he came
to the gates of Syracuse, failed in his attempt to obtain
admission, and was compelled to retire; upon which he
marched his little army across the interior of the island,
and took possession of tjie dismantled Selinus. Here he
established himself as the chief of a new settlement, got
together as many as he could of the expelled inhabitants
(among whom probably some had already come back along
with Empedion), and invited many fresh colonists from
other quarters. Re-establishing a portion of the demolish-
ed fortifications, he found himself gradually strengthened
by so many new-comers, as to pla*ce at his command a body
of 6000 chosen hoplites — probably independent of other
soldiers of inferior merit. With these troops he began to
invade the Carthaginian settlements in the neighbourhood,
Moty§ and Panormus. » Having defeated the forces of both
in the field, he carried his ravages successfully over their
territories, with large acquisitions of plunder. The Car-
thaginians had now no army remaining in Sicily; for their
immense host of the preceding year had consisted only of
mercenaries levied for the occasion, and then disbanded.

These events excited strong sensation throughoilt
Sicily. The valour of Hermokrates, who had restored Se-
linus and conquered the Carthaginians on the very ground
where they had stood so recently in terrific force, was
contrasted with the inglorious proceedings of Biokl^

* Diodor. Jtiii. 68.




at Himera. In the public asseoiblies of SyrACWso^fttM^tofttc,
coupled with the unjust sentence whoceby Hw- ^ ^ a^aw,
mokrates had been banished i was ^m^atically du c^iher
set forth by his piurtisaiis; producing some re- p^f^m^M
action in his favour, and a still greater effect in racuse^' ' ^'
disgracing his rival I^iokles. Aj^ri^ed tW ^the ^Atb ti^B
tide of Sj^acu^an opinion was turittng towards Ihi*ly?a-
him, Hermokrates made renewed prepaoations ^p^aogj^uin
for his return, and i^sorted to a newAtnatagem merL Ban.
for the puirpoae of smooth^g 1^ d^b^dty. Se MW9t.jrf
marched from Selinus to the ruined site of ^*®*^^'
Himera, informed himself of ith« spot ^wihei^ <th6 fiyra-
cusan troops had underffone their ^wrdtrpus deif^at, and
collected i^gethor the bones of hxB daidn ieilow-citizens;
3^hioh Cor rather the unburied bQdvos^ must have iain ^po|i
tJhe field unheeded for aboiitt two vqim^. Saving placed
.these bones on cans richly decorated, he ^wohed jm
ibrces and conveyed them across the ialand from &imeFa
io the Syracusan bord^. HereasanjexileiieMlted; thjUil:-
iog it suitable now to display respect ibr the law — ^tdiou^
in his previous attempt he had gone up to ike very gates
.of the city, without any similar scruples. Bvit ihe fient €od>
ward some iriends with the cim« and the tbooes, tendevii:^
them to the tcitiaens for the pmrpose of being iionourei
A^ith due funeral solemnities. T:heir anivaJ iwas the aig^uil
ior a violent party discussion, and (or an outburst >o£
aggravated displeasure against Dicikles, \yfho bad ieffc th«
bodies unburied on the field of battle. ^It m»» to Hemoo-
krates (so his partisans <urged) and to ijis tvalis^kt el^otrts
against the Carthaginians, that the trecovorytof these rem-
nants of the slain, and the opportunity . of ^administecing to
them the funereal solemnities, was now owii^g. lict the
Syracusans, after duly performing such obsequieici, ^testify
their gratitude to Hermokrates by a vote of i* estcozation,
MfiA HiW displeasure against Diokles :by a sentence <rf
bwushment." * DioklSs with his partisans was thus placed
at ffreat disadvantage. In opposing the restoration of Her-
mokrates, he thought it necessary also to oppose tb^ Prp-
position for welcoming mi burying the bones of tbe «lain
citiz^)8. Here the feelings of the people went vehemently
agMnst>him;'the bones were received and interred, amiM;
the respectful attendance of all; and so strong was the

' Diodor. xiii. 63, 76.





x^i^ctionaFy sentiment generally, that the partisans of
Hermokratis icarried their proposition for sentencing
Diokles to banishment. But on the other hand, they could
tiot so far prevail as to obtain the restoration of Hermo*
Urates himself. The purposes of the latter had been so
palpably manifested, in trying a few months before to force
his way into the city by surprise, and in now presenting
himself at the frontier with an armed force under his com-
mand-— that his re-admission would have been nothing less
than a deliberate surrender of the freedom of the city to a
despot. 1

