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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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1575.' No corroboration of any of these state-
ments is forthcoming. There is no entry of
White's burial at Ely, and the Westminster Re-
gisters appear to make no mention of him. Nor,
again, can White's degrees be found in the
Registers of either Oxford or Cambridge, which
are unfortunately most defective at the period at
which he, in all likelihood, graduated. Several
persons of the name graduated at Cambridge
during the reign of Henry VIII, but in no case
are the christian names given. Anthony k Wood,
in his Lives of English Musicians, has very little
to say about White, and in the index assigns
him to the reign of Charles I., obviously con-
fusing him with Matthew White.

This almost total want of information is the
more remarkable as White was certainly a man
of very great note in his day. Morley, in his
' Plain and Easy Introduction,' classes him with
the glories of the English School. In a MS.
wiitten in 1591 by John Baldwine, ' singing man
of Windsor,' that worthy says, in recounting the
principal composers of his age : —

I will begin with White, Shepperd, Tye, and Tallis,
Parsons, Gyles, Mundie, th'oulde one of the Queen's

The writer of the beautiful set of Part Books
in the Cb. Ch. Librar}^, from which so much of
interest with regard to the composers of the

1 6 th century is to be gleaned, was an enthu-
siastic admirer of White. At the end of the
Peccatum pecca^dt in D minor lie writes in the
alto and tenor parts : —

Non ita moesta sonant plangentis verba Prophetse
Quam sonat authors musica moesta mei.

[Sad as the mourning Prophet's words fall on the ear,
More sad to me the music's tones appear.]

There may have been another couplet, but, if so,
the binders have destroyed it. Again, at the
end of the Precamur, we find in all the parts —

Maxima musarum nostrarum gloria White
Tu peris ; seternum sed tua musa manet.

[Thou diest, White, chief splendour of our art.
But what thy art hath wrought shall nevermore

It is a sad commentary on this that only three
of White's pieces have been printed, ' The Lord
bless us,' in Barnard ; ' Lord, who shaU dwell,'
in Bumey's History, and ' praise God in His
holiness,' bj' Burns, in ' Anthems and Services ;
Second Series ' (about 1847). The MS. books of
White's time are, however, full of his music,
showing that it was highly esteemed. In manj'
cases we find his music attributed to Thomas,
WiUiam, or Matthew White. The first chris-
tian name seems to be a mere blunder.

Matthew White may have been a relation of
Robert. [See p. 451.]

William White appears as the author of a
number of Fantasias, mostly in five or six parts,
in the Libraries of Christ Church and the Music
School, Oxford, the style of which leads to the
conjecture that he lived in the early part of the-

1 7 th century. An anthem, to the words ' Behold


now, praise the Lord,' in the part-books at Si
Peter s College, Cambridge, is ascribed to him.

The following list of Robert White's compc
sitions seems fairly complete. It presents thre
noteworthy features : —

(i) The absence of secular compositions, wit
the possible exception of the Fantasias for th

(2) The great preponderance of Latin in th

(3) The fact that apparently none of the Lati
motets were adapted to English words. Tb
strangeness of this will be realised by comparin
the numerous adaptations made in the case <
Tallis. (Is it a sign of White's earlier date ?)

compositions to latin wokds.

Peccatnm peccavit fLam. i. 8—13, in two parts, the second coi
mencing at Omnis populus), i 6 (A min.). 1 Ch.Ch., M.S.O., B.1

Peccatum peccavit. i 5 (D min.). Ch.Ch.

Portions of Psalm csix., viz:—

1. Portio mea (rv. 57—64). i 5 (A min.). Ch.Ch.

2. Manus tute (and Vfcniant mihi, 72— SO), i 5 (D min.) Ch.Cl
M.S.O., K.C.M.. B.M.

3. Justus es (137—144), a 5. (E min.) Ch.Ch.

4. Appropinquet deprecatio (169—176), 4 5 (G min.). Ch.Ch.
Portions of a Magnificat, a 6, viz. :—

1. Quia fecit, a 4 (D min.). Ch.Ch.

2. Et sanctum nomen, i 3 (D min.). Ch.Ch.

3. Sicut locutus est. i 4 (D min.). Ch.Ch.

4. Sicut erat in principio, i 4 (D min.).2 Ch.Ch.

Miserere (Psalm li., in two parts, the second commencing '0
mundum '), i 5 (D minor). Ch.Ch.

