George Grote.

A history of Greece: from the earliest period to the close of the generation contemporary with Alexander the Great online

. (page 51 of 62)
Online LibraryGeorge GroteA history of Greece: from the earliest period to the close of the generation contemporary with Alexander the Great → online text (page 51 of 62)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

cities which had been in dependence on Athens to introduce
similar changes. In Thasus, however, this change was stained
by much bloodshed : there was a numerous philo- Athenian party
whom Lysander caused to be allured out of their place of con-
cealment into the temple of Herakl^, under the false assurance
of an amnesty ; when assembled under this pledge, they were all
put to death.^ Sanguinary proceedings of the like character,
many in the presence of Lysander himself, together with large
expulsions of citizens obnoxious to his new dekarchies, signalized
everywhere the substitution of Spartan for Athenian ascendency.'
But nowhere, except at Samoe, did the citizens or the philo-
Athenian party in the cities continue any open hostility, or
resist by force Lysander's entrance and his revolutionary changes.
At Samos they still held out : the people had too much dread of
that oligarchy, whom they had expelled in the insurrection of
112 B.G, to yield without a further struggle.' With this single
reserve, every city in alliance or dependence upon Athens sub-
mitted without resistance both to the supremacy and the sub-
versive measures of the T«acedgmonian admiral

Ptolyaen. L 46, 4.

Nepos, Lynuiil. c. S;

. It would aprear that

Uud ia the aame incident which Fla-

tareh (Ljnnd. c. 10)recounte aa if the
MUeaians, not the Thaaians, were the
partiea suffering. It cannot well be
the Milesians, however, if we compare
chan. 8 of Plutarch's Lue of Lysander.
> Plutarch, Ljrsand. c 18. wqXXoU
wmpmyir6iu999 cvt&« 9^yaU cat wrtt-

s Xenoph. Hellen. ii z, 0. «v#v« M
luH i^ iXXn *BAAa« o^t^n^ct 'A^voiiMr,
wXi^r SoMMtr * o&rot Bi^ v^ayit mv yrtf
pipLmp voci^a'avrct. Kmrtixov ri|i' a-oAtr.

I interpret toe words ^ay&« ru¥
y m tp i itmy voi^vorrcf to refer tO the
violent revolution at Samos, described
tn Thncyd. Tiit 81, whereby the oli-
garchy were dispoasessed and a deioo-
eratical coremment established. The
word vf«y«f is used by Xenoph6n
(HeUen. v. 4, 14) in a subsequent
passeite to describe the oonspiracy and
lerolutioa effected by Pelopidas and

hia friends at Th«bes. It is true that
we might rather have expect^ the

{preterite participle ir«voti}Korcf than
he aorist woiiaaimt. But this em-
ployment of the aorist participle in a
Preterite sense is not unoouimon with
Lenoph6n : see xannropiftf'af , £o(a« — ^i.
1, 81 ; yci^/ui^rovt— L 7. 11 ; ii. % SO.

It appears to me highly improbable
that the Samians should have chosen
this occasion to make a freah massacre
of their oligarchical clUxens. as Mr.
Mitford represents. The oemocra-
tical Samians must have been now
humbled and intiuiiilated, seeing their
subjugation approachina, and only
determined to nold out by finding
themselves already so deeply compro-
mised through the former revolution.
Nor would Lvsander have spared them
personally afterwards, as we Mhall find
chat he aid when he had them sub-
stanUally in his power (ii. 8, 0), if they
had now committed any fresh political

Digitized by VjOOQIC


The Athenian empire was thus annihilated, and Athens left

altogether alone. What was hardly less painfnl— all

<x)nditioa her Kleruchs or out-citizens whom she had formerly

Athenian planted in ^gina, M^loe, and elsewhere throughout

Klenicha the islands, as well as in the Chersonese, were now
and uf the , . , 7 .^ . . , , . V^ , ««

frieniis of deprived of their properties and dnven home.^ The

in^the* leading philo-Athenians, too, at Thasos, Byzantioin,

allied de- an^i other dependent cities,' were forced to ahandoa
utferings their homes in the like state of destitution, and to
in Athena. ^^^ shelter at Athens. Everything thus contributed
to aggravate the impoverishment and the manifold suffering
physical as well as moral, within her walls. Notwithstanding
the pressure of present calamity, however, and yet wowe pro-
spects for the future, the Athenians prepared as best they could
for an honourable resistance.

