George Grote.

A history of Greece: from the earliest period to the close of the generation contemporary with Alexander the Great online

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between him and Astyochus 881

Astyochus abandons Chios and
returns to Mildtus— accident
whereby he escaped the Athe-
nian fleet 888

The Athenians establish a forti-
fied poet in Chios, to ravage
the island A.

Dorieus arrives on the Asiatic
coast with a squadron from
Thurii, to Join Astyochus
—maritime contests near
Knidus 828

Second Peloponnesian treaty
with TissaphAmte, concluded
by Astyochus and There-
mends 824

Comparison of the second treaty
with the first 286

Arrival of a fresh Peloponnesian
squadron under Antisthente
at Kaunus— Lichas oomee out
as Spartan commissioner . . 886

Astyochus goes with the fleet
from Mildtus to Join the
newly-arrived squadron — he
defeats the Athenian squadron
under Charmtnns . . 887

Peloponnesian fleet at Rnidus—
double-dealing of Tissapher-
nte— breach between hhn and
Lichas 888

Peloponnesian fleet masters
Rhodes, and establishes itself
in that island 820

Long Inaction of the fleet at
Bhodes— paralvxing Intrigues
of Tissaphemes- corruption
of the Lacedamonian ofllceie 280

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AT Athens.

Rally of Ath«iiB, daring the year

after the defeat at Syracuse.

B.C. 412 282

Commencement of the conspiracy

of the Four Hundredat Athens

— AUdbiadds A.

Order from Sparta to kiU Alldbi-

He escapes, retires to Tissapher-
nto, and becomes adriser of
the Persians ib.

He advises the satrap to assist
neither of the Grecian parties
heartily— but his advice leans
towards Athens, with a view
to his own restoration . . 284

Alldbiadto acts as negotiator for
TissaphemSs at Magnesia . . 288

Diminution of the rate of pay
furnished by Tissaphemte to
the Peloponnesians .. 280

Alkibiadds opens correspondence
with the Athenian officers at
Samoa. He originates the
scheme of an oligarchical
revolution at Athens .. ..237

ConspiracT arranged between
the Athenian officers and
Alkibiadds 288

Oligarchical Athenians — the
hetaeries or political dubs.
Peisander is sent to push for-
ward the conspiracy at Athens 289

Credulity of the oligarchical
conspirators 240

Opposition of Phrynichus at
Samoa to the conspirators
and to Alkibiadds .. S41

Uanoeuvres and
oravres of Phrynichus and
Alkibiadds 248

Proceedings of Peisander at
Athens — strong opposition
among the people both to the
conspiracy and to the resto-
ration of Alkibiadte .. ..244

Unwilling vote of the assembly
to rennquish their democracy,
under the promise of Persian
aid for the war. Peisander
is sent back to negotiate with
Alklbiadds 246

Peisander brings the oligarchical
dubs at Athens into organised
action asainst the democracy 246

Peisander leaves Athens for
Samos— Antiphon takes the


management of the oUgarehi-
cal conspiracy— Theramente
and Phrynichus ..248

Military operations near the
Asiatic coast 249

Negotiations of Peisander with
Alkibiadfts 250

Tricks of Alkibiad^s— he exagge-
rates his demands with^a
view of breaking off the
negotiation— indignation of
the oligarchs against him . . 281

Recondliaiion between Tissapher^
nto and the Peloponnesians 252

Third convention conduded be-
tween them 26S

Third convention compared with
the two preceding .. 264

Loss of Or6pas by Athens . . 255

Peisander and his colleagues
persist in the oligarchical
conspiracy without AJkibiad6s (b^

The attempt to subvert the de-
mocracy at Samos— assassi-
nation of Hyperbolus— and
others 260>

The democracy at Samos is sus-
tained by the Athenian
armament 267

The Athenian Parali— defeat of
the oligarchical conspiracy
at Samos 26a

The Paralus is sent to Athens
vdth the news 2SS^

Progress of the oligarchical con-
spiracy at Athens— Klexterous
management of Antiphon . . ib.