Exaudiat te (Psalm xx.). i 5 (D min.) Ch.Ch.

Domine quis habitabit (Psalm rv.), a 6 (?; (D min.) Ch.Ch.

Do. Do. (D min.) Do. M.&i

Do. Do. (A min.) Do.

Deus misereatur (Psalm livii.), ii 6 (G min.) Ch.Ch., M.S.O.

Cantate Domino (Psalm xcviii), a 3 (A min.) K.C.M.

Ad Te levavi (Psalm cxxiii.). a 6 (?) (G min.) Ch.Ch.

Domine non est (Psalm cxxxi.) i 6 (D min.)3 Ch. Oh., M.S.O.

Eegina coeli, k 5 (F major). Ch.Ch.

Precamur sancte Domine, i 5 (D dor.).< Ch.Ch.

Tota pulchra es (Canticles iv. 7), a 6 (?) (A min.). Ch.Ch.

In nomine, i 5 (D min.). Ch.Ch., M.S.O., B.Ji.

3Innomines, 4 4(D min.) M.S.O.

In nomine, a 5 (F major).5 B.M.

Libera me. a 4 (G min.).6 B.M.

Christe qui.lux. B.M.



3 In nomines.'' B.M.

1 Ch.Ch. = Christ Church. Oxford. M.S.O. = Music School Liblf
Oxford. B.M. = British Museum. K.C.M. = Eoyal College of
P.H. = Peter House, Cambridge. ^_

2 All these appear in a book which consists of excerpts, usual
a small number of voices, from larger works. It seems a tol
certain inference that they are clippings from a Magnificat of
siderable dimensions. More than ttiis. there is in the Oxford
School Library a Contra Tenor part of a Magnificat a 6. from i
where comparison is possible, it is clear thai the excerpts in CI
were taken. There is the usual difficulty about Christian i
The Ch. Ch. MS. only assigns the pieces to ' Mr. Whight." by
in that MS. Bohert White is always meant. The Music SchoO
attributes the Magnificat to ' Mr. William White. 1570." As the CI
MS. seems much older than the other, and everything else 1
to William White having lived a good deal later than 1S70. it I
most reasonable to consider Eobert White the author of this
Since writing this the author has discovered at Tenbury five
of the whole of this Magnificat.

3 ' Sicut ablactatus,' which appears as a separate Motet in
Ch. Ch., is only an excerpt from this work.

< Several settings of these words by White are to be fonni
Ch. Ch. there is first of all a melody harmonised note against not
much as a modern hymn tune, except that in the second of the thr
verses of the hymn the melody is assigned not to the treble but
the alto. There are also in Ch. Ch. three other pieces to these wori
two in D dor. immediately following that described, and subsequent
one in G min., in all of wliich the melody is used as a C. F. andflor
counterpoints written to it. The second and third of these areal
in B.M. ; the first in M.S.O. ; the second, and perhaps the olcers :
E.C.M. also.

5 This piece, which is not called an In nomine, appears in a volUD
that bears the date 1578. and is entitled ' A book of In nomines it
other solfaing songs of 5. 6, 7, and S parts for voices or instruments.'

6 Only ascribed to 'Mr. 'White.'

7 The Ch. Ch. Catalogue refers to an Ecce Mater by Whitft^i
this appears to be a mistake of the Cataloguer.




Lord, deliver me from mine enemies, a 5 (D min.)- Ch.Ch.
rde, who shall dwell (Psalm rvO. a 5 ( G min.).l Ch.Ch.
le Lord bless us, a 3 (A min.).2 Ch.Ch.
t thy mercjful ears. Ch.Ch. Catalogue.^
praise God in His holiness, i 8 CF major).< Ch.Ch., Tenbury, Klj

York. P.H.
low glorious.5 Ch.Ch., P.H.
3od the heathen are come. York Catalogue.
»yse the Lord, my soul, a G (D min.).s K.C.M.
'antazias for the Lute. B.M.
itts of three Parte Songs, in Partition ; with Ditties, M ; withoute

Ditties, 16.' '

