George Grote.

A history of Greece: from the earliest period to the close of the generation contemporary with Alexander the Great online

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Aii^ui AA^ ^^^ the native troops and the Lacedemonians, and
■aili with forced them to shut themselves up withm the town,
^^''J^ which he besieged for some days without avail, and
Asia— Hi- then proceeded onward to Samos, leaving Eondn in a
Andros— fortified post, with twenty ships, to prosecute the
u^n in siege.* At Samos he first ascertained the state of the

w«P«*to Peloponnesian fleet at Ephesus— the influenoe a©-

nopeii from •!•▼ i ^ >•.

Persia. quired by Lysander over Cyrus — the staxmg anti-

1 Diodftr. xiii. 72, 78. 00. The lattw aayi that TlmsylmlH

s Xenoph. HeUen. L 4, 82— L 6, 18 ; was left at Androi, which oaimoi bt
PlQtartsh, Alkib. jc. 86 ; I>iod6r. xiii. trae.

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Cbap. lxiv. at.ktbtapAs in ASIA— his ill sugcbss. 376

Athenian dispositions of the young prince — and the ample
rate of pay, put down even in advance, of which the Pdo-
ponnesian seamen were now in actual receipt. He now first be-
came convinced of the fiedlure of those hopes which he had con-
ceived, not without good reason, in the preceding year — and of
which he had doubtless boasted at Athens ; that the alliance of
Persia might be neutralized at least, if not won over, through the
envoys escorted to Susa by Phamabazus. It was in vain that he
prevailed upon Tissaphem^ to mediate with Cyrus, to introduce
to him some Athenian envoys, and to inculcate upon him his
own views of the true interests of Persia ; that is, that the war
should be fed and protracted so as to wear out both the Grecian
belligerent parties, each by means of the other. Such a policy,
uncongenial at all times to the vehement temper of Cyrus, had
become yet more repugnant to him since his intercourse with
Lysander. He would not consent even to see the envoys, nor
was he probably displeased to put a slight upon a neighbour and
rival satrap. Deep was the despondency among the Athenians
at Samos, when painfully convinced that all hopes from Persia
must be abandoned for themselves ; and further, that Persian pay
was both more ample and better assured to their enemies than
ever it had been before,^

Lysander had at Ephesus a fleet of ninety triremes, which he
employed himself in repairing and augmenting, being i^ynuidfirat
still inferior in number to the Athenians. In vain did ^'^fl^S^
Alkibiad§s attempt to provoke him out to a general f^^^*J^
action. This was much to the interest of the Athe- fight-dit-
nians, apart from their superiority of number, since j^^*^
they were badly provided with money, and obliged to Aikibiad^^
levy contributions wherever they could ; but Lysander was re-
solved not to fight unless he could do so with advantage, and
Cyrus, not afraid of sustaining the protracted expense of the war,
had even enjoined upon him this cautious policy, with additional
hopes of a I^cenician fleet to his aid, — ^which in his mouth was
not intended to delude, as it had been by TissaphemSs.' Unable

1 XeDoph. HeOeii. L 5, 9 : Plutarch, > Pliitardi, Lynnd. c. 9. I Tentnre

IjMoid. c. 4. The latter tells us that to antedate the statements which he

the Athenian ships were presently there makes, as to the eooouragements

emptied by the desertion of the from Gyms io Lysander.
seamen : a careless exaggeration.

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to bring about a general battle, and having no immediate or

capital enterprise to conetrain his attention, Alkibiad^ became

careless, and abandoned himself partly to the loye of pleasure,

partly to reckless predatory enterprises for the purpose of getting

money to pay his army. Thrasybnlus had come from his post

on the Hellespont, and was now engaged in fortifying Phoksa,

probably for the purpose of establishing a post to be enabled to

pillage the interior. Here he was joined by Alkibiadds, who

sailed across with a squadron, leaying his main fleet at Samo&

He left it under the command of his favourite pilot Antiochus,

but with express orders on no account to fight until his retom.

