George Grote.

A history of Greece: from the earliest period to the close of the generation contemporary with Alexander the Great online

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rov S^uov rott ivtwroUt if the Demos
had at that time been actually in the

Again, viU. 8S. he says, that the
Athenian oligarchical party under
Pelsander mtrmv rmv Saftior wpoyppd'
^OKTO roik 6vrarov$^ Aorc jrcipoirvac

vavravrat avrodf «AAi^otf tra
IM,^ iAiyapx^rrac. Here the
motive of the previous ivoycLorootf is
clearly noted— it was in order that
they luight not ht under on oUgorehical
^ovemmenl ; for I agree with Kriiger
(in opposition to Dr. ThirlwaUX that
this is the clear meaning of the words,
and that the use of the present tense
prevents our construing It, ** in order
that thehr democratical government
mi^t not be subverted, and an oli-
garchy put upon them "—which ought
to be the sense, if Dr. Thirlwall's vtew
were just.

Lastiy. viii. 78^ we have ot yk^

T«» rots ivrarott ««l trr**
diifiof, fl«ra^aAA4fl«rol a<#if
i <f i¥ O T6 TV it TttiOMviow ^wMfA^rat,
Mic^AAor rote iXXoit Mf 8i||iv Ivn
jvi»i|<r«<r«a«. Surehr these words— oi
iwat^airriynt tow evroroU ««i irnt
HiiuK—'* those who have risen in arms
against the wealthy and powerful,
were now a Demos or a democracy
—must imply that tho psrtoiw aaoinU
wkomariMg had takon plac$ had boon
a go9omi$iff oUgank^. Surely also the
words lUTofioMiipMfoi mi9vt can mean

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admiral to


On the other hand, the Athenian blockading fleet was sarprised
Pelo- and defeated, with the loss of four triremes, by the

Igy ff *" Peloponnesian fleet at PeirsBom, which was thus
enabled to get to Eenchrese, and to refit in order that
it might be sent to Ionia. The sixteen Peloponnesian
ships which had fought at Syracuse had already come
back to Lechseum, in spite of the obstructions thrown
in their way by the Athenian squadron under Hippoklds at
Naupaktus.1 The Lacedemonian admiral Astyochus was sent to
Kenchrese to take the command and proceed to Ionia as admiral
in chief : but it was some time before he could depart for Chios,
whither he arrived with only four triremes, followed by six more

Before he reached that island, however, the Chians, zealous in
Expedition ^^ °^^ P*^ which they had taken up, and interested
ch^ii ^^^ *^®"^ ^^"^ safety in multiplying defections from

against Athens, had themselves undertaken the prosecution
Lesbos. ^f ^YiQ plans concerted by Agis and the Lacedsemonians
at Corinth. They originated an expedition of their own, with
thirteen triremes under a Lacedsemonian Pericekns named
Deiniadas, to procure the revolt of Lesbos ; with the view, if
successful, of proceeding afterwards to do the same among the

nothing else except to point out the
strange antithesis between the conduct
of these same men at two different
epochs not far distant from each other.
On the first occasion, they rose up
against an established oligarchical
goTemment, and constituted a demo-
cratical goTemment. On the second
occasion, they rose up in conspiracy
against this Tery democratical govern-
ment, in order to subvert it, and con-
stitute themselves an oligarchy in its
place. If we suppose that on the first
occasion the established government
was already democratical, and that
the persons here mentioned were not
conspirators against an established
oligarchy, but merely persons making
use of the powers of a deroocraticu
govemment to do violence to rich
citizens, all this antithesis completely

On the whole, I feel satbfled that
the government of Samos, at the time
when Chios revolted from Athens, was
oligarchical like that of Chios itself.

Nor do I see any difHcnIty in believing
this to be the fact, though I canned
state when and how the oligarchy
became established there. So long as
the island performed its duty as a
subject ally, Athens did not interfere
with the form of its government. And
she was least of all likelv to interfere
during the seven years of peace inter-
vening between the years 421— 414*
There was nothixig then to excite her
apprehensions. The degree to which
Athens intermeddled generally with
the internal affairs of her subject allies
seems to me to have been much exag-

The Samian oligarchy or Ge6moTl,
dispossessed of the government on this
occasion, were restored by Lysander,
after his victorious close of the Pelo-
ponnesian war—Xenoph. HeUen. ilL S»
6~where they are called ol ^m*-

1 Thneyd. viii. 18.

•Thucyd. viU. 20-»

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Hellespontine dependencies of Athens. A land force nnder the
Spartan Eualas, partlj Peloponnesian, i>artl7 Asiatic, marched
along the coast c^ the mainland northwards towards Eym^ to
co-operate in both these objects. Lesbos was at this time divided
into at least five separate city-governments— Methymna at the
north of the island, Mityldnd towards the south-east, Antissa,
Eresns, and Pyrrha on the west Whether these governments were
oligarchical or democratical, we do not know ; but the Athenian
kleruchs who had been sent to Mityldnd after its revolt sixteen
years before, must have long ago disappeared.^ The Ghian fleet
first went to Methymna and procured the revolt of that place,
where four triremes were left on guard, while the remaining nine
sailed forward to Mitylln^ and succeeded in obtaining that
important town also.'