- ' / Having failed in ilns well-lai d stratagem for obtaining
B *08.4b7 * ^^^ of consent, Hermokrates saw that his
_ * * return could not at that moment be consummated

SSSTtries by open force; He therefore retired from the
Again to Syracusan frontier; yet only postponing his
fnti? SyrL purposes of armed attack until his friends in the
«tt8o with city could provide for him a convenient opgor-
'fofce!™He' tunity. We see plainly that his own party with-
is defeated in had ^een much strengthened, and his oppo-
*nd iiain. ^eUts enfeebled, by the recent manoeuvre. Of
ihis a proof is to be found in the banishment of Diokles,
who probably was not succeeded- by any other leader of
«quai iiifluenceb After a certain interval, the partisans of
HermokratSs contrived a plan which they thought practi-
cable,, for €kdmittiiig him into the city by nighi. Forewarn-
ed by them, he marched from Selinus at the head of 3000
soldiers/ crossed the territory of Gela,» and reached the
concerted spot near the gate of Achradina during the
nights From the rapidity of his €kdvance, he had only a
few troops along with faim ; the main body not having been
able to keep up. With these few, however, he hastened
to the gatey which he found already in possession of his
iriendS) who had probably (like Pasimelus at Corinth a)
awaited a night on which they were posted to act as sen-
tinels. Master of the gate, Hermokrates, though joined

* Diodor. xiil. 76. Kal 6 (jlIv Aio* x^pT}acv sU SsXivoOvts. Mtrd H tiva
xkf^ 490f oi5o9rj^ tov 5i 'Ep|xoxpaT7)v XP*''<>"'» '^^'* tpiXiuv auxdv (istaittfAito-
O'iJ (bctpoasSd^avTO* 6ittbftTeuov fop (jiivaiv, J)p(iT)9t|jisT0CTpi7)rtXtu}v atpat-
tyjv Tdf«6p6ic t6A;rAav, (jltj <tOT» ^roywv ' TttOTU>v,i(alffOp>u9tU8id T^<rc>.u>«<,
7iYe;xovla<^ dv«$tU^ ieiUTdv T^pavvov, -^xt vuxt6c ini t6v OttVTtT«Y|A4^^0¥
, * Diodor. atiii. 76. *0 |JLit ouv*Kppio- tAtcov.

xpiTT)^* Totr TOv xatpov oux 6pu>v * Xenoph. Hell en. iy. 4, 8.
i'j9ctov tU t6 pidaaoSoti, TtiXiv «vi-




}>y his p{u*tisans within in arms, l^ought it prudeiit ioi
postpone decisive attack until his own main force came up.
But during this interval, the Syracusan authorities in the
city, apprised of what had happened, mustered tiieir fuUr
military strength in the agora, and lost no time in falling
upon the band of aggressors. After a sharply contested
combat* these aggressors were completely worsted, andHer-
mokrates himself slain with a considerable proportion of
his followers. The remainder having fled, sentence of
banishment was passed upon them. Several among the
wounded, however, were reported by their relatives as
slain, in order that they might escape being comprised in
such a condemnation. 1

Thus perished one of the most energetic of the Syra^
cusan citizens ; a man not less effective as a defender of his
country against foreign enemies, than himself dangerous
as a formidable enemy to her internal liberties. It would
seem, as far as we can make out, that his attempt to make
himself master of his country was powerfully seconded,
and might well have succeeded. But it lacked that adven-
titious support arising from present embarrassment and
danger in the foreign relations of the city, which we shall
find so ejficacious two years afterwards in promoting the
ambitious projects of Dionysius.

Dionysius — for the next coming generation the most
formidable name in the Grecian world — now ^
appears for the first time in history. He was pea^ance of
a young Syracusan of no consideration from Diouysius
family or position, described as even of low birth ^* y^cuse.

' Diodor. xiii. 75. —his yarious attempts to procure

XenophoD (Hellen. i. 3, 13) states restoration to Syracuse : — all of

that Hermokratfis, :^8y) feuYcov ex which must have occurred in 408-

Supaxouatbv, was among those who 407 B.C., ending with the death o^

accompanied Pharnabazus along Hermokratgs. .

with the envoys intended to go to It seems to me impossible that

8usa, but who only went as far as the person mentioned by Xenophon.