While employed in his visit to Phoksea and Elazomense, Alb'-

AlkibiadAi biad^ perhaps hard-pressed for money, conceived

l^j^ the unwarrantable project of enriching his men by

leaving hui the plunder of the neichbourin£ territory of KvmiL
fleet under iv j j j r a.t. t / \\7

the com- ftu allied dependency of Athens. Landmg on thiB

AnSoi^Tu territory unexpectedly, after fabricating some frvro-
- oppress- lous calumnies against the Kymseans, he at first seized
AUdbiadte much property and a considerable number of pri-
atKymd. goners. But the inhabitants assembled in anns,
bravely defended their possessions, and repelled his men to their
ships ; recovering the plundered property, and lodging it in
safety within their walls. Stung with this miscarriage, AUd-
biadSs sent for a reinforcement of hoplites from MityUnS, and
marched up to the walls of KymS, where he in vain challenged
the citizens to come forth and fight He then ravaged the terri-
tory at pleasure; while the Kymseans had no other resouroe,
except to send envoys to Athens, to complain of so gross an out-
rage inflicted by the Athenian general upon an unofiending
Athenian dependency.^

This was a grave charge, and not the only charge which Alld-
blades had to meet at Athens. During his absence at Phobea
and Kym^ Antiochus the pilot, whom be bad left in command,

1 Diodto. ziii. 78. I f oUow Diod6nu visit of Alldbiadte to Thruybalns tX

in respect to this story about Kynid, Phoksea. They do not name KynA

which he probably copied from the however : according to them, the »

Kymflsan historian Bphorus. Cornelius to Phoksa haa no assignable puiposs

Nepos (Alcib. c. 7) briefly glances at or consequences. But the plnnder

it of Kymd is a circumstance both

Xeuophdn (Hellen. i. 5, 11) as well su£9ciently probable in ilaelf aad

as Plutarch (Lysand. c. 6) mention the suitable to the occasion.

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disobeying Uie express order prononnced against fighting a battle^
first naiLi across from Samos to Notium, the harbour oompiaSnts
of Kolophdn, and from thence to the mouth of the ^ 5Lu,-
harbour of Ephesos, where the Peloponnesian fleet at Athens
lay. Entering that harbour with his own ship and J^^^
another, he passed doee in front of the prows of the ^J**^
Peloponnesian triremes, insulting them scornfully absence of
and defying them to combat Lysander detached -^^k***^*^
some ships to pursue him, and an action gradually ensued, which
was exactly that which Antiochus desired But the Athenian
ships were all in disorder, and came into battle as each oi
them separately could, while the Peloponnesian fleet was well-
marshalled and kept in hand ; so that the battle was all to the
advantage of the latter. The Athenians, compelled to take
flighty were pursued to Notium — losing fifteen triremes, several
along with their full crews. Antiochus himself was slain.
Before retiring to Ephesus, Lysander had -the satisfaction of
erecting his trophy on the shore of Notium ; while the Athenian
fleet was carried back to its station at Samos.^

It was in vain that Alkibiad^ hastening back to Samos,
mustered the entire Athenian fleet, sailed to the mouth of the
harbour of Ephesus, and there ranged his ships in battle order,
challenging the enemy to come foi th. Lysander would give him
no opportunity of wiping off the late dishonour. And as an
additional mortification to Athens, the Lacedaemonians shortly
afterwards captured both Teds and Delphinium ; the latter being
a fortified post which the Athenians had held for the last three
yean in the island of Chios.'

Even before the battle of Notium, it appears that complaints
and dissatisfaction had been growing up in the anna- Dinatiafao-
ment against Alkibiadds. He had gone out with a ^^'^'^.
splendid force, not inferior, in number of triremes in the
and hoplites, to that which he had conducted against I^SST**
Sicily, and under large promises, both from himself 2kibladfl«.

