George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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retain him, made his appointment for life. S
after her death (1807) he accepted the pos
Capellmeister at Dresden, but the negotiat:
were broken off, and Morlacchi appointed in
stead.^ Weigl was twice invited to Milan
compose for the Scala — in 1807, when he prodt
two operas, ' Cleopatra,' and ' II rivale di
stesso,'andi8i5, whenheproduced'L'imbosof
and a cantata, 'II ritorno d'Astrea,' all v,,
great success. Of his earlier cantatas, ' Mim r
e Flora ' was given at Prince Auersperg's ,
honour of a visit from the King and Queei
Sicily (1791), and ' Venere ed Adone' at .~
haz in 1792, when the Archduke (afterw)
Emperor) Joseph was staying with Pii
Esterhazy at his country seat on the NeuB
lersee. Haydn was at the time in London
Weigl was called upon to supply his place. 1
cantata figured several times in the program
of the Tonkiinstler-Societat concerts. Of his:
oratorios, 'La Passione di Gesil Cristo ' (libl
by Carpani), first produced at Court (1804),
performed at Prince Lobkowitz's, at the I
Theatre (181 1), at an extra concert of the Gei
schaft der Musikfreunde (1821), and in Pra
and Milan. After 1827 he wrote only for
church, composing his last mass in his 71st y
Weigl received many distinctions, amongst otl
the large gold Ehrenmedaille (1839) and
freedom of the city of Vienna. He was"
honorary member of the Conservatoire of Mi
the St. Cecilia Academy of Rome, the Ge
schaft der Musikfreunde, and other mu.'
societies of Austria. He died Feb. 3, i'
His works include 13 Italian and 18 Ger '

1 'VertrauteBriefe.'i. 215.

2 A letter from Grieslnger, dated Dresden, Feb. 11, 1810.


■as, 17 ballets, 2 oratorios, 12 Itfvlian and 7
nan cantatas, 9 masses, 6 graduales, 6 offer-
;s ; scenas in various languages ; airs for in-
:on in operas ; songs, airs and duets with PF.
mpaninient ; and various instrumental pieces,
younger brother,

HADDAOS, born 1776, wrote a number of
as and ballets for the Leopoldstadt Tlieatre

the two Court Theatres, and was at one
! Ciipellmeister and director of the musical
ives of the Court Theatre. His name lives,
sver, not as a musician, but as a music
isher. He set up in business in 1801, and
ted himself chiefly to supporting the ' Kunst-

Industrie Comptoir' in its endeavour to
)lish a home-trade in music, for which Haydn

i)im a flattering testimonial (dated Eisen-
i 1801). After the production of his last
t, 'Bacchus und Ariadne' (Dec. 1S03), he
drew fi'om the theatre, and occupied himself
ely with his business till 1826, when he re-
sd it to his second son Peter. Later it
id into Diabelli's hands. Thaddaus Weigl
ished Schubert's ops. 57, 58, 88, 95, and

EINLIG, Christian Theodoe, born at
den, July 25, 1780, was instructed first by
ncle, Christian Ehregott — who as a scholar
OMiLius had the Bach traditions — and then
adre Mattei at Bologna. In 1823 he suc-
;d Schicht as Cantor of the Thomas-School
eipzig, and remained there till his death,
;h 7, 1842, when lie was followed by
Dtmann. He published a German Magnifi-
or solos, chorus, and orchestra, and some
ng exercises. But it is as a teacher of
y and as the master of Wagner for six
hs in 1830, that his name will be remem-
1. Wagner has left his recollections of
dig's teaching on record in words which
ve to be pondered by all teachers of theory.
Wagner, vol. iv. p. 347 a.] [G.]

EISS, Franz, born in Silesia Jan. 18, 1778,
at Vienna Jan. 25, 1830, a distinguished
■player, and long a member of the celebrated
j-quartet maintained by Prince Rasoumow-
at his palace in Vienna. By these distin-
led players most of Beethoven's quartets

studied for the first time, Schuppanzigh ^
ig the first violin, the Prince himself the
id, and Linke the cello. Weiss was also
nposer of merit, and published, among other
s, 'Variations brillantes ' for violin and
istra, op. 13 (Vienna, Artaria), quartet
ma, Haslinger, and Offenbach, Andre), and
1 for flutes and for violins, and PF. sonatas,
nphony of his for flute, bassoon, and trumpet
rtante with orchestra, was played with great
ss by the brothers Alois, Joseph, and Anton
^11. [C.F.P.]

