George Grote.

A history of Greece: from the earliest period to the close of the generation contemporary with Alexander the Great online

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vtAdyKu must suppose) that MLndams
sailed first up the northern strait
between Chios and the mainland, and
then turned his course east towanls
Phokaea, this would have been the
course which Thrasyl'ns expected that
he would take ; and it is hardly pos-
sible to explain why he was not seen
both by the Athenian scouts as well as
by the Athenian garrison at their
station of Delnhininm on Chios itself.
Whereas by taking the circuitous route
round the southern and western coast,
he never came in sight either of one or
the other ; and he was enabled, when
be got round to the latitude north of
the island, to turn to the right and
take a stnUght easterly course with
Le»hn$ on his l«ft hand, but at a Rufficieut
distance from land to be out of sight of

all scouts. 'Avdyta^ai <fc rnc Xiov

nAdytof (Xen. Hdlen. ii. 1, 17) means
to strike into the open sea, quite clear
of the coast of Asia ; that passage does
not decisively indicate wbetlier the
ships rounded the south-eant or the
north-east comer of the island.

We are here told that the seamen
of Mindarus received from the Chians

per head thrte Chian twaroJewta, Now
this is a small Chian coin, nowhere
else mentioned ; and it is surprising to
tiud so petty and local a denominaUon
of money here specified by Thucydidte,
contrasted with the different manner
in which Xenoph6n describes Chian
pajnnents to the Peloponnesian seik
men (UeUen. i 6, 12 ; iL 1, 5). But the
voyage of Mindaras round the south
and west of the island explains the
circumstance. He must have landed
twice on the island during this circum-
uavieation (perhaps starting in the
evening), for dinner and supper : and
this Chian coin (which probably bad
no circulation out of the island) served
each man to buy provisions at the
Chian landing-places. It was not con-
venient to Mindarus to take aboard
■mof provisions in kind at the town of
Chios ; because he had already aboard
a stock of provisions for two days— the
subsequent portion of his voyage, along
the coast oi Asia to Sigeitim, during
which he could not afford time to halt
and buy them, and where indeed the
territory was not friendly.

It is enough if I can show that the
old text of Thucydid6s vrill eonstrae
very well, without the violent intrusion
of this conjectural ov. But I can show
more ; for this negative actually ren-
ders even the construction of the
sentence awkward, at least, if not
inadmissible. Surely dvaipovo-tv ov
ircAdyiai, ciAAd, ou{:ht to be followed
by a correlative adjective or participle
belonging to the same verbdn-atpovtriv :
vet if wc take i\ov7tK as such correla-
tive participle, bow are we to eonstrae
cxrAcof 1 In order to express the sense
which Haack brings out, we ought
surely to have different words, such as
•— evic dirppay 4k r^t Xtov ^vcAdytat, oAA*
iv apitrrtft^ riyr Aevfioy jfyorref Swknv
jv' r^y ^irctpoK Even the change of
tense from present to past, when w»
follow the construction of Haack, is
awkward ; while if we nnderstand the
words hi the sense which I propose,
the change of tense is perfectly admis-
sible, since the two verbs do not both

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statioii at Methymna, its progreas could no longer remain a
secret As it advanced still farther along the Troad, the
momentous news circulated everywhere, and was promulgated
throu<^'h numerous fire-signals and beacons on the hill by friend
OS well as by foe.

These signals were perfectly visible, and perfectly intelligible,
to the two hostile squadrons now on guard on each side of the
Hellespont : 18 Athenian triremes at Sestos in Europe — 16
Peloponnesian triremes at Abydos in Asia. To the former it was
destruction to be caught by this powerful enemy in the narrow
channel of the Hellespont They quitted Sestos in the middle
of the night, passing opposite to Abydos, and keeping a southerly
course close along the shore of the Chersonese, in the direction
towards Else^ at the southern extremity of that peninsula, so as
to have the chance of escape in the open sea and of joining
Thrasyllus. But they would not have been allowed to pass even
the hostile station at Abydos, had not the Peloponnesian
guardships received the strictest orders from Mindarus,
transmitted before he left Chios, or perhaps even before he left
Miletus, that if he should attempt the start, they were to keep a
vigilant and special look-out for his coming, and reserve themselves
to lend him such assistance as might be needed, in case he were
attacked by Thrasyllus. When the signals first announced the
arrival of Mindarus, the Peloponnesian guard-shipe at Abydos
could not know in what position he was, nor whether the main
Athenian fleet might not be near upon him. Accordingly they
acted on these previous orders, holding themselves in reserve in
their station at Abydos, until daylight should arrive, and they
should be better informed. They thus neglected the Athenian
Hellespontine squadron in its escape from Sestos to ELefis.^