1 Zenoph. HeUen. L 6, 12—15 ; punoant to Welske^s note, in plaee of

IModAr. ziiL 71 ; Plntarch, Alkib. c &ion, which appean in Xenophdn. I

» : Flntazch, Lysand. o. 6. copy the latter, however, in aacriUnc

t Xenoph. BeUen. L 6, 15 ; Dioddr. these captores to the yearof Lyaandar,

ziiLTS. instead of to the year of Kallikra-

I copy I>iod6ni8 in patting Tete, tidaa.

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and his Mends, of achievements to come. Yet in a space of time
which can hardly have been less than three mont^ not a single
gaccess had been accomplished ; while, on the other side, there
was to be reckoned the disappointment on the score of Persia —
which had great effect on the temper of the armament, and which,
though not his £iiult, was contrary to expectations which he had
held oat — ^the disgraceful plunder of Kyme, and the defeat at
Notium. It was true that AlkibiadSs had given peremptory
orders to Antiochus not to fight, and that the battle had been
hazarded in flagrant disobedience to his injunctions. But this
circumstance only raised new matter for dissatisfaction of a
graver character. If Antiochus had been disobedient — ^if, besides
disobedience, he had displayed a childish vanity and an utter
neglect of all military precautions — who was it that had chosen
him for deputy ; and that too against all Athenian precedent,
putting the pilot, a paid officer of the ship, over the heads of the
tnerarchs who paid their pilots, and served at their own cost?
It was AlklbiadGs who placed Antiochun in this grave and re-
sponsible situation : a personal fiavourite, an excellent convivial
companion, but destitute of all qualities befitting a commander.
And this turned attention on another point of the character of
Alkibiadls — ^his habits of excessive self-indulgence and dissipa-
tion. The loud murmurs of the camp charged him with neglect-
ing the interests of the service for enjoyments with jovial parties
and Ionian women, and with admitting to his confidence those
who best contributed to the amusement of such chosen hours.^

It was in the camp at Samos that this general indignation
^ against Alkibiad^ first arose, and was from thence

and aocoaa- transmitted formally to Athens, by the mouth of
tiOTi^amst Thrasybulus, son of Thrason'— not the eminent
J^J^to Thrasybulus (son of Lykus) who has been already
often mentioned in this history, and will be men-
tioned again. There came at the same time to Athens the
complaints froai Kym^ against the unprovoked aggression and

1 Platarch, Alkib. c. 36. He re- > A person named Thraton is men-

oonnts. in toe tenth chapter of the tioned in the Choiseol Inscription (Mo.

same biography, an anecdoto describing 147, pp. 221, 222, of the Corp. later,

the manner in which Antiochus fiist of Boeckh) as one of the HellAnotamlis

won the faronr of AUcibiad^s, then a in the year 410 B.C. He is described by

youne man, l>y catching a tame quaU, his Deme as ButaJe* : he is probably

which had escaped from his bosom. enough the father of this Thnusybulos.

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plunder of that place by AUdbiadte ; and eeemingly complaints
from other places besides.^ It was even urged as accusation
against him, that he was in guilty collusion to betray the fleet to
Phamabazus and the Lacedsemonians, and that he had already
provided three forts in the Chersonese to retire to, so soon as this
scheme should be ripe for execution.

Such grave and wide-spread accusations, coupled with the
disaster at Notium, and the complete disappointment .,^ ^
of all the promises of success, were more than sum- of sentl-
dent to alter the sentiments (k the people of Athens j^^,^^
towards Alkibiadds. He had no character to fall dlsgieMare
back upon ; or rather, he had a character worse than AthenUns
none— such as to render the most criminal imputa- ^^^
tions of treason not intrinsically improbable. The
comments of his enemies, which had been forcibly excluded from
public discussion during his summer visit to Athens, were now
again set free, and all the adverse recollections of his past life
doubtless revived. The people had refused to listen to these,
in order that he might have a Mr trial, and might verify the
title, claimed for him by his friends, to be judged only by his
aabsequent exploits, achieved since the year 411 B.C. He had
now had his trial ; he had been found wanting ; and the popular
eonfidence, which had been provisionally granted to him, was
accordingly withdrawn.