, at Liverpool, son of Willoughby Gaspard
s, professor of the flute and music-publisher,
earnt singing from Sir George Smart and

1 See vol. ill. 77. » Ibid. 424.

OL. IV. PT. 4.



Balfe, and on May 12, 1842, made his first ap-
pearance in public at a concert of his own at
Liverpool. He next sang in London at the con-
certs of Balfe, Thalberg, etc., and then joined
the farewell tour of Miss Adelaide Kemble, and
made a successful debut on the stage at Dublin
July 2, as Oroveso in 'Norma.' On Dec. 26 he
made his first London appearance in opera at
the Princess's as the Count in an English ver-
sion of ' Sonnambula.' He established a reputa-
tion both as an operatic and concert singer. In
the former capacity he sang in the various en-
terprises of Bunn, Maddox, JuUien, Pyne &
Harrison, and the English Opera Company
Limited, and in various operas of Auber, Balle,
Benedict, Hatton, Macfarren, etc. But he ex-
celled in oratorio, in which his rich voice and
musicianly feeling showed to advantage. He
made his first appearance in oratorio in 1844 ^^
the Gloucester Festival, and was continually en-
gaged at the London oratorio concerts and pro-
vincial festivals until close upon his death, Oct.
24, 1867. Weiss also composed songs and bal-
lads, of which ' The Village Blacksmith ' has
become very popular. He also arranged a PF.
edition of Weber's Mass in G. His wife,

Georgina Ansell, whose maiden name was
Barrett, was born in 1826 at Gloucester, the
daughter of a professor of music of that city.
She was a pupil at the Eoyal Academy of Music
(1842-45), and first attracted notice at the Glou-
cester Festival of 1844. On Sept. 15, 1845, she
married Weiss. On Dec. 20, 1847, she made her
first appearance on the stage at Drury Lane as
Queen Elizabeth in Balfe's 'Maid of Honour,'
and was afterwards engnged at the Princess's
and Covent Garden (1864-5). She failed to
maintain the great promise of her early career,
and became a useful second-class singer. She
married again, Feb. 13, 1872, Mr. C. Davis of
New Maiden, Surrey, and died at Brighton Nov.
6, 1S80. [A.C.]

WEISSENBACH, Alots, born at Telfs,
Tyrol, March i, 1766, died at Salzburg Oct.
26, 1S21, entered the Austrian army as assistant-
surgeon before he was twenty, and had risen to
the highest rank in that service when, in 1804,
he was called by Archduke Ferdinand, then
Archbishop of Salzburg, to the professorship of
surgery in tlie University there, a position which
he held with very great reputation to his death.
Weissenbach held an honourable place among
the periodical writers of his day ; composed
dramas, one of which (Die Brautkranz) was
acted at Vienna in 1809; and specially distin-
guished himself, 1812-14, by his patriotic poems.
He receives a place here as author of the text to
Beethoven's ' Glorreiche Angenblick,' and for his
notices of the composer in his account of his visit
to Vienna at the time of the Congress of 1S14.'

That Weissenbach was an enthusiastic admirer of
Beetlioven (says Graeftar) is a matter of course. Their
natures were akin, even physically ; for the one was as
hard of hearing as the other, and both were manly,
frank, open, upright characters. Just as Weissenbach

> * Meine Belse zum Coiigresj '




came to Vienna, in 1S14, ' Fidelio ' was given. An inex-
pressible longing lilled him to make the personal ac-
quaintance of its composer. Eeturning to his lodging,
there on the table was a card of invitation from "Bee-
thoven, who had called on him. Next day it was hand
and kiss witli tliem. After this one often met them at
table in the parterre dining-room of the KSmische Kaiser
Hotel. But it made one sad to hoar them shout so to
eacli other, and there was little enjoyment in meeting
them. Singular, that in a smaller room, like that of the
Rose Inn in the Wollzeile, Weissenbach heard much
better, and spoke more freely and easily. He was a man
full of matter ; a most kindly, lively, lovable companion ;
a blooming, elderly jierson. always neatly and elegantly
clad. How learned as a physician he was will not be
forgotten. [A.W.T.]