Language of the conspirators-
juggle about naming Five
Thousand dtisens to exercise
the political franchise exdn-
sively 260

Assassination of the popular
speakers by Antiphon and the
oligarchical party ..201

Return of Peisander to Athens-
oligarchical government estab-
lished in several of the allied
dties 202

Consummation of the revolution
at Athens— last public as-
sembly at Koldnus . . 86S-

Abolition of the Oraphd Parano-
m6n 204

New coremment proposed by
Peisander— oligarchy of Four
Hundred 20&

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CHAPTER LXll.'-continued.


Iktftioiui and nominal aggregate
called the Five I'boomnd . . ift.

The Foot HoDdred install them-
Mlves in the aenate-bouse,
expelling the senators by
armed force 207

Bemarka on Uds rerolotion . . 268

Attachment to constitational
forms at Athens — use made of
this sentiment by Antiphon,
to destroy the constitatlon .. 270

Demagognes the indispensable
connterpoise and antithesis
to the oligarchs 271

Proceedings of the Fonr Hundred
in the gOTemment . . 272

They make oTortores for peace to
Agis, and to the Spartans . . 278

They send enToys to the camp at

First news of ^e revolution is
conveyed to the camp by
Clupreas — strong sentiment
in the camp against the Four
Hundred 274

Ardent democrmtlcal manifesta-
tion, and emphatic oath,
taken both by the Athenian
armament at Samoa and by
theSamians 276

TIm Athenian democracy is re-
constituted by the armament
—public assembly of the sol-
diers—new generals chosen . . 270

AlMhisdAa opens correspondence
with the democratical arma-
ment at Samoa 278

Alkibiadds comes to Samoa, on
the invitation of the arma-
ment i6.

Confldence placed by the arma-
ment in his langwu:e and
promises-they choose him one
of their generals ..279

New position of Alkibiadte—
present torn of hts ambi-
tion 280

The savoys of the Fonr Hundred
reach Samoa— are indignantly
sent back by the arma-
ment 281

lagemess of the armament to
safl to Peimna— is discounte-
nanced by Alkibiadte-his
answer to the envoys .. ..282

DfBBoaaive advice of Alkibiadte
—how far it is to be com-
mended as sagacious .. ..288

Knveys sent from Argoe to the
'^itheniaa Demos at Samoa " 284
I of the envoys of the Four


Hundred from Samoa to
Athens— bad prospects of the
oligarchy 285

Mistrust and discord among the
Four Hundred themselves.
An opposition party formed
under Theramente .. 286

Theramends demands that the
Five Thousand shall be made
areaUty 888

Meaanres of Antiphon and the
Four Hundred— their solicita-
tions to Sparta— construction
of the fort of Eetioneia, for
the admission of a Spartan
garrison 200

Unaccountable backwardness of
the Lacedmnonians .. .. 208

Assassination of Phrynichus—
Lacedaemonian fleet hovering
nearPeineus 208

Rising at Athens against the
Four Hundred— demolition of
the new fort at Eetioneia . . 204

Decline of the Four Hundred-
concessions made by them—
renewal of the public as-
sembly 296

Lacedtemonian fleet threatens
Peimus— passes by to Eu-
bcea 296

Naval battle near Eretria— Athe-
nians defeated— £ub<ea re-
volts ib.

Diamav at Athens— her ruin in-
evitable, if the Lacedeemo-
nians bad acted with energy 800

The Four Hundred are put down
—the democracy in substanoe
restored 801

Moderation of political antipa-
thies, and patriotic spirit,
now prevalent 804

The live Thousand— a number
never exactly realised . . . . ib.

The Five Thousand— were soon
enlarged into universal dti-
xensmp 806

Restoration of the complete
democracy, all except pay . . 806

Psephism of Demophantus —
democratical oath prescribed 807

Flight of most of the leaden of
the Four Hundred to Deke-
leia 808

Theramente stands forward to
accuse the remaining leaders
of the Four Hundred, espe>
dally in reference to the fort
at Eetioneia, and the embassy
toSparta 800

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CHAPTER LXll.— continued.

Antiphon tried, condemned, And

executed . . 811

Treatment of the Four Hundred

historUn Thacydidte on the
conduct of the Athe-



generally 818 Oligarchy at Athens, democracy

Favourable Judgment of the at Samot—coutrast .. ..816


Thb Restoebd Athenian Demooraoy, apteb thb Dbposittok of
THE Four Hundred, down to the Arrival of Ctrus the
YouNOBR IN Asia Minor.