It was one of their first measures to provide for the restoration
Amnesty ^^ harmony, and to interest all in the defence of the
progo-jed^ city, by removing every sort of disability under whidi
kleid^a, and individual citizens might now be suffering. Accord-
adopt«d. jjjgiy Patrokleidfis— having first obtained special per
mission from the people, without which it would have been
unconstitutional to make any proposition for abrogating sentencei
judicially passed, or releasing debtors regularly inscribed in the
public registers — submitted a decree such as had never been
mooted since the period when Athens was in a condition equally
desperate, during the advancing march of XerxSa. All debtors
to the state, either recent or of long standing — all official pereoM
now under investigation by the Logistss or about to be brongbt
before the dikastery on the usual accountability after office— all
persons who were liquidating by instalment debts due to the
public, or had given bail for sums thus owing — all persons who
had been condemned either to total disfranchisement, or to some
specific disqualification or disability — nay, even all those wb(^

1 Xenoph. Memorab. ii 8, 1 ; ii 10, low price, bnt moat probably by *TV'^
4 ; Xenoph Sympoa. !▼. 81. Compare priation without purchaae (Xer'

Demoatheo. cout. Leptin. e. 34, p. Hellen. iv. 8, 6).

491. 'Xenoph. HeUen. L f, 1,

A great number of new proprietora then. cont. Leptin. e. l^ Jt ^

aoqnired land in the Chersoneae Ekphantoa and the other ThaMa

throii|(h the Lacedrmonian sway, exiles received the grant of «t«a«u. or

doubtless In place of thoiiediRpoeseasea immunity from the peculiar cbaiftf

Athenians ; perhaps by purciubBe at a impoaed upon metlQs at Athena

Digitized by VjOOQIC

Chap. lxv. amnsstt proglaimid at athxn& 44&

having been either members or auxiliaries of the Four Hundred,
bad stood trial afterwards, and had been condemned to any one
of the above-mentioned penalties — all these persons were pardoned
and released ; every register of the penalty or condemnation being/
directed to be destroyed. From this comprehensive pardon were
excepted— Those among the Four Hundred who had fled from
Athens without standing their trial— Those who had been con-
demned either to exile or to death by the Areopagus or any of
the other constituted tribunals for homicide, or for subversion of
the public liberty. Not merely the public registers of all the con-
demnations thus released were ordered to be destroyed, but it was
forbidden, under severe penalties, to any private citizen to keep
a copy of them, or to make any allusion to such misfortunes.'

Pursuant to the comprehensive amnesty and forgiveness adopted
by the people in this decree of PatrokleidSs, the general q^^^ ^^
body of citizens swore to each other a solemn pledge of {J^^^"<^
mutual harmony in the acropolis.' The reconciliation awmiTrn the
thus introduced enabled them the better to bear up *"*poJi^
under their distress ;• especially as the persons relieved by the
amnesty were for the most part not men politically disaffected,
like the exiles. To restore the latter was a measure which no
one thought of: indeed a large proportion of them had been and
were still at Dekeleia, assisting the Lacedaemonians in their
warfare against Athens.^ But even the most prudent internal
measures could do little for Athens in reference to her capital
difficulty — that of procuring subsistence for the numerous popu-
lation within her walls, augmented every day by outlying garri-
sons and citizens. She had long been shut out from the produce
of Attica by the garrison at Dekeleia : she obtained nothing from
Euboea, and since the late defeat of ^gospotami. nothing from
the Euxine, from Thrace or from the islands. Perhaps some

1 This Interatting decree or psephlsm ^Andokidds de Mysterils, s. 80—

of Patrokleidds to given at length in 101 : Lysias, Orat. xviii. De Bonie

the Oiution of AndoUddi de Mysterils, Nicts rratr. sect 9.
a. 75_80— & 6* «IpifT«& i$aJnt^ai, fin At what particuUur moment the