nfer to the iiune moTament or to the editors maintaia their views, tbaf

same portion of the Toyace. ** TIU ooRbt at least to endoee the word ti

Mset utant from Chiot outbyths tea- brackets. In the edition of ThacydidSs,

tide <tf the itland ; but whm it earns to published at Leipslc. 1845, by C. A.

have LeelHie en the ^/t-hand, it eailed Koch, I observe thai the text is stOl

ttraiffht to the eoniinent." corrtfctly printed, without the nefpUire.

I hope that I am not too late to i Thucyd. TiiL 102. oc «« 'A^^mmc

nakegoodmyypo^iiyfertaf, or protest ir t^^ Sito^ . . . i&« avrolt o! TV

asainst the unwarranted right of ^pvcrwooi iaiiuMfow, mI Tjaeat^om ri

Thncydidean citisenship which the wvpi, i(ai6nit woAJiA im rf nktiUf

recent editors hare conferred upon this ^aWrra, lyM«v in i^wKiw^tm m

word ov in c. 101. The old text ought II«\oironn^atou mI Tiyt writ raTir^

certainly to be restored, or If the rvxrbc, mc «txor Hxev*» ^wi$jifmitnt ry

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On arriving about daylight near the aoathem point of the
Chersonese, these Athenians were descried by the xhimtyllas
fleet of Mindarus, which had come the night before to ^^J^
the opposite stations of Sigeinm and Bhoeteium. The tmi at the
latter immediately gave chase; but the Athenians, now HeUeepont.

•zpreMed, not left to be andentood.
After Thacydidte has told as that the
Athenians at Sestos escaped their
opposite enemies at Abydos— when he
next goes on to add aomettiing under
the genitiTe absolote, we expect that
it should be a new fact which explains
why or how they escaped : but if the
new fact which he tells us, far from
explahiing the escape, renders it more
extraordinaxy (such as, that the Pelo-
ponnesians had received strict orders
to watch them), he would surely pre-
pare the reader for this new fact by an
express particle such as although or not-
withstanding -** The Athenians escaped,
although the Peloponnesians had re-
eeived the strictest orders to watch
them and block them up". As nothing
equiTalent to, or implying, the ad versa*
tiYo particle although is to be found in
the Greek words, so I infer, as a hiffh
probability, that it is not to be sought
in the meaning.

Differing from the commentators, I
think that these word»~irp««tpi|«Un)«

dvtucMf «{dvotr, ^r hcwkmox— do assign
the reason for the fact which had been
immediately before announced, and
which was really extraordinary : Tis.
that the Athenian squadron was
allowed to pass by Abydos, and escape
from Sestos to Blvfts. That reason was,
that the Peloponnesian guard-squadron
had before received speoal orders from
Mindarus, to coneaUraU ita attention
and mUeVWiMM upon hii approaching
muadron; hence it arose that they left
toe Athenians at Sestos unnoticed.

The words ry ^iA^p iwCwk^ are
equivalent to r^ ^'^ ^ihmw iwCwK^
and the pronoun rnvrmw, which im-
mediately follows, refers to ^ c A m v (th$
approaching JUet <^ MindaruM), not to the
Athenians at Sestos, as the Scholiast
and the commentators construe it.
This mistake about the reference of
ftvTwr seems to me to hate put them
all wrong.