Gordiam in Phrygia, and were de- as accompanying Pharnabazus into

tained by Pharnabazus (on the re- the interior can have been the

quisition of Cyrus) for three years, eminent Hermokrat^s. Whether it

l^his must have been in the year was another person of the sama

407 B.C. Now I cannot reoon- name — or whether Xenopbon was

cile this with the proceedings of altogether misinformed— I wiU'not

Hermokratfis as described by Dio- take upon me to determine. There

dorus: his coming to the Sicilian were really two contemporai^ &y-

Messeng— his exploits near Selinus raousans bearing that name, for




afid low occfxpation-; as a scribe or secretary, trhicb wM
loofeed upon as a suboFdinate, tbougb essential; functioB^ i
S^e was tbe son of Hermokrates — not tbat eminent person
whose death has been just described, but another person
of the same nam«, whether related or not, we do not know. >
It is highly probable that he was a man of literary ability and
instruction, since we read of him in after-days as a composer
of odes and tragedies; and it is certain that he stood distin-
guished in all the talents for military action — bravery,
force of will, and quickness of discernment. On the present
occasion, he espoused strenuously the party of Hermo-
krates, and was one of those who took arms in the city on
his behalf. Having distinguished himself in the battle,
and received several wounds, he was among those given
oat for dead by his relations. ^ In this manner he escaped
the sentence of banishment passed against the survivors.
And when, in the course of a certain time, after recovering
from his wounds, he was produced as unexpectedly living —
we may presume that his opponents and the leading men
m the city left him unmolested, not thinking it worth while
to reopen political inquisition in reference to matters
already passed and finished. He thus remained in the city,
marked out by his daring and address to the Hermokra-
tsean party, as the person most fit to take up the mantle,
and resume the anti-popular designs, of their late leader.
It will presently be seen how the chiefs of this party lent
their aid to exalt him.

Meanwhile the internal condition of Syracuse was
greatly enfeebled by this division. Though the three sever-
al attempts ofHermokrates to penetrate by force or fraud
into the city had all failed, yet they had left a f oimidable

tbe fsfher of Dionyeim the despot Dionysius, itoXXooxoc ujv 2upaxoatu>v

wag named Hermokratds. xccl xip yi^tK xal t^ 86^^ xal xotc

FolyMns (zii. 26) states that Her- fiXXotc fiitoctf iv, Ac.

iiiolttatds foaght with the Lacedse- Demosthenes, ady. Leptinem. p.

monians at JGgospotami. He means 606. s. 178. Yp«|^H->'ci(o;, tuc (patft, Ac.

the eminent general so called ; who Polybius (xv. 36), ix 6rj(«.oTixii< xal

howerer cannot hare been at iBgos- xoctetv^^ uicoOsaewc 6ppLT)9tU, Ac.

potami in the summer or autumn Compare Polyaenus, y. 2, 2.

at #05 B.O. There is some mistake * Xenoph. Hellen. ii. 2, 24. Ato-

in the assertion of Polybius, but vuaio< 6 "CpiAOxpatouc. Diodor.

I do not know bow to explain it. xiii, 91.

* Diodor. <ili. #3; xiv. 66. ' Diodor. xiii. 76.

Itokratds, Or. ▼. Philipp. s. 78~




body of malcontents behind; while the opponents also^
the popular government and its leadecs, had ,.o. 407. .
been materially reduced in power and consider- weakaew:
ationby the banishment of Diokles. Tbismagis- ofsyrnjouse,
trate was succeeded by Daphnasus and others, Jf'JJJJf ^^^
of whom we know nothing, except that they are litioai
spoken of as rich men and representing the sen- paj^y'^J :
timents of the rich — and that they, seem to have Hermo-
manifested but little ability. Nothing could be ^'anger
more unfortunate than the weakness of Syracuse from car-
at this particular juncture: for the Cartha- ****«®'
ginians/elate with their successes at Selinus and Himera,
and doubtless also piqued by the subsecLuent retaliation of
Hemiokrates upon their dependencies at Motye and Panor-
muS| were just now meditating a second invasion of Sicily
on a stUl larger scale. Not i^ninformed of their projects,
the Syracusan leaders sent envoys to Carthage to remon-
strate against them, and to make propositions for peace.
But no satisfactory ansWer could be obtained, nor were the
preparations discontinued. *