It is not just to represent the Athenian people (however
Plutarch and Cornelius Nepos may set before us this Reasonable
picture) as having indulged an extravagant and un- c^'^^i^
measured confidence in Alkibiadds in the month of tionand
July, demanding of him more than man could per- <i^i«*«*^
form — and as afterwards in the month of December passing, with
childish abruptness, from confidence into wrathful displeasure,

1 Xenoi^ HeUflo. L 6, 16—17. *AA- a mostnnoonifortablo and troablasomo
Ktfiidi^t M^v otr, ««n|pw«^ Kol i^rf oompuiioii (seot. 7^^ HiB tosUmony on

vrportf ^tp6iuvt, Ao. Diod6r. ziil. the point isTalnable: for there b«7«u«

Tt. iyiyomo 6i mil «aAm voAA«l Urn' DO oispodtion here to make ont any

p»kaX Koi' mirov, Ac caM aAinat AUdbiadte. Thetrierarch

Fhitareh, Alkib. e. 88. notices the fact that AlkibiadSt

One of the remaining apeeohee of preferred hit trireme, simply as a proof

Lyiias(Orat. zzL 'AroAoy^AMpoioKiaO that it was the beet equinped. or

is dettvered bj the trierarch in this among the best equipped, of the whole

fleet, onboard of whose ship Alkibtadte fleet. Archestratos and Brasinidte

himself chose to saO. This trierarch preferred it afterwards, for the same

oomplainB of AUdbiadSs as having been reason.

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because their own impoesible expectatdoiiB were not already
realized. That the people entertained lai^ge expectatiouB, from so
yery considerable an armament^ cannot be doubted : the lai^geel
of all, probably (as in the instance of the Sicilian ezpeditioaiX
were those entertained by Alkibiadds himself, and promulgated
by his friends. But we ai-e not called upon to determine what
the people would have done, had Alkibiadfis, after performing aU
the duties of a £uthful, skilful, and enterprising commander,
nevertheless failed, from obstacles beyond his own control, in
realizing their hopes and his own promises. No such case
occurred : that which did occur was materially different Besides
the absence of grand successes, he had further been negligent and
reckless in his primary duties— he had exposed the Athenian
arms to defeat^ by his disgraceful selection of an unworthy
lieutenant^ — he had violated the territory and property of an
allied dependency, at a moment when Athens had a paramount
interest in cultivatmg by every means the attachment of her
remaining allies. The cruth is, as I have before remarked, that
he had really been spoiled by the intoxicating reception given to
him so unexpectedly in the city. He had mistaken a hopeful
public, determined, even by forced silence as to the past, to give
him the full benefit of a meritorious future, but requiring as
condition from him that that future should really be meritorious
— ^for a public of assured admirers, whose f&vour he had already
earned and might consider as his own. He became an altered
man after that visits like Miltiad^ after the battle of Maratfadn ;
or rather, the impulses of a character essentially dissolute and
insolent broke loose from that restraint under which they had
before been partially controlled At the time of the battle of

iXenoph. HeOeo. i 6, IS. ot 'A^ prosecatioii of warlike L

Mi•^ «^ ib7^^ 1^ vwiiaxla^ x<»^*^^ ascribed to Alkibiadte is troe of aU

«Ixor r^ 'AAxi^i<ia]), oioMcvoi at' dfitf- the period between hia exOe and hla

A«tir r« xal Axpdrciay kvoXm- last Tialt to Athena (about September,

A««^ r^c viMut. B.C 416, to September, B.C 407). Dorinc

The ezpreaiion which Thucvdidte the first four years of that time, he

employs in reference to Alkibi&dte wwi rexr effectire against Atheas;

requires a few words of comment : dorlng the last four, Tory effeotiv« in

(yL 16>— «e«l <i|fioo-£f Ko^iTio'Ta herserrloe.