That r^ ^tA^ iwlwk^ must be
construed as equivalent to rf ruv
^iA«r iwiirK^ is certain ; but it b not
equivalent to vvb twp cirtirA«4rrwy ^ikmw
—nor is it possible to construe the words

, ,^ vop^Acer iw' TBA-'tourrtf,
(tomki^ttt, i«rAcv«-at it t^w cvpvx*'^***'
rJkt rum voAfftuvr Mivf . k«1 rktukkw
ip *Afiv6^ immaCiMmm. vavtiha-
#«r, vp««tpif|fttf riVff ^vA««^ff rC-
^tAly 4vivAy, SvMff avrmv

r^ 6i luri. rov Mtrhipov rnfiM •y icmn-

Here, again, we have a difficult text,
which oas much perplexed the oom-
mentators. and which I venture to
translate (as it stands in mytext) dif •
ferentiy from all of them. The words
— «po«»pffiUrif« ^vAojc^ ry ^i\i^ Mwk^,
iwmt cvrwr arcucMC tfovotv, ^v iicwh4uot
—•re explained by the Scholiast to
mean-** Although watch had been
eq^faied to them (Lt, to the Pelopon-
nesian guard-squadron at Abydos) by
ttM friendly approaching fleet (of Min-
dams), that thev should keep strict
guard on the Athenians at Sestos, In
caas the latter should saU out".

Dr. Arnold, Qdller, Poppo, and M.
Didot. all accept this construction,
tlioaghall agree that it is most harsh
and confused. The former says :** This
again is most strangely intended to
Bison, wpononiiirow svroct vwh ruv

To construe rf^cA/M ivCwk^ as equi-
valent to VV& TMV ^rXt^rrtM' ^iAmi' is
eertalnly snch a harshness as we ought
to be very glad to escape. And the
ooostractton of the Scholiast involves

. liberty which I cannot but
consider as objectionable. He supplies,
in his nacaphrase, the word ca/roi—
althouifk—tiom his own imagination.
Hiere is no indication of althou^fh.
either express or implied, in the text
of lliucydidte, and it appears to me
hasaidous to assume into the mean-
ing so deeidve a particle vrithout any
aolhorlty. The genitive abeolute,
when annexed to the main predication
affirmed in the verb, usually denotes
something naturally connected with it
in the way of cause, eoneomitancy,
evnianatlon, or modiflration— not some-
thmg opposed to it, requiring to be
prsfaeed by an although; if thto latter
be intended, then the word although Is

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in the wide sea, contrived to escape most of them to Imbroe — ^not
without the loss however of four triremes, one even captured
with all the crew on board, near the temple of Protesilaus at
Else^ : the crews of the other three escaped ashore. Mindams

M the SohoUast would anderstaad
them—" ordtn had bun previouMly ffivtn
6y thi approach (or arrivaf) of their
^Hendi"; wherebj we thoiiid twn h
iviwkovi into an tcting and command-
ing penonaliW. The "approach of
their friends'^ It an event which
may properlv be said *' to have produced
an effect,** but which cannot be said
*' to have given previons orders **. It
appears to me that rf ^^ iwiwXm is
the dative case governed hj ^vA««if«—
**a look-out for th« arrival <rt (JU
PelnponneHam" having been eigoined
(upon these guard-ships at Abydos)—
** They had botn ordered to wUeh for the
avprwuMnff wojfogt <b their triendt".
The English preposition for expresses
here exactly the cense of the Greek
dative— tliat is, the object, purpote, or
person* whoee ben^/U U referred to.

The words immediately saooeedinir—
iwH edirmv (rStv ^lAwv) ivcjcS»i c^ovotr.
ijv ^inrA^wvi— are an expansion of
consequences intended to follow from
^vAa«ci7C rf ^iAim iiriw\tf, "They

shall watch for the approach of the
main fleet, in order that they may
devote special and paramount regard
to its safety, in case it makes a start"
For the phrase ivaKtn ♦x*'»'. compare
Herodot. L 24 ; viiL IW. Plutarch,
Theseus, C. 88: iivaicmt, ^Keutrik,
irpoponriicMf, ivtiuk^—the notes of
Arnold and Odller here ; and Kiihner,
Or. Or. sect 633, dvoicMf ixttv rivd^ for
iwtiu\Mto$ai. The words arcucwv jf^ctr
express the anxious and special
vigilance which the Peloponnesiaa
squadron at Abvdos was directed to
keep for the arrival of Mindams and
his fleet, wliich was a matter of doubt
and danger: but they would not be
properly applicable to the du^ of that
squadron as respects the opposite
Athenian squadron at Sestos, which
was liardly of superior force to
themselves, and was besides an
avowed enemy, in sight of their own