WEIST-HILL, Henry, was born in London
iniS3o; was taught violin-playing by Sainton
at tbe Royal Academy of Music, and in 1845
was elected King's Scbolar. He first appeared
at an Academy Concert in 1847, in Spobr's gtli
Concerto, and subsequently went to America,
where he introduced Mendelssohn's Violin Con-
certo. He afterwards undertook a professional
tour in Europe, and in 1849 became a member
of Costa's band at the Royal Italian Opera
and elsewhere. In 1871 he followed his old
conductor to Drury Lane, where he filled
the post of Director of the Ballet Music, and
then to Her Majesty's till 1879.' In 1874-76
he was Conductor at the Alexandra Palace,
and displayed great energy in that depart-
ment, giving performances of Handel's 'Esther'
and 'Susanna,' Gade's 'Spring Fantasia,' Ber-
lioz's ' Danse des Sylphes,' compositions of Saint-
Saens, etc. Mr. Hill introduced to the British
public the works of Bizet and Massenet, the
former by his Symphony 'Roma,' and 'Patrie'
Overture, the 'Arlesieiine' Suite, and Ballet
music, 'Fair Maid of Perth' ; the latter by his
'Scenes pittoresques.' British composers were
invited by the Alexandra Palace Company to com-
pete for the composition of the two best sympho-
nies, and the prizes were awarded to Mr. F. G.
Davenport and Mr. C. V. Stanford by Professors
Joachim and G. A. Macfarren, as judges. In
1878-79 he was conductorof Mme. Viard-Louis's
orchestral concerts, and gained much reputa-
tion for himself and his orchestra during the
short term of their existence. Among the novel-
ties produced were Svendsen's 1st Symphony ;
Salvayre's Stabat Mater, and 'Fandango' Bal-
let; Cherubini's 'AliBaba' Ballet; Davenport's
' Twelfth Night ' Overture ; ' The Rivulet,' by
Corder; Danse Macabre by Saint-Saeiis; Berlioz-
selections and works by Bourgault-Ducoudray
and Gevaert. Massenet also conducted his orches-
tral suite, called 'Shakespeare,' April 30, 1878,
on his first appearance in England, and again on
Dec. 17, 187S. Goetz was first introduced to the
British public by his only Symphony. — In 1S80
Mr. Weist-Hill was appointed Principal of the
Guildhall School of Music. This post he still
retains, and under his energetic direction the
number of pupils has risen to upwards of
2500. [A.C.]

"WELCH, John Bacon-, well-known teacher
of singing, born at Pattishall Vicarage, North-

1 In 1S78 he conducted at Her Majesty's the winter season
of English ooera.


ampton, Dec. 26, 1839. He began his musM
education in London, and in 1861 went to Mil<
and studied for three years under Signor Nai
Ultimately he settled in London, where he I
a large number of private pupils, and is Profes!
of Singing at the Guildhall School of Mus
Among his most successful pupils may be me
tioned Miss Anna Williams, Miss A. Marric
Miss Santley (now Hon. Mrs. R. Lyttelton), li
H. Blower, Mr. Bridson, Mr. Brereton, Mr.
Piercy. [(

Heinrich, Court pianoforte maker to the Grs
Duke of Hesse, and a vvriter on the construct
and history of musical instruments, particula
the pianoforte, was born at Gontershausen
village in the Grand Duchy of Hesse Darmsta
in the year 1811. He died at Darmstadt, Ji
15) i873' His published works include : —

1. Die mxisikalischen Tonwerkzeuge in technisc
Zeichnungen aller Saiten-, Bias-, Schlag-, und Frictit
Instrumente, mit spezieller Beschreibung ihres Ba
Tonumfangs, und fasslicher Angabe ihirer Behandl
und Erhaltimg. Mit ItiU Abbildungen. Frankfurt