Their proceedings however were not unwatched by the
Athenian fleet at Samos. Unable to recover possession m-iiiooe«
of Teds, Diomedon had been obliged to content himself 2Ji,£Sb_
with procuring neutrality from that town, and admis- Lesbos is
sion for the vessels of Athens, as weU as of her enemies : by the
he had moreover failed in an attack upon Erae." But Athenians,
he had since been strengthened partly by the democratical
revolution at Samos, partly by the arrival of Leon with ten
additional triremes from Athens : so that these two commanders
were now enabled to sail, with twenty-five triremes, to the relief
of Lesboe. Reaching MityUnS (the largest town in that island)
vei^ shortly after its revolt, they sailed straight into the harbour
when no one expected them, seized the nine Chian ships with
little resistance, and after a successful battle on shore, regained
possession of the city. The Lacedaemonian admiral Astyochus —
who had only been three days arrived at Chios from Eenchreae
with his four triremes — saw the Athenian fleet pass through the
channel between Chios and the mainland, on its way to Lesbos ;
and immediately on the same evening followed it to that island,
to lend what aid he could, with one Chian trireme added to his
own four, and some hoplites on board. He sailed first to Pyrrha,
and on the next day to Eresus, on the west side of the island,
where he first learnt the recapture of Mityl^S by the Athenians.

1 See the earlier part of this History, > Thucyd. TiiL 29.
ch.1. SThiicyd.viii.80.

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He was here also joined by three out of the four Chian triremes
which had been left to defend that place, and which had been
driven away, with the loss of one of their number, by a portion
of the Athenian fleet pushing on thither from Mitylen^.
Afityochus prevailed on Eresus to revolt from Athens, and
having armed the population, sent them by land together with
his own hoplites under Eteonikus to Methymua, in hopes of
preserving that place, whither he also proceeded with his fleet
along the coast But in spite of all his endeavours, Mcthymna as
well as Eresus and all Lesbos was recovered by the Athenians,
while he himself was obliged to return with his force to Chios.
The land troops which had marched along the mainland, with a
view to further operations at the Hellespont, were carried back
to Chios and their respective homes.^
The recovery of Lesbos, which the Athenians now placed in a
-a-ajni- better posture of defence, was of great importance in
operations itself, and arrested for the moment all operations
▲t^nians agauist them at the Hellespont Their fleet from
grainst Lesbos was first employed in the recovery of Elazo-
mense, which they again carried back to its original
islet near the shore — the new town on the mainland, called
Polichna, though in course of being built, being not yet sufliciently
fortified to defend itself. The leading anti- Athenians in the town
made their escape, and went farther up the country to Daphn^
Animated by such additional success — as well as by a victory
which the Athenians, who were blockading MiUtus, gained over
Chalkideus, wherein that ofiicer was slain — Leon and Diomedon
thought themselves in a condition to begin aggressive measures
against Chios, now their most active enemy in Ionia. Their fleet
of twenty-five sail was well-equipped with Epibatse ; who, though
under ordinary circumstances they were ThStes armed at the
public cost, yet in the present stress of affairs were impressed

iThucyd. tUI. 18. Avcmom^o^ 6i landforoeinareft«(2a/<m^ by land towards

ir^iv Kara w6ktit <cal h iiwh rStw Klazomena and Kymd (6 n^ i/ia

wtmv wt^ht, tt ««i rbr *BAAi}<nrovror Htkowoyviiirimv rt rwv vapiyrttv xai rmv

iftiiXXifaw itfroi. avT69w ^vittUyuv rap|f«4 iwl KAo^o-

Dr. Arnold and QdUar sappoae ttiat tiivmv n koX Kv^uffX Thncydidte does

these soldiers had been carried over to not say that they evercroaeed to Lesbos :

Lesbos to cooperate in detaching the they remained near Kvmd, prepared to

island from the Athenians. Bnt this march forward, after that ialand should

is not implied in the narratlTe. The have been conquered, to the Helleepont

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from the superior hoplites in the city muster-rolL^ They occupied
the little isletB called (Enussse, near Chios on the north-east— as
well as the forts of Siduasa and Pteleus in the territory of Enrthras ;
from which positions they began a series of harassing operations
against Chios itsell Disembarking on the island at KardamylS
and Bolissus, they not only ravaged the neighbourhood, but
inflicted upon the Chian forces a bloody defeat After two
further defeats, at Phanss and at Leukonium, the Chians no
longer dared to quit their fortifications ; so that the invaders
were left to ravage at pleasure the whole territory, being at the
same time masters of the sea around, and blocking up the port.