Embarrassed state of Athens after

the Four Hundred
Peloponneeian fleet— reroli of

Abydos from Athens ..
Strombichidds goes from Chloe

to the Hellespont— improved

condition of the Chians
Discontent in the Peloponneeian

fleet at MUdtns

Strombichidte retams from Chioe

to Samos

Peloponnesian squadron and force

at the Hellespont— revolt of

Byzantium from Athens
Discontent and meeting against

Astyochos at Mildtus . .
The Spartan Commissioner Li-

ehas enjoins the Milesians

to obey Tissaphemds— disoou'
' »Milc "

tent of the]-

Bfindams supersedes Astyochus

Phoenician fleet at Aspendns—
Duplicity of Tissaphemto . .

Alkibiadte at Aspendns — his
double game between Tissa-
phemte and the Athe-

Phoenicians sent back from As-

Sradus without action— mo-
ves of Tissaphemfis ..

Biindams leaves Mildtus with his
fleet— goes to Chios— Thrasyl-
lus and the Athenian fleet at

Mindarus eludes Thrasyllus, and
reaches the Hellespont

Athenian Hellespontine squadron
escapes from Sestos in the

Tluasyllus and the Athenian fleet
at the Hellespont

Battle of KynossAma— victory of
the Athenian fleet

B^oidng at Athens for the vic-

Bridge across the Enrlpus, Joining

819 Boboea with Boeoda .. .. 886
Revolt of Kvzikus 880

A. Zeal of Phamabasus sgainst
Athens— importance of Per-
sian money 887

820 Tissaphemte again courts the

Peloponnesians i6.

<6. Alkibiadte returns from Aspendus

toSamos 880

821 Further combats at the Helles-

pont 840

Theramente sent out with rein-
SSI foroements from Athens .. 841
Renewed troubles at Korkyra . . 842
828 Alkibiadte U seieed by Tissa-

phemte and confined at Sardis 848
Escape of Alkibiadte— concentra-
tion of the Athenian fleet—
ik Mindarus besieges Kyzikus . . A.

Battle of Kysikus— victory of the

824 Athenians— Mindarus is slain,

and the whole Peloponnesian

826 fleet taken 844

Discouragement of the Spartans

—proposition to Athens for

peace 846

ib The Lacedaemonian Endius at

Athens— his propositions for

peace 840

820 Refused bv Athens— opposition of

Kleophon A.

Grounds of the opposition of

Kleophon U.

ib. Question of policy as it then stood,

between war and peace . . 847

827 Strenuous aid of Phamabasus to

the Peloponnesians— Alkibia-
dte and the Athenian fleet at

820 theBosphorus 840

The Athenians occupy Chryso-

381 polis, and levy toll on the

ships passing through the

888 Bosphoms 860

The Lacedaemonians are expelled
886 fromThasns 861

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CHAPTER LXIIL— eemetntied


KlMuvhns tlM LaoedKmoniftii is Gft|itiire of ChalkM6n by Alld-

Mot to BysuiUain . . 861 bUulte and the Athenians . . 866

Tbnsyllas sent from Athena to Contention concluded by the

. Athenians with Pharnabasua 86ft

nmsyDos and Alldbladte at the Byzantiani captured by the Athe-

Helleapont 888 nians 867

Pylna ia retaken by the Lace- Pharnabasua oonveya some Athe-

dmnoniiua— disfiiniGe of the nian envoys towards Snsa, to

Athenian Anytus for not re- make terms with the Great

lieTingit.. ^ ». .. 854 Khig 868


Fbom tbz Akbital of Gtbub thb Tounobe IK Asia Mnf or dowk
TO THB Battle of ARoiinj&s.

Qynu the Younger— effects of his Lysander at Ephesus— Us cau-

coming down to Asia Minor. . 880 tious policy— refusing to fight

Phanabazus detains the Athe- —disappointment of AUd-

nianenToys 800 biadte 87<^

Lyaander— Lacednmonlao admi- Alkibiadte goes to Phokmi,

ralfaiAsia 861 leaTing his fleet under the

Proceedings of tibe preceding oommand of Antiochus— op-
admiral, Kratesippiaas . . 868 pression by Alkibiadte at