2. Der Flligel oder die Beschaffenheit des Pianof
alien Formen. Fine umfassende Darstellung der Fc
Piano-Baukunst vom Entstehen bis zu den neiie
Verbesserungen mit specieller Hinweisung auf
ratiouelle Praxis fUr Bearbeitung und Zusammenf
ung der Mechanismen, nebst gnindlicher Anweis
zur Intonirung, Stimmung, und Saitenbemessung.
To Zeichnungen. Frankfurt am Main {neue verma
Ausgabe, ISoGi.

3. Die Clavierbau in seiner Theorie, Technik
Geschichte, unter Hinweisung seiner Beziehungei
den Gesetzen der Akustik. Mit 01 Abbildun
Frankfurt am Main (vierte mit einem Kachtrag
mehrte Ausgabe, 1S70).

4. Ueber den Bau der Saiteninstnimente und d
Akustik, nebst Uebersicht der Enstehung und Vel
serung der Orgel. Ein Anhang zum Clavierbai
seiner Theorie, Technik und Geschichte. Fran!)
am Main, 1S70.

Or in English : —

1. Technical drawings of musical instruments, whe
string, wind, percussion, or friction; with special
scriptions of their construction and compass, an(
intelligible statement of their treatment and pres«
tion. With IGO illustrations. Frankfort.

2. The Grand Piano, or the manufacture of the S
in all forms. A comprehensive explanation ofK
forte construction from its origin up to the latest
provements, with special reference to the rati
practice of making and setting up the action, togt
with well-grounded instructions for Toning, Tui
and Stringing. With 75 drawings. Frankfort 1
enlarged edition, 1S5G).

3. Pianoforte-making in its theory, practice, and
tory, with reference to its relations with the lafl
Acoustics. With 91 illustrations. Frankfort (Fc
edition, with an ethnological and histox-ical supplei
dealing with the musical instruments of the Chi
and other Eastern nations, the Egyptians, Hebl
Greeks, Romans, Gauls, etc.).

4. On the construction of stringed instruments
their acoustical explanation, together with a suJTi
the origin and improvement of the Organ. Anaroe
to Pianoforte-making in its theory, practice, and flis
Frankfort, 1870.

These very meritorious works bear witi
Welcker's great industry. They are not, ho'
to be always accepted as authorities, and a c
parison of the 'Clavierbau' with the 'FJft
shows that the earlier works, for which luk
presumably his note-books at hand, are*|
trustworthy than the later ones. Where refer
to them is made inthisDictionary it has beeE"
due correction, if necessary. [A.J


ELDON, Geokgina, was born at Clapham,
■ 24, 1837. Her maiden name was Thomas,
h was afterwards changed to Treherne.
^pril 21, i860, she married Captain Weldon,
le i8tli Hussars. For many years she was
yn in society as the possessor of a lovely
3, but she afterwards adopted music as
ofession on charitable grounds, and made
first appearance in public in 1870. She
irtook a tour in Wales with her pupil, Miss
ndoline Jones, and became a member of
ie's choir, in which she sang the solo in
delssohn's 'Hear my prayer,' on March 9,
. She afterwards sang at the Popular Con-
I, the Crystal Palace, the Philharmonic, and
rhere. In 1872 she took the solo soprano

in Gounod's ' Gallia ' at Notre Dame, the
•aComique and the Conservatoire, Paris. Her
intic friendship with Gounod is well known,
assisted in training his choir in London,
established an orphanage at her residence,
rder to give musical instruction to poor
Iren, with objects and on principles which
has fully described in a letter to the
aestrel,' and with a zeal and energy rarely
lied. She also published songs by Gounod
other composers in aid of her orphanage,
ig which mention must be made of Clay's
tiful setting of ' The Sands o' Dee.' She has
composed songs translated from the French
erself, viz. ' Choses du Soir,' ' Le Chant du
ereau,' 'Le petit Garfon et le Nid du Eouge-
i ' ; also ' The Brook ' (poetry by Tennyson"),

In 1879 she sang at Rivifere's Promenade
arts, with a female choir trained and directed
grself. This transaction gave rise to a pro-
ed law-suit, which was matter of consider-
aotoriety. Her last professional engagement
at a popular music hall in 18S4, where her
tion of songs was of a higher order than its
tues are accustomed to hear. Other points
Irs. Weldon's chequered career, not being
ected with music, cannot be touched upon
is Dictionary. [A.C.]