A certain Magister White was employed by
"agdalen College, Oxford, in the years 1531,
132, i.t39, ^^542) and 1545, to repair the organ

the College Chapel. In the 'Parish Choir'
ol. iii. p. 82) Sir William Cope conjectures, on
e strength of the title Magister, that this was
ine other than Robert White. If so, White
)uld be one of the earliest English organ-
lilders as well as one of the chief glories of the school of music. Dr. Eimbault declares

his Preface to the Musical Antiquarian
ciety's edition of Gibbons's Fantasies (p. 7)
at Robert White was the First English musi-
in who adopted the title of Fancies for a col-
;tion of instrumental compositions, and refers
the Fantasias in the Library of Christ Church,
cford, in support of this statement. These
.ntasias, as already observed, are the work of
I'ZZi aw White, but the Fantazias in the British
useum seem to make good Dr. Rimbault's

The writer has to tender his sincere thanks to
3 Rev. Sir F. A. G. Ouseley, Bart., the Rev.
• W. H. Cope, Bart., the R'^ev. W. E. Barnes,
5 Rev. W. E. Dickson. Dr. Xaylor, Dr.
mes. Dr. Mann, Mr. Barclay Squire, and
p. Bertram Pollock, for most material assistance
idered by them in drawing up the foregoing
rticulars. [J.H.M.]

HS. vol. i. p. 365 6.]

WHITING, George Elbbidge, an eminent
Qerican musician, born Sept. 14, 1843, at Hol-
ion, near Boston, U.S. His mother had been
ine vocalist during her youth. Two of his
)thers adopted music as a profession, and with
3 of them, Amos, then organist at Springfield,
iss., he began to learn the piano when but 5
irs old. At 13 he had attained such skill on
5 organ as to make his first appearance at a
icert in Worcester, Mass. Two years later he

Printed by Bumey.

rhis anthem is at York ascribed to WtViam White ; at Ely. in Mr.

rkins's handwriting, to ' Dr. Matthew White of Xt. Church in

>rd. 1611.' But in the Ch. Ch. part-books it is assigned to Robert

ite. and these books were written about 15?1. An autograph book

)r. Blow in the Fitzwilliam at Cambridge also attributes it to

ert White, and Barnard prints it as Jtob. White, which seems con-

ive. [See SCHOOLS or Cosiposilioy. vol. iii. p. 272 a.]

rhe books that contained this .\nthem are missing.

rhis is printed in vol. ii. of Services and Anthems, published by

ns. .\t York it is ascribed to William, and in another copy to

thew White. .\t Ch. Ch. there is no christian name, but the

bury copy ascribes the piece decisively to ' Maister Whytt. orgt.

Westminster Abbey, temp. 1560.'

Ki this is only said to be by ' Mr. White,' It may belong to Mat-

» White.

rhis is only attributed to ' White.' Another anthem. ' O Lord

Governor,' in B.C.M. is ascribed toB. W., and probably Robert

te is meant.

See Bumey's History, vol. iii, p. 71.



1 succeeded Dudley Buck as organist of the North
j Congregational Church at Hartford, Conn. There
; he founded the Beethoven Musical Society for
church practice. In 1S62 he began his Boston
career, playing at Dr. Kirk's church, and after-
wards at Tremont Temple, and giving concerts
on the Music Hall organ, and on many other
large organs, and meanwhile studying with G. W.
Morgan, organist in New York. In 1863 he
visited England to study with Mr. W. T. Best,
and while there often deputised for Mr. Best in
church. Returning to America he became or-
ganist of St. Joseph's Church, Albany, where
EiriiA La Jednesse, now known as Madame
Albani, was a member of his choir. [See vol. ii.
p. 85.] After three years he returned to Boston,
where he was organist and director of music at
King's Chapel for five years, and at the Music
Hall for one year. In 1874 he vi.sited Berlin, and
studied harmony with Haupt, and orchestration
with Radecke. Returning to Boston again, he
became principal organ-instructor in the New
England Conservatory. He was also organist at
the Cathedral of the Holy Cross, and conductor
of the Foster Club, Boston. While Mr. Whiting
was its director the club sang a number of his
compositions, among others a setting of the pro-
logue to Longfellow's 'Golden Legend,' and the
first sketch of a cantata, 'The Tale of the Viking.'
In 1879 ^s accepted a call from Theodore Thomas
to take charge of the organ department in the
College of Music at Cincinnati, of which Thomas
was then director. A thousand dollars having
been offered by the Musical Festival Association
for a cantata. Buck and Whiting competed. Buck
offered ' Scenes from Longfellow's Golden Legend,'
Mr. Whiting submitted his ' Tale of the Viking,'
enlarged to a dramatic cantata for three solo
voices, chorus, and grand orchestra. The choice
fell on Buck, not without considerable difference
of opinion outside. In 1882 Mr. Whiting re-
turned to Boston and the New England Conser-
vatory, where he is now (1886) teacher. He is
still young, and it is believed that the world will
yet be greatly enriched by his work.