KCKrncrfcu i6i^ M>t<«ri j^croi, MfM f*n|ov severe condemnatory decree had been

Koxftvan iiritiiraTt. passed by the Athenian assembly

SAndokid. de Myst. m. 7S. koX against the exiles senring with the

iri^Tir «AA»,Aoi« ircpi oitoroimi jovKot iv Lacedaanonian garrison at Dekeleia,

«jcpov6Act. we do not know The decree is men>

^Xenoph. Hellen. ii. 2, 11. rovf tioned by Lykurgns cent Leokrat. sect,

ar^iovf ««-irifU>vf iroii}^arrcf iKopHpovv. 122, 123, p. 164.

Digitized by VjOOQIC


com maj still haTe reached her from CypmB, and her
remaining navy did what was possible to keep Peirsoa supplied,'
in spite of the menacing prohibitions of Lysander, preceding bk
arrival to block it up effectually ; but to accumulate any stock
for a siege was utterly impossible.

At length, about November, 405 &a, Lysander reached the
Saronic Qulf, having sent intimation beforehand both
Lyaander. to Agis and to the Lacedsemonians that he was ap-
b£d*up proaching with a fleet of 200 triremes. The full
by lea aod Lacedaemonian and Peloponnesian force (all except
the Argeians), under King Pausanias, was inarched
into Attica to meet him, and encamped in the precinct of Akadd-
mus, at the gates of Athens ; while Lysander, first coming to
JBgina with his overwhelming fleet of 150 sail, — next, ravaging
Sulomis, — blocked up completely the harbour of Peirsus. It was
one of his first measures to collect together the remnant which be
could find of the JBginetau and Meiian populations, whom
Athens had expeUed and destroyed, and to restore to them the
possession of their ancient islanda'

Though all hope had now fled, the pride, the resolution, and
n_ , « the despair of Athens still enabled her citizens to bear
hohiing-ont up ; nor was It until some men actually began to die
niaiw-their of hunger that they sent propositions to entreat peace
F"*Scitu"^ ^^^^ their propositions were not without dignity,

latingare They ] Toposed to Agis to become allies of Sparta,
^ '' • retaining their walls entire and their fortified harbuur
of Peineus. Agis referi*ed the envoys to the Ephors at Sparta, to
whom he at the same time transmitted a statement of their pro-
positions. But the Ephors, not deigning even to adroit the
envoys to an interview, sent messengers to meet them at Sellasia
on the frontier of Laconia, desiring that they would go back and
come again prepared with something more admissible— and ac-
quainting them at the same time that no proposition could be
received which did not include the demolition of the Long Walk,
for a continuous length of ten stadia. With this gloomy replj
the envoys returned. Notwithstanding aU the suffering in the

1 Isokratte adv. Kallimachnm, sect, the Chersonese, as wdhtaiy i

71 : compare Andokidfis de Reditu suo, supply of com to Athena,
sect. 81, and Lysias cont. Diog^iton. - Xenoph. Hellan. ii. 2. 9 ; Diodfir.

Or. xxxii. sect. 22, about Cyprus and ziii. 107.

Digitized by VjOOQIC

Chap. LXV. blockadk of ATHEna 447

city, the senate and people would not consent eyen to take sneh
humiliating terms into consideration. A senator named Arche-
stratus, who advised that they should be accepted, was placed in
custody, and a general yote was passed,' on the proposition of
Kleophon, forbidding any such motion in future.