ELDOX, John, born at Chichester, was
ated at Eton College, and whilst there
,ed music under John Walter, the college
aist. He afterwards became a pupil of
ry Purcell. In 1694 he was appointed
aist of New College, Oxford. In 1700 he
^d the first of the four prizes offered for
best compositions of Congreve's masque,
! Judgment of Paris,' the others being
•ded to John Eccles, Daniel Puecell,
Godfrey Finger. [See those names.]
ion's music was not printed, and is now
lown, with the exception of Juno's song,
ambition fire thy mind,' the air of which
adapted by Arne to the opening duet of
'e in a Village.' On June 6, 1701, Weldon
sworn in a Gentleman extraordinary of the
)el Royal. In 1702 he resigned his appoint-
; at New College. Upon the death of
Blow in 1708, Weldon was appointed his
«sor as organist of the Chapel Royal, and
^ug. 8, 1715, upon the establishment of a



second composer's place there he was sworn
into it. He was also organist of St. Bride's,
Fleet Street and in 1726 was appointed to the
same office at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. He
died May 7, 1736, and was buried in the
churchyard of St. Paul, Covent Garden. Wel-
don's principal compositions are for the Church;
he published, under the title of 'Divine Har-
mony,' six solo anthems composed for Richard
Elford ; other anthems are printed in the col-
lections of Boyce, Arnold, and Pnge, and many
are still in manuscript in the books of the
Chapel Royal and some of the cathedrals. The
two anthems printed by Boyce — 'In Thee,
Lord,' and 'Hear my crying,' — are admirable
compositions, combining pure melody, fine har-
mony, and just expression. They have a certain
anticipation of the sweet natural melody of Stern-
dale Bennett. Weldon published three books
of his songs, and many other songs are contained
in the collections of the period. A song by him,
'From grave lessons,' is printed in Hawkins's
History. [W.H.H.]



WELSH MUSIC. With regard to the source
whence the ancient Britons derived their music
and musical instruments, the general belief in the
Principality is that they were brought from the
East, either by the inhabitants in their original
migration, or by the Phoenicians, who, as is
well known, had commercial intercourse with
Britain from the earliest times. Of this however
there is no historical proof, nor do the arguments
sometimes adduced from an alleged siii]ilarity of
musical terms in Hebrew and Welsh bear the
test of examination.

In ancient Welsh works, ' to play upon the
harp' is expressed 'to sinff upon the harp' —
Canu m- y Dehjn. The same expression is used in
regard to the Crwth, an old Welsh instrument,
which was so popular in Britain in olden times
as to have been mistaken, by historians of the 6th
century, for its national instrument. [Crwth.]

The harp, of all instruments, is the one which
has been held in the most general esteem, and
has for ages been the companion of Prophet,
King, Bard, and Minstrel. In the 7th century,
according to the Venerable Bede, it was so
generally played in Britain that it was customary
to hand it from one to another at entertainments ;
and he mentions one who, ashamed that he could
not play upon it, slunk away lest he should expose
his ignorance. In such honour was it held in
Wales that a slave might not practise upon it ;
while to play upon the instrument was an indis-
pensable qualification of a gentleman. The an-
cient laws of Hywel Dda mention three kinds of
harps: — the harp of the King; the harp of a
Pencerdd, or master of music ; and the harp of
a Nobleman. A professor of this instrument en-
joyed many privileges ; his lands were free, and
his person sacred.