The Athenians now retaliated upon Chios the hardships under
which Attica itself was suffering ; hardships the more Hardships
painfully felt, inasmuch as this was the first time that £f chkina
an enemy had ever been seen in the island, since the -prosper-
repulse of Xerxds from Greece, and the organization i^nd up to
of the confederacy of D^los, more than sixty years ^^stlme.
before. The territory of Chios was highly cultivated,* its
commerce extensive, and its wealth among the greatest in all
Qreeoa In fact, under the Athenian empire, its prosperity had
been so marked and so uninterrupted, that ThucydidSs expresses
his astonishment at the undeviating prudence and circumspection
of the government, in spite of circumstances well-calculated to
tempt them into extravagance. ** Except Sparta (he says),' Chios
is Uie only state that I know, which maintained its sober
judgment throughout a career of prosperity, and became even
more watchful in regard to security, in proportion as it advanced
in power." He adds, that the step of revolting from Athens,
though the Chian government now discovered it to have been an
error, was at any rate a pardonable error ; for it was undertaken
under the impression, universal throughout Greece and prevalent
even in Athens hersdf after the disaster at Syracuse, that Athe-
nian power, if not Athenian independence, was at an end — and

1 Thocyd. TiiL M, with Dr. Arnold's Mii^ucmp iUxp*- ^^^t iMv6p^ai^» Xtot

te. yap it^roi Mcra AaKtSaifioviovi, inr iym

SAristoial, PoUtio. !▼. i, 1; Athe- iv^SfUiy, tbiaifioy^vwras Sfia Koiiam-

IMBI18, tL p. 806. ^o6viiioaif, Kal^5<ry ivcdt^v i| *^^*«

' Aucyd. ?iiL SL xol lurd. tovto avrolt hr\ ih Mi^or, rtfvy icai iKOO'iiovmo

•I aAf Zt04 ^ ointin hn^tvay, o2 ixvp<iT9f»w, d[C

M C^^>'*^) "f^^ X**P<^L «a^«*f K«Tco>- Tiii. 46. Oi Xioi . . . vXownii-

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undertaken in conjunction with aUieB aeeminglj more than
sufficient to sustain it This remarkable observation of
ThucydidSs doubtless includes an indirect censure upon his own
city, as abusing her prosperity for purposes of unmeasured
aggrandizement ; a censure not undeserved in reference to the
enterprise against Sicily. But it counts at the same time as a
valuable testimony to the condition of the allies of Athens under
the Athenian empire, and goes feir in reply to the charge of
practical oppression against the imperial city.

The operations now carrying on in Chios indicated such an
^^ unexpected renovation in Athenian affairs, that a party

fromAUieiis in the island began to declare in favour of re-union
S?aS2-**' with Athens. The Chian government were forced to
nians near summon Astyochus, with his four Peloponnesian ships
"^ from Erythi^ to strengthen their hands and keep
down opposition ; by seizing hostages from the suspected parties,
as well as by other precautions. While the Chiaus were thus
endangered at home, the Athenian interest in Ionia was still
further fortitled by the arrival of a fresh armament from Athens
at SamoB. Phrynichus, Onomakl^ and Skironid^ conducted a
fleet of forty-eight triremes, some of them employed for the
transportation of hoplites ; of which latter there were aboard
1000 Athenians, and 1600 Argeians. Five hundred of these
Argeians, having come to Athens without arms, were clothed
with Athenian panoplies for service. The newly-arrived
armament immediately sailed from Samos to Miletus, where it
effected a disembarkation, in conj auction with those Athenians
who had been before watching the place from the island of Lade.
The Milesians marched forth to give them battle ; mustering 800
of their own hoplites, together with the Peloponnesian seamen
of the five triremes brought across by Chalkideus, and a body of
troops, chiefly cavalry, yet with a few mercenary hoplites, under
the satrap Tissaphemes. Alkibiad^ also was present and
engaged. The Argeians were so full of contempt for the loniaus
of MilStus who stood opposite to them, that they rushed forward
to the charge with great neglect of rank or order ; a presumption
which they expiated by an entire defeat, with the loss of 300 men.
But the Athenians on their wing were so completely victorious
over the Peloponnesians and others opposed to them, that all