Such a vote demonstrates the courageous pstience both of the
senate and the people ; but unhappily it supplied no
improved prospects, while the suffering within the Themmente
walls continued to become more and more aggravated. Z^^Toj'^'
Uuder these circumstances, TheramenSs offered to go bis studied
as envoy to Lysander and Sparta, affirming that he ^^^'
should be able to detect what the real intention of the Ephors
was in regard to Athens, — ^whether they really intended to root
out the population and sell them as slaves. He pretended further
to possess personal influence, founded on circumstances which he
could not divulge, such as would very probably ensure a mitiga-
tion of the doom. He was accordingly sent, in spite of strong
protest from the senate of Areopagus and others ; yet with no
express powers to conclude, but simply to inquire and report
We hear with astonishment that he remained more than three
months as companion of Lysander, who (he alleged) had detained
bim thus long, and had only acquainted him, after the fourth
month had begun, that no one but the Ephors had any power to
grant peace. It seems to have been the object of Theramen^ by
this long delay, to wear out the patience of the Athenians, and to
bring them into such a state of intolerable suffering that they
would submit to any terms of peace which would only bring
provisions into the town. In this scheme he completely suc-
ceeded ; and considering how great were the privations of the
people even at the moment of his departure, it is not easy to
understand how they could have been able to sustain protracted
and increasing famine for three months longer.'

We make out little that is distinct respecting these last
moments of imperial Athens. We find only an heroic en-
durance displayed, to such a point that numbers actually died
of starvation, without any offer to surrender on humiliating

1 Xenoph. Hellen. iL 2. 12 — 15 ; Omt ziL cont Eratorthen. sect. 66—71.

Lysias oont. Agorat. sect 10—12. See an Ulostration of the neat snf-

9 Xen. Hel. ii. 2, 16 ; Lystaii, Orat. feting during the si^ge, in ^Unopb6n,

xiii cont. Agorat. sect 12 ; Lyidas, Apolog. Socrat. s. 18.

Digitized by VjOOQIC


conditions. Ainidst tbe general acrimony, and exasperated
MImtt and ^P^^^ an tipatbiee, arising out of such a state of miseir,
fainine in the leading men who stood out most earnestly for pro-
death of longed resistance became successively victims to the
Kleophon. ppoeecutions of their enemies. The demagogue Kleo-
phon was condemned and put to death, on the accusation of having
eva<led his military duty ; the senate, whose temper an«l pro-
ceedings he had denounced, constituting itself a portion of the
Dikasterj which tried him — contrary both to the forms and the
spirit of Athenian judicatures.* Such proceeding howeveiv
though denounced by orators in subsequent years as having con-
tributed to betray the city into the hands of the enemy, appear
to have been without any serious influence on the result, which
was brought about purely by famine.

By the time that Therauieues returned after his long absenoer
The famine 80 terrible had the pressure become that he was sent
tSSmiUe^ ^^^^^ again with instructions to conclude peace upon
Theramente any terms. On reaching bellasia, and acquaijitin;; the
toiii peace Ephors that he brought with him unJ mated powen
tJ^rmiS!- for peace, he was peruiitted to come to Sparta, where
debate the assembly of the Peloponnesian confederacy wti

terms at^ convened, to settle on what terms peace slionld be
Sparta. granted. The leading allies, especially Corinthians
and Thebons, recommended that no agreement should be entered
into, nor any fui-ther measure kept, with this hated enemy now
in their power, but that the name of Athens should be rooted
out, and the population sold for slaves. Many of the other allies
seconded the same views, which would have probably commanded
a majority, had it not been for the resolute opposition of the
Lacedffimunians themselves, who declared unequivocally that

I Xen. Hel. ii. 2, 16—21 : compare ni^ yevoM''*^ ht if KAeo^r air«9vf),

Isokrat^, Areopagit Or. vii. sect 78. before tbe flight of KalJixentts froa

* Lyaias, Orat. xiii oont. Agorat. bis reoognizanoes. It is scarcely pos-

soct. 15, 16, :t7 ; Orat. xxx. cont. dble tbat KaUixoins could have b«a

Nikomach. sect. 18—17. still ander recognizance, durinx ibi»

This seems tbe most probable storr period of suffering between tbe oattto

as to tbe death of Kleophon, tbough of .£goepotami and tbe capture of

the accounts are not all cunsistent, and Atbena He must have esca^ted befbie

the statement of Xenophdn, especially that battle. Neither loiii: detentiooof

(llellen. i. 7, 86), ia not to be reconciled an accuaed party in prison, before trisL

with Lysiais. Xenoph6n conceived nor long postponement of trial wtxn

Kleophon as haying perished earlier he was under recngnisanoe, was at all

than this period, in a sedition (oTaireMt in Athenian habits.