In the ensuing spring, the storm gathering from Afi'ica
burst with destructive violence upon this fated ^ , ^^
island., A mercenary force had been got to- F,eBh inra-
gether during the winter, greater th«Si that sjon of
which had sacked SeUnus and Himera; 300,000 f^^'^^arfh^-
men, according to Ephorus — 120,000, according gimans.
to Xenophpn and Timseus. Hannibal was again ^"^at u^nder
placed in command; but his predominant im- ^aimibai.
pulsus of family apd religion having been satiated *^^ ^"^'^' .
oy the great sacrifice of Himera, he excused him-
self on the score of old age, and was only induced to accept
the duty by having his relative Imilkon named as colleague.
By their joint efforts, the immense host of Iberians, Me-
diterranean islanders, Campanians, Libyans, and Numidi-
ans, was united at Carthage, and made ready to be conveyed
across, in a fleet of 120 triremes, with no less than 1500
transports. 2 To protect the landing, forty Carthaginian
triremes were previously sent over to the Bay of Motye.
The Syracusan leaders, with commendable energy and
..watchfulness, in^mediately despatched the like number of
; triremea to attack them, in hopes of thereby checking the
, farther arrival of the grand armament. They were victorious,

■ Diodor. xiii. 70. > Diodor. ziii. 80; Xenoph. Hellen. i. 6, 21.



184 HI8TOBY Olf GBEEOE. Fab* II.

destroying fifteen of the Carthaginian triremefi, and
driving the rest back to Africa; yet their object was not
attained; for Hannibal himself; coming forth immediately
with fifty fresh triremes, constrained tne Syracusans to re-
tire. Presently afterwards the grand armament appeared,
disembarking its motley crowd of barbaric warriors near
the western cape of Sicily.

Great was the alarm caused throughout Sicily by their

^ ^ ^g arrival. All the Greek cities either now began

' \ ! to prepare Ifor war, or pushed with a more

Great alarm •'^'^ij • r 'ii

in Sicily— vigorous hand equipments previously begun,
active pre- gince they seem to have had some previous
for'*defenoe knowledge of the purpose of the enemy. The
at Agrigen- Syracusans sent to entreat assistance both from
""** the Italian Greeks and from Sparta. From the

latter city, however, little was to be expected, since her
whole efforts were now devoted to the prosecution of the
war against Athens; this being the year wherein Kallikra-
tidas commanded, and when the *battle of Arginusse was

Of all Sicilian Greeks, the Agrigentines were both the
most frightened and the mdst busily employed. Gonter-
minous as they were with Selinus on their western frontier,
and foreseeing that the first shock of the invasion would
fall upon them, they immediately began to carry in their
outlying property within the walls, as well as to accumulate
a stock of provisions for enduring blockade. Sending for
DexippuB, a Lacedaemonian then in Gela as commander of
a body of mercenaries for the defence of that town, they
engaged him in their service, with 1500 hoplites ; reinforced
by 800 of those Campanians who had served with Hannibal
at Himera, but had quitted him in disgust. ^

Agrigentum was at this time in the highest state of
Grandeur, prosperity and magnificence; a tempting prize
^o*uiation^ for any invader. Its population was very great;
of Agrigen- comprising, according to one account, 20,000
*««• citizens among an aggregate total of 200,000

males — citizens, metics, and slaves; according to another ac-
count, an aggregate total of no less than 800,000 persons; 2
numbers unauthenticated, and not to be trusted farther
than as indicating a very populous city. Situated a little
more than two miles from the sea, and possessing a spacious

> Diodor. xiii. 81-84. * Diogeu. Laert. viii. 63.




territory highly cultivated, especially with vines aud olives,
Agrigentum carried on a lucrative trade with the opposite
coast of AMca, where at that time no such plantations
flourished. Its temples and porticos, especially the spacious
temple of Zeus Olympius — its statues and pictures — its
abundance of chariots and horses — its fortifications — its
sewers — its artificial lake of nearly a mile in circumference,
abundantly stocked with fish — all these placed it on a par
with the most splendid cities of the Hellenic world. ^ Of
the numerous prisoners taken at the defeat of the Carthar
ginians near Himera seventy years before, a very large pro-
portion had fallen to the lot of the Agrigentines, and nad
been employed by them in public works contributing to the
advantage or ornament of the city. 2 The hospitality of the
wealthy citizens — Gellias, Antisthenes, and others — was
carried even to profusion. The surrounding territory was
celebrated for its breed of horses, 3 which the rich Agrigen-
tines vied with each other in training and equipping for
the chariot-race. At the last Olympic games immediately
preceding this fatal Carthaginian invasion (that is at the
93rd Olympiad — 408 B.C.), the Agrigentine Exsenetus gained
the prize in a chariot-race. On returning to Sicily after
his victory, he was welcomed by many of his friends, who

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