Lastly, the words V iitwk4mvi refer
to Mindaru* and hie jUet about to start
from Chiot, a» their mtfjed—not to the
Athenians at Sestos.

The whole sentence would stand
thus, if we dismiss the peculiarities of

Tbucydidte and exprsss the i
in common Greek— xcu roc ^p <r
*A^v5Y iKKoUema, yovf f A^ivraloi) cA^Nr •
vpo«^yi|TO y«p (iKeipoAt TMt awMur)
^vXivvttw rhv hriwkovif rum ^iXmv, oswt
avrmw (rmw 6tkmv) hmmmt c(owt», ^
iicwKimn, The verb ^vAoowtr here
(and of course the abstract sabstantive
^vAflunf which represents it) idgniiles to
watch for or wut for : like Thncyd. fi.
8— ^vAo^orrvf fn rrfrrs, mu. mArh xh
mptoptfpor ; also viiL 41 j^ tf Aayov.

If we construe the words in this way,
thev will appear in perfect hannooy
with the general scheme and purpose
ofMindarus. Thatadmiral is bent upon
canying his fleet to the Helleepont, bat
to avoid an action with Thiasyilus In
doing so. This is diflicult to accomplish,
and can only be done by great secrecy
of proceeding, as well as by an unusnal
route. He sends orders beforehand
from Chios (perhaps even from Militns,
before he quittea that place) to the
Peloponnesian squadron guarding the
Hellespontat Abydos. He contemplates
the possible case that Thraiqrllus may
detect his plan, intercept him on the
passage, and perhaps block him up or
compel him to fight in some roadstead
or bay on the coast oppoaite LesbosL
or on the Trond (which would indeed
have come to pass, had he been seen by
a single hostile fishing-boat in rounding
the island of ChiosX Now the orders
sent forward direct the Peloponnesian
squadron at Abydos what they are to
do in this contingency ; since without
such orders the captain of the sqnadroo
would not have Known what to do.
assuming Mindams to be intercep tsa
by Thrasyllus— whether to remain on
guard at the Hellespont, which was his
special duty ; or to leave the Hellespont
unguarded, keep his attention concen-
trated on Mindams, and come forth to
help him. ** Let your first thought be
to ensure the safe arrival of the main
fleet at the Hellespont, and to come
out and render help to it, if it be
attacked ha its route, even though ft
be necessary for that purpose to ieav«
the Hellespont for a time unguarded.**
Mhidaras could not tell beforshaad
the exact moment when be vrould
start from Chios— nor was it i

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CBAP. LXUI. battle of KTNOSSfiMA. 333

WBB now joined by the squadron firom Abydoe, and their united
foTce (86 triremes strong) was employed for one day in trying to
storm ElsB^B. Failing in this enterprise, the fleet retired to
Abydoe. Before all could arrive there, Thrasyllus with his fleet
arrived in haste from Eresus, much disappointed that his scouts
had been eluded and all his calculations baffled. Two Pelopon-
nesian triremets which had been more adventurous than the rest
in pursuing the Athenians, fell into his hands. He awaited at
Elseiis the return of the fugitive Athenian squadron from Imbros,
ami then began to prepare his triremes, 76 in number, for a
general action.