Digitized by VjOOQIC

Orap. LXV.



they would never consent to annihilate or enslaye a city which
had rendered snch capital service to all Greece at the time of the
great common danger from the Persians.^ Lysander further cal-
culated on 00 dealing with Athens, as to make her into p^g^ i,
a dependency, and an instrument of increased power, iJJjS?* ^
to Sparta apart from her allies. Peace was accord- tS^ tht
ingly granted on the following conditions : That the SSSif oT^
Long Walls and the fortifications of the Peir«us theaiUe^
should be destroyed : That the Athenians should evacuate all
their foreign possessions, and confine themselves to their own
territory : That they should surrender all their ships of war :
That they should readmit all their exiles : That they should
become allies of Sparta, following her leadership both by sea and
land, and recognizing the same enemies and friends.'

With this document, written according to Lacedaemonian prac-
tice on a Skytalfi (or roll intended to go round a g^yy^^ie^^rf
stick, of which the Lacedaemonian commander had Athens—
always one, and the Ephors another, corresponding), trrotohed-
Theramen^ went back to Athens. As he entered the JJ^^ ^f
city, a miserable crowd flocked round him, in distress deaths from
and terror lest he should have fiEuled altogether in his "™"®'
mission. The dead and the dying had now become so numerous,
that peace at any price was a boon ; nevertheless, when he an-
nounced in the assembly the terms of which he was bearer,
strongly recommending submission to the Lacedsemonians as the

1 Xenoph. HeUen. it 2. 19 ; tL 5, 85
— 46 ; Plutarch, Lysand. c. 16.

The Theb&ns, a few years after-
wards, when tbev were soliciting aid
from the Athenians against Sparta,
disavowed this proposition of their
delegate Erianthos. who had been the
leader of the Boeotian contingent sery-
ing onder Lysander at ^Egospotami,
honoured in that character by having
his statae erected at Delphi, along with
the other allied leaders who took part
in the battle, and along with Lysander
and Eteonlkus (Pausan. x. 9, 4).

It is one of the exaggerations
frequent with Isokratte, to serve a
present purpose, when he says that the
Thebans were the only parties among
all the Pelojponnesian confederates
who gave this harsh anti-Athenian
vote (I«ok. Orat. Plataic Or. xiv., i. 84).

Demosthente wm that the Phokians
gave their vote m the same synod
against the Theban proposition (De-
mosth. de Fala Legat, & 22, p. 961X

It seems from I)iod6r. xv. S3 and
Polysn. i. ^ 6, as well as from some
passages in Xenophdn himself, that the
motives of the LacedsemonianMn thus
resisting the proposition of the Thebans
against Athens, were founded in policy
more than in aeneroslty.

* Xenoph. Hellra. ii 2, 20 ; Plutarch,
Lysand. c. 14; Diod6r. xiiL 107.
Plutarch gives the express words of
the Lacedbemonian decree, some of
which words are very perplexing. The
conjecture of G. Hermann— at xp^^o^v*
instead of & xp^ S&tm^—hBM been
adopted into the text of Plutarch by
Sinienis, though tt seeint very i


Digitized by VjOOQIC


only conise now open, there was atiQ a high-spirited minority
who entered their protest, and preferred death by fieunine to sodi
insupportable disgrace. The large majority, however, accepted
them, and the acceptance was made known to Lysander.^

It was on the 16th day of the Attic month Munychion* (aboat
BLC. 40A. the b^finning of April) that this victorious commander
Lyander niled into the PeirsBos — twenty-seven years (almost
Ath" exactly) after that surprise of Platsea by the Thebans,