^raander visits Crms at Sardis . . ik Kvm6 870

ffis dexterous pou^— he acquires Complaints of the Kynueans at

the peculiar esteem of Cyrus 804 Athens— defeat of Antiochus

Abondant pay of the Pelopon- at Notinm during the absence

neaian armament, ftamished of Alkibiadte 877

by Cyrus 806 Dissatisfaction and complaint in

Factions orsanlsed by Lysander the armament against AlU-

among the Asiatic dties .. A. biadte ib.

noeeedings of Alkibiadte In Murmur and accusation against

Thxaoe and Asia .. .. 867 him transmitted to Athens . . 87ft

Hk arriral at Athens ib. Alteration of sentiment at Athens

FMtincB and details connected —displeasure of the Atho-

with his arrival 868 nians against him .. 870

Unanimous welcome with which Beasonable grounds of such

he is received 869 alteration and displeasure .. ib.

Sflect produced upon Alkibiadds 870 Different behaviour towards Ni-

Sentiment of the Athenians to- kias and towards Alkibiadte.. 881

wards him 871 Alkibiadte is dismissed from

Disposition to refrain from his command— ten generals

dvrelling on his previous named to succeed him— he

wrongs, and to give him a retires to the Chersonese .. 888-

new trial 878 Eon6nandhiscolleagues— captura

Mtataken confidence and Intoxi- and liberation of the Bhodiao

cation of Alkibiadte .. .. ib Dorieus by the Athenians .. A.

He protects the celebration of the Eallikratidas supersedes Ly-

jQensinian mysteries by land, sander-^iis noble character. .

b the garrison of Deke- Murmurs and ill-will against Kal-

.878 likratidas— energy and recti-

Fndtless attempt of Agis to tude whereby he represses

surprise Athens 874 them 886

Alkibiadte sails with aa arma- His spirited behavionr in regard

ment to Asla^ill-suooess at to the Persians ib.

Andios— entire faUure in re- His appeal to the Milesians—

spect to hopes from Persia .. ib. Pan-hellenic feelings . . .. 880-

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CHAPTER LXIV.— conitnucd


He lite out A Gommaadinff tie^t—
bis successes at Lesbos— he
liberates the cantives aud the
Athenian garnson at Me-
thymna 887

Noble character of this proceeding
—exalted Pan-bellenic pa-
triotism of Kallikratidas .. 888

He blocks up Kon6n and the
Athenian fleet at Mityldnd .. 880

Triumphant position of Kalli-
kratidas 880

Hopeless condition of KonAn—
his stratagem to send news to
Athens and entreat relief . . ib,

Kallikratidas defeate the squa-
dron of Diomedon ..898

Prodigious effort of the Athenians
to relieve KonAn— laige Athe-
nian fleet equipped and sent
toArginuse ib,

Kallikraudas withdraws most of
his fleet from Mityldnd, leaT*
ing Bteonikus to continue the
blockade 808

The two fleeto marshalled for
battle. ComparatiTe nautical
skill. reTened since the be-
(dnning of the war ..894

BatUe of Arginusn— defeat of
the Lacedaemonians— death of
Kallikratidas 886

ft would have been better for
Greece, and even for Athens,
if KallikraUdas had been
Tictor at Arginusae i&

Safe escape of Bteonikus and bis
fleet from Mityldnd to Chios 887

Joy of Athens for the victorv—
indignation arising from the
fkct that the Athenian sea-
men on the disabled ships
had not been picked up after
the battle A.

State of the facto about the dis-
abled ships, and the men left
in them 898

Despatch of the generals to
Athens, affirming that a
storm had prevented them
from saving toe drowning men 400

Justifiable wnith and wounded
sympathy of the Athenians-
extreme excitement among
the relatives of the drowned

Hie generals are superseded and
directed to come home

Bxamination of the generals
before the senate and the
people at Athens ^.




Debate in the public assemUy
— TheramenAs accuses the
generals as ffuilty of omitting
to save the drowning men . . 408

Effect of the accusation by
Theramente upon the assem-
bly.. .. <k

Defence of the generals— they
affirm that they had com-
missioned Theramends him-
self to undertake the du^ .. 404

Reason why the generals had not
mentioned this commission in
their despatch 406

Different account given by Dio-
d6rus 400

Probable version of the way in
which the facto really occurred 407

Justification of the generals-
how far valid?- The alleged
storm. Escape of Bteonikus 410

Feelings of the Athenian public-
how the case stood before
them— decision adjourned to
a future assembly .. 418

Occurrence of the festival of
Apaturia— the great family
soiemnitv of the Ionic race .. 418

Burst of feeling at the Apaturia—
misrepresented by Xenoph6n 414

Proposition of Kallixenus in the
senate against the generals-
adopted and submitted to the
public assembly ..416

Iqjostioe of the resolution,— by
depriving the generals of the
customary securities for judi-
cial triaL Psephism pf Kan-
n6nus ib.