With regard to the antiquity of the Welsh
music now extant, it is difficult to form a con-
jecture, excepting when history and tradition

Ff 2




coincide, as in the rase of the plaintive air ' Morva
Rhuildlan' (Rhuddlan Marsh). 'At this time,'
says Parry in his 'Royal Visits,' 'a general action
took place between these parties, upon Rhuddlan
Marsh, Flintshire. The Welsh, who were com-
manded in this memorable conflict by Caradoc,
Kinij of North Wales, were defeated with dread-
ful slaughter, and their leader was killed on the
field. All who fell into the hands of the Saxon
Prince were ordered to be massacred. According
to tradition, the Welsh who escaped the sword
of the conqueror, in their precipitous flight across
the marsh, perished in the water by the flowing of
the tide.' Tradition says that the plaintive melody,
' Morva Rhuddlan,' was composed by Caradoc's
Bard immediately after the battle, a.d. 795.

Morva lihuddlan. (Tlie Plain of Rhuddlan.)

gs^3E feE^;feg=g ^5^^^^


i^^"^ t_»



One of the finest melodies of this class is
Dav7/dd y Garrcg Wen — David of the White
Rock ; and although there is no historical account
concerning it, it is, nevertheless, supposed to be
very ancient. Tradition says that a Bard of this
name, lying on his deathbed, called for his harp,
composed this touching melody, and desired that
it should be played at his funeral.

Davydd y Garrcg Wen. (David of the Wliite Rock.)





The following is also one of the most pathet
melodies, and supposed to be very ancient.

Torriad y Dydd

(The Dawn of Day.)

There is no denying that Welsh music is m(
artistic than eitlier tbat of the Scotch or i
Irish, and on that account it may, to a snperfic
observer, appear more modern ; but to those w
are acquainted with the harp, the national i
strument of Wales, with its perfect diatonic scj
the apparent inconsistency disappears. This
admitted by the most eminent writers on inui
among others, by Dr. Crotch. In the first volu]
of his Specimens* of the various styles of mui
referred to in his course of lectures, he writesJ
follows : —

British and TVelsli miTsic may be considered as
since the original British music was, with the inhj
tants, driven into Wales. It must be owned that
regular measure and diatonic scale of the Welsh must
more congenial to the English taste in general, andi
pears at first more natural to experienced musici
than those of the Irish and Scotcli. Welsh music
only solicits an accompaniment, but, being chiefly
posed for the harp, is usually found with one;
indeed, in harp tunes, there are often solo passag(
the bass as well as for the treble. It often resei
the scientific music of the 17th and ISth centuries,!
there is, I believe, no probability that this dej
refinement was an introduction of later times.,
military music of the Welsh peems superior to thj
any other nation. . . . In the Welsh marches, 'The"
of the men of Harlech,' ' Captain Morgan's March,?
also a tune called 'Come to Battle,' there is not
much noise, nor is there vulgarity nor yet mispl
science. They have a sufficiency of rhythm withoi
injuring the aignified character of the whole.

We give the melodies of the three mard

Rhyfelgyrch Gwyr Harlech. (5Tarcli of the Men of Harlec'

1 See vol. iii. p. 648-Gr)0.

2 Many alterations have recently crept Into the ordinary vers',
of this tune; but the above is the to m iri which it ia givoa
Ednard Joues in h'a ' EeUcks of the Welsh JJarda,' 1791.




yfdgyrch Cadpen Morgan. (Captain Morgan's March.)



t^— ^

c -1

rT~i*^^'^; 1

1 ■ • * •■ , 1




^^ 1^ — ' 1 1 —

Detcch i'r Frwi/dr. (Come to Battle.)


- m=^



■: — P (— -^ — (S-

=^— r^

^e Welsh are specially rich in Pastoral
sic, which is graceful, melodious, and un-
cted. It is chiefly written for the voice, and
subject of the words is generally taken from
beauties of Nature, with an admixture of
6. The collection is so numerous, that it is
easy matter to make a selection ; however,
following specimens will serve to show the
iral beauty of these melodies : —

Codiad yr Hedpdd. (The Rising of the Lark.)







iugeilio'r Gwenith Gwyn. (Watching the Wheat.)
Indante. ^



-i*( — 1 — e»-

rTv 1 1= •


-■-^-i — *-


-* tr-

H •-; 3..


^^ P ^

Mentra Cheen. (Venture Gwen.)


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