After five days of such preparation, his fleet was brought to
battle, sailing northward towards Sestus up the Battle of
Hellespont, by single ships ahead, along the coast KymwM^nm
of the Chersonese, or on the European side. The theAthe-
left or most ailvanced squadron, under Thrasyllus, '***"^*>®^
stretched even beyond the headland called Kynossema, or the
Dog's Tomb, ennobled by the legend and the chapel of the Trojan
queen Hecuba : it was thus nearly opposite Abydos, while the
right squadron, under Thrasybulus, was not very iar from the
southern mouth of the strait, nearly opposite Dardanus. Min-
darus on his. side brought into action eighty-six triremes (ten
more than Thi-asyllus in total number), extending from Abydos
to Dardanus on the Asiatic shore ; the Syracusans under
Hermokrates being on the right, opposed to Thrasyllus, while
Mindarus with the Peloponnesian ships was on the left, opposed
to Thrasybulus. The epibatsB or maritime hoplites on boaid the
ships of Mindaims are said to have been superior to the Athenians ;
but the latter had the advantage in skilful pilots anc nautical
manoeuvring : nevertheless the description of the battle tells us

absolutely certain that he wonld dtai-t and neglected the Athenians opposite,

at all, ii the enemy were ^atchinc As it was night, probably the best

him : his orders were therefore sent thing which they could do was to wait

ennditunuU upon his being able to get in Abydos for daylight, until they

off (>} K iKir\i*»v t). But he was lucky could learn particulars of his position,

enough, by the well-laid plan of his and how or where they could render

YovHgtf, to get to the Hellespont aid.

without encountering an enemy. The We thus see both the general purpose

Peloponnetiian squadron at Abydos, of Mindarus. and in what manner the

however, having received his special or- ortlers which he had transmitted to

der«, when the tire-signals acquainted the Peloponnesian squadron at Abydos-

them that he was approaching, thought brought about indirectly the escape

only of keeping themselves in reserve of the Athenian squadron without

to lend him assistance if he needed it, interruption from Sebtos.

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how much Athenian manoenvrmg had fidlen off dnce Uie glories
of Phormion at the heginning of the Peloponncsian war ; nor
wonld that eminent seaman have selected for the scene of a naval
battle the narrow waters of the Hellespont Mindams took the
aggressive, advancing to attack near the European shore, and
trying to outflank his opponents on both sides, as well as to
drive them up against the land. Thrasyllus on one wing^
and Thrasybulus on the other, by rapid movements, extended
themselves so as to frustrate this attempt to outflank them ; hot
in so doing, they stripped and weakened the centre, which was
even deprived of the sight of the left wing by means of the
projecting headland of EynoesSma. Thus unsupported, the
centre was vigorously attacked and roughly handled by the
middle division of Mindams. Its ships were driven up against
the land, and the assailants even disembarked to push their
victory against the men ashore. But this partial success threw
the central Peloponnesian division itself into disorder, while
Thrasybulus and Thrasyllus carried on a conflict at first equal,
and presently victorious, against the ships on the right and left
of the enemy. Having driven back both these two divisions,
they easily chased away the disordered ships of the centre, so
that the whole Peloponnesian fleet was put to flight, and found
shelter first in the river Meidius, next in Abydos. The narrow
breadth of the Hellespont forbade either long pursuit or numerous
captures. Nevertheless eight Chian ships, five Corinthian, two
Ambrakian and as many Boeotian, and from Sparta, Syracuse,
Pell6ne, and Leukas, one each, fell into the hands of the
Athenian admirals ; who however on their own side lost fifteen
ships. They erected a trophy on the headland of Ejmossema,
near the tomb or chapel of Hecuba ; not omitting the usual
duties of burying their own dead, and giving up those of the
enemy under the customary request for truce.^

1 ThncycL tIU. 106, 106 : Dioddr. xiU. ponneslan epibatn. He statas thai

80, 40. twenty-fiTe fresh ships arrived to join

The feneral account which Diod6nis the Atheniaiw in the middle of the

gives of this battle is, even in its most battle, and determined the vletoiy in

essential featares, not reconcilable their lavoar : this drcomstanoe is evi-

with Thncydidds. It is vain to try to dently borrowed f^om the snbseqnsBt

blend them. I have been able to conflict a few months afterwards,
borrow from Diod6rus hardly anything We owe to him, however, the msa-

except his statement of the superiority tion of the chapel or tomb of Heeabn

of the Athenian pilots and the Pelo- on the headland of Kynosstaaa.