6ia$4vra ri rov voX/fiov, iSi^ But the assertion is certainly not

{<ca0Yoi roi« iwtrnSrifiany ainov ax'^w true of his last command, whS^ ended

Bimtt, «cal aAAot« iwirMatnnK (the with the battle of Notiom ; nor is II

AtheniansX ov au itoKpov tvimkw i^v more than partially tme (at leart, it is

w6Xt,v. an exaffgeration of the truth) tot the

The "strenuous and effective period before his exile.

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Chap. lxiy. alktbtadAs and nikias. 381

KjzSkua — when [email protected] was labouring to regain Uie favour of
hifl injured countrymen and was yet uncertain whether he should
saooeed— he would not have committed the fault of quitting his
fleet and leaving it under the command of a lieutenant like
Antiochus. If therefore Athenian sentiment towards Alkibiad^
underwent an entire change during the autumn of 407 rcl, this
was in consequence of an alteration in hit character and be-
haviour ; an alteration for the worse, just at the crisis when
everything turned upon his good conduct and upon his deserving
at least, if he could not command, success.

We may indeed observe that the faults of Nikias before
Syracuse, and in reference to the coming of Qvlippus,
were bn graver and more mischievous than those of behaTioor
Alkibiadde during this turning-season of his career, i^Suand
and the disappointment of antecedent hopes at least ^^J^^^
equal Tet whUe these ihults and disappointment
Inrought about the dismissal and disgrace of AlMbiadds, they did
not induce the Athenians to dismiss Nikias> though himself
desiring it^ nor even prevent them from sending him a second
armament to be ruined along with the first 'Die contrast is
most instructive, as demonstrating ui>on what points durable
esteem in Athens turned ; how long the most melancholy public
incompetency could remain overlooked, when covered by piety,
decorum, good intentions, and high station ; ^ how short-lived
was the ascendency of a man fax superior in ability and energy,
besides an equal station — ^when his moral qualities and ante-
cedent life were such as to provoke fear and hatred in many,
esteem from none. Yet on the whole, Nikias, looking at him as
a public servant, was &r more destructive to his countiy than
Alkibiadds. The mischief done to Athens by the latter was
done chiefly in the avowed service of her enemies.

On hearing the news of the defeat of Notium and the accumu-
lated complaints against Alkibiadds, the Athenians simply voted

1 TdmaetthecMeofNikiAa, it would iwpn^ la^A«y v^w w6kiw.
be neoenuy to take the conTerse of The reader will of conne understand

the JMnnent of Thnoydidte respecting that these last Greek words are not an

Andbiadte, dted in mj last note, actnal citation, bat a transformation

and to say— col ft|fMo-ia K^Ki<rra of the actual words of ThncydidSs,

SteMi^ra ri. ni voA^^ov, iSCa IxaoTot ri for the purpose of fllnstratinf the

iv»Tf 4«W^«r« airov iyao-fftfv- contrast between Alkibladte and

r«f, Mil «ir^ hnrphlnMrnt, ob AtcL Nikias.

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that he should be dismissed from his command, naming ten
AlkibiAdte ^®^ generals to replace him. He was not brought
todiamiMed to trial, nor do we know whether any such step was
S^nand- proposed. Yet his proceedings at Kjm^ if they
rSi^med ^apP®^^ ^ ^'^ ^^^ them, richly deserved judicial
to sacceed animadversion ; and the people, had th^ so dealt
tirosto Um^ with him, would only have acted up to the esti-
O^^^^^oof^ mable function ascribed to them by the oligarchical
Fhrynichus — ^ of serving as refuge to their dependent allies, and
chafltiHing the high-handed oppressions of the optimates against
them".^ In the perilous position of Athens, however, with
reference to the foreign war, sucb a political trial would have
been productive of much dissension and mischief. And AUd-
biad^ avoided the question by not coming to Athena. Ab soon
as he heard of his dismissal, he retired immediately from the
army to his own fortified posts on the Chersonese.