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Chap, lxl athsniaks at milAiub. S17

the army of the latter, and even the Miledans themselves on
returning from their pursuit of the Argeians, were forced to
shelter themselves within the walls of the town. The issne of
this combat ezdted much astonishment, inasmnch as, on each side,
Ionian hoplites were victorious over Dorian.^

For a moment, the Athenian army, masters of the field under
the walls of Mildtus, indulged the hope of putting that ^^. p .
city under blockade, by a wall across the isthmus ponnesiaii
which connected it with the continent But these Z^*^''^
hopes soon vanished when they were apprised, on the ^Sj?**"*
very evening of the battle, that the main Pelopon- goantto
nesian and Sicilian fleet, 55 triremes in number, was |^^^|^.
actually in sight Of these 55, 22 were Sicilian (20 ^|J^^„^
from Syracuse and two from Selinus) sent at the
pressing instance of Hermokrat^ and under his command, for
the purpose of striking the final blow at Athens — so at least it
was anticipated, in the beginning of 412 B.C. The remaining 33
triremes being Peloponnesian, the whole fleet was placed under
the temporary command of Theramenes until he could join the
admiral Astyochus. Theramenis, halting first at the island of
Lems (off the coast towards the southward of Miletus), was there
first informed of the recent victory of the Athenians, so that he
thought it prudent to take station for the night in the neigh-
bouring Gulf of lasus. Here he was found by Alkibiad^ who
came on horseback in all haste from MilStus, to the Milesian
town of Teichiussa on that Gulf. AlkibiadSs strenuously urged
him to lend immediate aid to the Milesians, so as to prevent the
construction of the intended wall of blockade ; representing that
if that city were captured, all the hopes of the Peloponnesians in
Ionia would be extinguished. Accordingly he prepared to sail
thither the next morning ; but during the night, the Athenians
thought it wise to abandon their position near Miletus and return
to Samos with their wounded and their baggage. Having heard
of the arrival of Theramen^ with his fleet, they preferred leaving
their victory unimproved, to the hazard of a general battle. Two
out of the three commanders, indeed, were at first inclined to
take the latter course, insisting that the maritime honour of
Athens would be tarnished by retiring before the enemy. But

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the third, PhrynichnB, opposed with so much emphasis the
propositioii of fighting, that he at length induced his colleagues
to retire. The fleet (he said) had not come prepared for fighting
a naval battle, but full of hoplites for land-operations against
Miletus : the numbers of the newly-arrived Peloponnesians were
not accurately known ; and a defeat at sea, under existing
circumstances, would be utter ruin to Athena. Thucydides
bestows much praise on Phrynichus for the wisdom of this
advice, which was forthwith acted upon. The Athenian fleet
sailed back to Samos ; from which place the Argeian hoplites,
sulky with their recent defeat, demanded to be conveyed home.^
On the ensuing momin<;, the Pcloponnesian fleet sailed froui
^jj^^j^jj^ ^ the Gulf of lasus to Miletus, expecting to find and
]^o8by fight the Athenians, and leaving their masts, sails,
ponneaians ^^^ rigging (as was usual when going into action) at
dfflJ^i,SOT.* Teichiussa. Finding Miletus already relieved of the
gtemade enemy, they stayed there only one day in order to
^ "*'" reinforce themselves with the 26 triremes which
Chalkideus had originally brought thither, and which had been
since blocked up by the Athenian fleet at LadS — and then sailed
back to Teichiussa to pick up the tackle there deposited. Being
now not far from lasus, the residence of Amorges, Tissapheni^
persuaded them to attack it by sea, in co-operation with his forces
by land. No one at lasus was aware of the arrival of the Pclo-
ponnesian fleet : the triremes approaching were supposed to be
Athenians and friends, so that the place was entered and taken
by surprise ;' though strong in situation and fortifications, and
defended by a powerful band of Qrecian mercenaries. The
capture of lasus, in which the Syracusans distinguished
themselves, was of signal advantage from the abundant plunder
which it distributed among the army ; the place being rich from
ancient date, and probably containing the accumulations of the
satrap Pissuthn^ father of Amorg^ It was handed over

1 Thucyd. Tiii. 26, 27. the capture of lasus fThucyd. tUL 54).

s Phrynichns the Athenian com- Phrynichus and his colleagues were

mander was afterwards displaced by certainly guilty of grate omission in

the Athenians— by the recommendation not sending notice to Amoigte of the

of Peisander, at the time when this sudden retirement of the Athenian

displacement suited the purpose of the fleet from Mil6tus; the ignorance of

oHgawhical conspirators— on the charge which circumstance was one reason

of having abandoned and betrayed whir Amoig^s mistook the Pelopon-

Amocgte on this occasion, and caused nenan ships for Athenian.