Opposition tf^en by Buryptole-
mus on the ground of consti-
tutional form— Oraphd Para-
nomdn 418

Excitement of the assembly-
constitutional impediment
overruled 419

The Prytanes refuse to put the
question — their opposition
overruled, all except that of
Sokratds 490

Altered temper of the assembly
when toe discussion haa
b^un — amendment moved
ana developed by Enryptole-
mus 421

Speech of Boryptolemus .. .. 4SS

E[is amendment is rctJected— the
proposition of Kallixenus it
carried 488

The six generals are condemned
and executed • 484

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CHAPTER LXiy.^-amtinued.


Iqjnstiee of the proceading —
▼toUtlon of the democnttical
I and sentimenta
i lepentanoe of the people


soon AfterwMde-HUvgraoeand
end of Kallixenns ..486

4S6 Oanaee of the popular ezdtemeiit ib.
Geneiala— not innooent mea .. 488


FsoM THS Battlb OF Aaoikuba to tbb Restoration of thb
DmooRAOY AT Athens, aftbk thx Expitlsion of thb Thixtt.

Alleged propodtionB of peace from
Sparta to Athens — donbtfnl

Iteonikm at CUoe— distroM of
hie eeamen— compiraoy tap*

SoBcitatioDs from Chloe and else-
where that Lyaander ehoold
be eent oat again

AninJ of LjMnder at Bpheens—
seal of his partisans- Cyras

Fiolent rerolation at MilAtns by
tiM partisans (tf Lysander

Cyras goes to Tisit his dying father
"' ihistribvtestoLy-

Inaction of the Athenian fleet
after the battle of Argimuw.
Operations of Lyaander

Both fleets at the Hellespont ..

Athenian fleet at .Agospotami . .

Battle of .£goepotami— surprise
and cu>tare of the entire A the-

Oiptare of the Athenian com-
manders, all except Kon6n . .

BlangMfrr of the capnre generals
and prisoners

The Athenian fleet supposed to
have been betiayed by its own

INstrees and agony at Athens,
when the defeat of .figoepo-
tami was made known there

Proceedings of Lysander ..

Miseiable condition of the Athe-
nian Klerachs, and of the
friends of Athens hi the aUled
Sofferings in

Attiens ..

Am nesty p roposed by Patroklei-
dSs. and adopted

Oath €i matnal harmony swora fai

Arrival of Lysander. Athens is
blocked np by sea and land

Bcsolnte hold&ig-ont of the Athe-
nians—their propositions for
capitnlating aro refused

Pretsaees of Theramen^

sent as enroy— his studied

481 delay 447

Misery and famine in Athens-
death of Kleophon ..448
4Sf The famine becomes intolenble
— Themmente is sent to ob-
tain peace on any terms—
488 debate abont the terms at

Sparta A.

ib. Peace is granted by Sparta, against
the general sentiment of the

484 allies 448

Surrender of Athens — extreme
wretchedness — number of
A. deaths from famine A.

Lysander enters Athens— retara
of the exiles— demolition of
the Long Walls— dismantUng
of Peineus— fleet given up . . 460
The exiles and the oliganmical
party in Athens— their trium-
phant behariourand devotion

to Lysander 461

Kritias and other exiles— past life

ofKritias 468

Kritias at the head of the oligarchs

at Athens 468

Oligarchical leaders named at
Athens 464

441 Seizure of Strombichidds and other

eminent democrats ib.

Nomination of the Thirty, under

442 the dictation of Lysander .. 466
ib. Oonquest of Samos by Lysander—

oUgarohy restored there . . 467
IMnmphant return of Lyaander to
Sparta— his prodigious ascen-
dency throughout Greece . . ib,

444 Proceedings of the Thirty at
Athens— feelings of oligarchi-

ib, cal men like Plato ..468

The niirty begin their exeentions

446 — Strombichidte and the im-

prisoned generals put to death

448 —other democrats also .. 460

i appointed by the Thirty-
is only trusted to act under
their intimidatloo. Numeroas
•xecntions without trial . . A.