The ten new generals named were, Kon6n, Diomedon, Leon,
Kon6n and ^^^^^^ Erasinidds, Aristokratds, Archeetratus^ Proto-
giMl. machus, Thrasyllus, Aristogends. Of these, Eonfin
ci^Saraand was directed to proceed forthwith from Andres^ widi
orSEe**^ the twenty ships which he had there to receive the
BhrnUan fleet from Alkibiadds ; while Phanosthen^ proceeded
tiM aSS^ with four triremes to replace Eon6n at Androe.*
"**^ In his way thither, Phanosthenes fell in with

Dorieus the Rhodian and two Thurian triremes, which he
captured with every man aboard* The captives were sent to
Athens, where all were placed in custody (in case of future
exchange) except Dorieus himsell The latter had been con-
demned to death and banished frt)m his native cily of Bhodei^
together with his kindred, probably on the score of political
disaffection, at the time when Rhodes was a member of the Athe-
nian alliance. Having since then become a citizen of Thurii, he
had served with distinction in the fleet of Mindarus both al
Miletus and the Hellespont The Athenians now had so much
companion upon him, that they released him at once and uncon-
ditionally, without even demanding a ransom or an equivalent

iThncyd. tUL 48. rbr Bk 6fitiQy, penoDt called «c<JUNc4YatfotoroptfiBatn)
0^¥ Tf (of tbd aiJied dependencies) vm6povi9r±v»
««ra4vyl^y, «at U»itm¥ (<.«. of the high < Xen. HeL i 5, 18 ; Dlod. ziSL 74.

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By what particular circamstance their compasaion was determined,
forming a pleasing exception to the melancholy habits which per-
vaded Qredan war&re in both belligerents, we should never
have leamt from the meagre narrative of Xenophdn. But we
ascertain from other sources that Dorieus (the son of Diagoras of
Rhodes) was illustrious beyond all other Greeks for his victories
in the pankration at the Olympic, Isthmian, and Nemean festivals
— that he had gained the first prize at three Olympic festivals in
saoceesion (of which Olympiad 88, or 428 b.o^ was the second), a
distinction altogether without precedent, besides 8 Isthmian and
7 Nemean prizes — ^that his father Diagoras, his brothers, and his
cousins were all celebrated as successful athletes — ^lastly, that the
£Etmily were illustrious from old date in their native island of
Rhodes, and were even descended from the Messenian hero
Aristomen^ When the Athenians saw before them as their
prisoner a man doubtless of magnificent stature and presence (as
we may conclude from his athletic success), and surrounded by
soch a halo of glory impressive in the highest degree to Grecian
imagination, the feelings and usages of war were at once over-
ruled. Though Dorieus had been one of their most vehement
enemies, they could not bear either to touch his person or to
exact from him any condition. Released by them on this
occasion, he lived to be put to death, about thirteen years after-
wards, by the LacedsBmonians.^

When Kon6n reached. Samos to take the command, he foimd
the armament in a state of great despondency ; not merely from
the dishonourable affair of Notium, but also from disappointed
hopes connected with AUdbiad^ and frx>m dif&culties in pro-
curing regular pay. So painfully was the last inconvenience
felt, that the first measure of Eondn was to contract the numbers
of tiie armament from above 100 triremes to 70 ; and to reserve
for the diminished fleet all the abler seamen of the larger. With
this fleet he and his colleagues roved about the enemies' coasts to
collect plunder and pay.*

Apparentiy about the same time that Eondn superseded
AlkibiadSs (that is, about December, 407 B.a, or
January, 406 B.a), the year of Lysander's command

1 XBDopb. HeUen. L 5, 10 ; Panaan. * Xenqph. Hellen. L 9, 20; compare
▼L 7. S. i. 6, 16 ; Diod6r. xiU. H.

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expired, and Kallikratidas arrived from Sparta to replace binu
KAiukmti ^^ arrival was received witli ondisgiiised diflsatis-
dMsnper^ Action by the leading Lacedsmoniana in the arma-

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