Tetarnof which opened the Peloponnesian war. Along with
dflmoU^o' ^^^^ came the Athenian exiles, several of whom
w^t^? appeared to have been serving with his army,' and
mantung of assisting him with their counsel To the population
J]^"^^ of Athens generally, his entry was an immediate
«!»• relief in spite of the cruel degradation, or indeed

political extinction, with which it was accompanied. At least it
averted the sufferings and horrors of famine, and permitted a
decent interment of the many unhappy victims who had already
perished. The Lacedaemonians, both naval and military force,
under Lysander and Agis, continued in occupation of Athens
until the conditions of the peace had been fulfilled. All the
triremes in Peirseus were carried away by Lysander, except
twelve, which he permitted the Athenians to retain : the Ephon
in their [email protected] had left it to his discretion what number he
would thus allow.^ The unfinished ships in the dockyards were
burnt, and the aisenab themselves ruined.' To demolish the
Long Walls and the fortifications of Peineus was however a work
of some time ; and a certain number of days were granted to the
Athenians, within which it was required to be completed. In
the beginning of the work, the Lacedaemonians and their alliei
all lent a hand, with the full pride and exultation of conquerors ;
amidst women playing the flute and dancers crowned with

I Xencmh. Hellen. tt. S, 88. LysUu victory wma gained in the maA

(pnl. JO. oont. Eratosth. i. 71) lays Boedromion.

tiie blame of this wretched and humi- t Xenoph. HeUen. iL 2. la

Hating peace upon Theramento, who ^-b-^^^IT tt^h^ mo «a_« « «•

plaint ought not to be required to «JJ«?>P*»- HellwL tt. 2, «Mi.S,8,

bear it: ^paie Lysiaa, ^at. xiiL Kntarch, Lysand. c 14.

cont Agorat. a 12-20. • Plutarah, Lysand. e. 15; Ljdi*

s Plutarch. Lysand. c 16. He says, cont Agorat sect StL in Si ri. th'xi

howerer, thai this was also the day on mv katco-k^, mI at rq«v Tots ir»Acfu«if

which the Athenians gained the battle ««p«6^o^tr, koa rd rtuptM catf|p«N>

of Salamis. This is incorrect; that Ae.

Digitized by VjOOQIC


wreaths ; mingled with joy fill exclamationB from the Pelopon-
nesian allies, that this was the first day of Grecian freedom.^
How many days were allowed for the humiliating duty imposed
upon Athenian hands, of demolishing the elaborate, tatelary, and
commanding works of their forefathers, we are not told. Bnt
the bnsinees was not completed within the interval named, so
that the Athenians did not come up to the letter of the conditions,
and had therefore by strict construction forfeited their title to
the peace granted.' The interval seems however to have been
prolonged ; probably considering that for the real labour, as well
as the melancholy character of the work to be done, too short a
time had been allowed at first.

It appears that Lysander, after assisting at the solemn ceremony
of banning to demolish the walls, and making such niiM
a breach as left Athens without any substantial means and the
of resistance, did not remain to complete the work, ^SyS*^
but withdrew with a portion of his fleet to undertake j^^^
the siege of Samos, which still held out, leaving the triumphaiit
remainder to see that the conditions imposed were ^Sd^^o^
fulfilled.* After so long an endurance of extreme ^^°^
misery, doubtless the general population thought of
little except relief from famine and its accompaniments, without
any disposition to contend against the fiat of their conquerors.
If some high-spirited men formed an exception to the pervading
depression, and still kept up their courage against better days,
there was at the same time a party of totally opposite character,
to whom the prostrate condition of Athens was a source of
revenge for the past» exultation for the present^ and ambitious
projects lor the future. These were parUy the remnant of that
faction which had set up (seven years before) the oligarchy of
Four Hundred— and still more, the exiles, including several
members of the Four Hundred,^ who now flocked in from all
quarters. Many of them had been long serving at Dekeleia, and

iXenopb. Hellen. tt. 2, SS. ml tA 'Lvtander dedicated a golden erowii

Ttixn KanavawTO¥ vw' avk^rpUmw wokK§ to Atodnd in the acropouf— which is

Online LibraryGeorge GroteA history of Greece: from the earliest period to the close of the generation contemporary with Alexander the Great → online text (page 51 of 62)