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CHAPTER LX,Y,-<ontinued.


The tenate hegtM by eoDdenmiiif
wUUngly every one broogni
beforethem .. .. 400

Diaeord amoofr the ThhtT— dinen-
tient views of Kntias and
Thenunente 401

Laoed«monian nrrieon intro-
duced—multiplied execntioni
by KrItiaH and the Thirty . . tb.

Opposition of Theramente to these
measures— Tiolenee and rap*-
dtT still further hicreased—
rich and oligarchical men pot
todeath 4«t

Plan of Kritias to gain adherents
by forcing men to become ao-
oompUoes in deeds of blood—
lesiBtance of Sokratte .. 4«i

renror and discontent in the city
—the Thirty nominate a body
of Three Thousand as partisan
hoplites 464

Ihey disarm the remaining hop-
lites of the city 466

Murdera and spoliations by the
Thirty. Seizure of the metics 460

Beixure <» Lyslas the rhetor and
his brother Polemarchns. The
former escapes— the latter is
executed 467

Increased exasperation of Kritias
and the majority of the Thirty
against Theramente .. ..468

Iheramends is denounced bv
Kritias in the senate— speech
of Kritias 460

Beply of Theramenfis ..470

Extreme violence of Kritias and
theTWrty 471

Condemnation of Theramends . . 472

Death of Theramente— remarks
on his character .. 478

Increased tyranny of Kritias and
theThirty 474

The Thirty forbid inteUectnal
teaching 476

Sokratte and the Thirty .. .. 477

Growing insecurity of the Thirty ib.

Gradual alteration of feeling m
Greece since the capture of
Athens 478

Demand by the allies of Sparta
to share in the spoils of the
war-refused by Sparta . . A.

Unparalleled ascendency of I^-
sander 470

His overweening ambition— op-
pressive dominion of Sparta 480


Disgust excited in Greece by the
enormities of the Thirty . . 481

Oppotition to Lysander at Sparta
— King Pausanias <6.

Kallikratidas compared with Jjj-
sander 488

Sympathy at Th6bes and dse-
wbere with the Athenian
exiles 488

Thrasybuhis seixes PhylA- re-
pulses the Thirty in their
attack <6.

Further success of Thrasybulus—
the Thirty retreat to Athens 484

Discord among the oligarchy at
Athens s ei a n re of the uen-
sinlans 488

Thrasybulna establishes himself
InPeinBUS 487

The Thirty attack him and are
defeated— Kritias Is slain . . ib.

OoUoqny during the burial-truce
—language of Kleokritus . . 488

Discouragement of the oligarchs
at Athens— deposition of the
Thirty and appointment of
the Ten— the Thirty go to
Eleusis 480

The Ten carry on the war agahist
theexilee 401

Increasing strength of Thrasy-
bulus A.

Arrival of lysander In Attica with
a Spartan force . . 40S

Straitened condition of the exiles
InPeinBUS 488

Spartan king Pausanias conducts
an expedition into Attica:
opposed to Lysander .. ..A.

His dispositions unfavourable to
the oligarchy : reaction against
theThirty 404

Pausanias attacks Pelmus: Us
partial success 405

Peace-party In Athens— sustained
bypausanlas 400

Padflcatiou granted by Pausanias
and the Spartan authorities 407

The Spartans evacuate Attica—
—Thrasybulus and the exilea
are restored — harangue ci
Thrasybulus A.

Restoration of the democracy . . 408

Capture of Eleusis — entire re-
nnlon of Attica^flight of the
survivors of the Thirty . . 400

Summary relating to the rise and
faUof the Athenian empire.. A.

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PAOB nmm

Miwrable oonditton of Atheni BepftTment to the LMedmno-

darinf the two preoeding nmiw 6tt

yean 600 The Honemen or Knights Oi.

iTiwim^^iUii nUflf eaoMd by the ReTidon of the laws — Nlko-

Online LibraryGeorge GroteA history of Greece: from the earliest period to the close of the generation contemporary with Alexander the Great → online text (page 2 of 62)