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to Tissaphem^ along with all the prisoners, for each head of
whom he paid down a Daric stater, or twenty Attic drachmsB —
and along with Amorgds himself, who had been taken alive and
whom the satrap was thus enablkl to send up to Sosa. The
Grecian mercenaries captured in the place were enrolled in the
service of the captors, and sent by land under Pedaritus to
Erythrse, in order that they might cross over from thence to

The arrival of the recent reinforcements to both the opposing
fleets, and the capture of lasus, took place about the iiagapher.
autumnal equinox or the end of September ; at which nds bedni
period, the Peloponnesian fleet being assembled at mkvtothe
Miletus, Tissaphemds paid to them the wages of the S^^J^®'
crews, at the rate of one Attic drachma per head per He ^Jju^
diem, as he had promised by his envoy at Sparta, pay for the
But he at the same time gave notice for the future "**«"»•
(partly at the instigation of Alkibiad§8, of which more hereafter)
that he could not continue so high a rate of pay, unless he should
receive express instructionB from Susa ; and that, until such
instructions came, he should give only half a drachma per day.
Theramen^ being only commander for the interim, until the
junction wiUi Astyochus, was indifferent to the rate at which the
men were paid (a miserable jealousy which marks the low
character of many of these Spartan officers) : but the Syracusan
Hermokrat^ remonstrated so loudly against the reduction, that
he obtained from Tissaphem^ the promise of a slight increase
above the half drachma, though he could not succeed in getting
the entire drachma continued.* For the present, howevei*, the
seamen were in good spirits ; not merely from having received
the high rate of pay, but from the plentiful booty recently
acquired at lasus ;' while Astyochus and the Chians were also
greatly encouraged by the arrival of so large a fleet Neverthe-
less, the Athenians on their side were also reinforced by 35 fresh

1 Tbooyd. tUI. S8. tlon or omission of words; nor does

STIiiiexd. ▼ill SO. What this new any of the explanations given appear to

rate of pay was, or hy what exact me oonvindng. On the whole, I incline

fraction it exceeded the half drachma, to consider the eonjectnre and expUtna-

le a matter which the words of Thncy- tlon given by Panimier and Dobree as

dldto do not enable vm to make out. moreplausible than that of Dr. Arnold

None of the commentators can explain and Ooller, or of Poppo and Hermann,
the tflizt without admitting some altera- > Thucyd. Till. 86.

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triremefly which reached SamoB under Strombichid^ Charmlniis,
and Enktdmon. The Athenian fleet from Chios was now recalled
to Samos, where the commanders mastered their whole naval
force, with a view of redividing it for ulterior operations.

Considering that, in the automn of the preceding year, im-
Powerful mediately after the Syracnsan disaster, the navy of
Atb^a Athens had been no less scanty in number of ships
Samoe— than defective in equipment — ^we read, with amaze-
^^^1^^ ment, that she had now at Samos no less than 104
2^°*^ triremes, in full condition and disposable for service,
besides some others specially destined for the transport
of troops. Indeed, the total number which she had sent out,
putting together the separate squadrons, had been 128.^ So
energetic an effort, and so unexpected a renovation of affairs from
the hopeless prostration of last year, was such as no Grecian state
except Athens could have accomplished; nor even Athens herself
had she not been aided by that reserve fund, consecrated twenty
years before through the long-sighted calculation of Periklds.

The Athemans resolved to employ 30 triremes in making a
Astyochos hmding, and establishing a fortified post, in Chios ;
at Chios and lots being drawn among the generals, Strom-
opposite bichides with two others were assigned to the
coBBt command. The other 74 triremes, remaining masters

of the sea, made descents near Miletus, trying in vain to provoke
the Peloponnesian fleet out of that harbour. It was some time
before Astyochus actually went thither to assume his new com-
mand—being engaged in operations near to Chios, which island
had been left comparatively free by the recal of the Athenian
fleet to the general muster at Samos. €k)ing forth with twenty
triremes — ^ten Peloponnesian and ten Chian — ^he made a fruitless
attack upon Pteleus, the Athenian fortified post in the Erythraean

Online LibraryGeorge GroteA history of Greece: from the earliest period to the close of the generation contemporary with Alexander the Great → online text (page 26 of 62)