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A victory so incomplete and indecisiye would have been little
TBlaed by the Athenians in the times preceding the ^Mf^^angu
Sicilian expedition. Bat since that oyerwhelming ^^K^
disaster, followed by so many other misfortones, and ^'

last of all, by the defeat of Thymocharia with the revolt of Euboea
—their spirit had been so sadly lowered, that the trireme which
brought the news of the battle of Eynoesdma, seemingly towards
the end of August^ 411 &a, was welcomed with the atmoet
delight and trimnph. They began to feel as if the ebb-tide had
reached its lowest point, and had begun to turn in their favour,
holding out some hopes of ultimate success in the war. Another
piece of good fortune soon happened to strengthen this beliet
Mindarus was compelled to reinforce himself at the Hellespont
by sending Hippokratte and Bpiklte to bring the fleet of fifty
triremes now acting at Euboea.^ This was in itself an important
relief to Athens, by withdrawing an annoying enemy near home.
But it was still farther enhanced by the subsequent misfortunes
of the fleet, which in passing round the headland of Mount Ath6s
to get to Asia, was overtaken by a terrific storm and nearly
destroyed, with great loss of life among the crews ; so that a
remnant only under Hippokrat^ survived to join Mindarus.*

But though Athens was thus exempted from all fear of
aggression on the side of Euboea, the consequences of 3^ ^^
this departure of the fleet were such as to demonstrate aeross the
how irreparably the island itself had passed out of £?^S^'
her supremacy. The inhabitants of Chalkis and the gj^gl^^
other cities, now left without foreign defence against
her, employed themselves jointly with the Boeotians, whose
interest in Uie case was even stronger than their own, in divesting
Euboea of its insular character, by constructing a mole or bridge

1 ThncTd. tUL 107 ; INod6r. zitt. 41. perished. Bot we know perfectly that

SDioddr. xUL 4L It it probable HippokrattehimMlfturrived, and that

that this fleet was in great part he was alive at the subseqoent battle

BcBOtian ; and twelve seamen who of Kyztkos (Xenoph. Hellen. L 1, 2S\.
-escaped from the wreck commemo- Bespectiog the danger of sailing

ratea their rescae by an inscription in round the promontory of Ath6s» the

the temple of AthAnS at KorAneia. r ea d e r is rmerred to a former chapter

which inscription was read and copied of this work, wherein the ship-ouiaL

by Kphoma Bv an exaggerated and eat across the Isthmos by order of

oTer-literal confidence in the words of Xerxte. is described, together with

it, Diod6nis is led to affirm that these an InstructiTe citation from Colonel

twelve men were the only persons Leake's Travels. See ch. zzxviiL of

saved, and that every other person this History.

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across the Earipua, the narroweBt portion of the Eaboeaa strait^
where Chalkis was divided from Boeotia. From each coast a
mole was thrown oat» each mole guarded at the extremity by a
tower, and leaving only an intermediate opening, broad enough
for a single vessel to pass through, covered by a wooden bridge.
It was in vain that the Athenian Theramen^ with thirty
triremes, presented himself to obstruct the prepress of the
undertaking. The Euboeans and Boeotians both prosecuted it in
such numbers, and with so much zeal, that it was speedily brought
to completion. Eubcea, so lately the most important island
attached to Athens, is from henceforward a portion of the
mainland, altogether independent of her, even though it should
please fortune to re-estabUsh her maritime power.^

The battle of Eynoesema produced no veiy important con-
R«Toitof sequences, except that of encouragement to the
Kysikiis. Athenians. Even just after the action, Ejzikus
revolted from them, and on the fourth day after it, the Athenian
fleet, hastily refitted at Sestos, sailed to that place to retake it
It was unfortified, so that they succeeded with little difficulty,

Online LibraryGeorge GroteA history of Greece: from the earliest period to the close of the generation contemporary with Alexander the Great → online text (page 39 of 62)