Besides many organ studies and concert pieces,
and the large works already mentioned, Mr.
Whiting has written a number of songs; a
Mass in C minor for voices, orchestra, and organ
(performed in 1872) ; a do. in F minor ; a grand
Te Deum in C major (written for the opening of
the Cathedral in Boston and performed in 1874) ;
' Dream Pictures,' a cantata (performed in 1876) ;
several sets of Vespers ; a number of four-part
songs ; a piano concerto in D minor ; an Allegro
briUant for orchestra ; suite for cello and piano,
op. 38 ; overture for orchestra to Tennyson's
' Princess ' ; ' March of the Monks of Bangor,'
for male chorus and orchestra, op. 40; 'Free
Lances,' for male chorus and military band ;
' Midnight,' cantata for four solo voices and
piano solo ; ' Henry of Navarre,' ballad for male
chorus and orchestra. Many of these pieces
have been performed in public. Mr. Whiting was
last employed on a symphony in C, and suite
for orchestra in E. [W.H.D.]



WHITMORE, CiTABLES Shapland, born
1805, nt Colchester, educated at liugby and
Cambridge; called to the Bar 1S30 ; Q.C. 1S55 ;
County Court Judge 1S57. He was an enthu-
siastic amateur, and composed various songs, viz.
'Oh Sorrow' (Barry Cornwall^ ' Oh, the merry
days,' ' Farewell, I know thy future days' ; and,
in 1S30, 'Isle of Beauty, fare thee well.' Tliis
last, with accompaniments by Rawlings, enjoyed
very great popularity, and as recently as 1S7S
was republished with fre.'-h accompaniments, as 'a
celebrated English ditty of the olden time.' INIr.
Whitmore died in 1S77, and on his deathbed
composed a Kyrie, v?liicli is good enough to be
included in the Temple Church Service Collec-
tion. His brother, Lt.-Gen. rrancis Locker
Whitmore, was director of the Military Music
School at Kneller Hall, which he left in iSSo.
[See Kneller Hall.] [A.C]

mas, born in T52S, is known only as the com-
poser of a collection of part-songs which issued
from the press of John Day in 1571, bearing the
quaint title of 'Songes for three, fower and five
voyce.^, composed and made by Thomas Whyt-
horne, Gent., the which songes be of sundrie
sortes, that is to say, some long, some short,
some hard, some easie to be sung, and some
between both ; also some solemne and some plea-
sant or mery, so that according to the skill of the
singers (not being musicians) and disposition and
delite of tlie heai-ers, they may here find songes
to their contentation and liking.' A woodcut
portrait of the composer is on the back of the
title. The compositions do not rise above me-
diocrity. A portrait of Whythorne, painted in
1569, is in the possession of Mr. Julian Mar-
shall. [W.H.H.]

— The Taming of the Slirew. An opera in 4 acts,
adapted by J. V. Widmann from Shakspeare,
and set to music by H. Goetz. It was produced
at Mannheim, Oct. 11, 1874. In English (Rev.
J. Troutlieck), by Carl Rosa, at Her Majesty's
Theatre, Jan. 20, iSSo. The English version is
published by Augener & Co. [G.]

WIDOR, Charles Mabie, organist and com-
poser, born Feb. 22, 1S45, ^^ Lyons, where his
father was organist of St. Fran9ois. After an
early training at liome he was sent to Belgium,
where he studied the organ with Lemmens, and
composition with Fetis. He then returned to
Lyons, and in Jan. 1S70 became organist at St.
Sulpice in Paris, a post he still retains.

M, Widor's intellectual activity and position
in good society did not tempt him to be a mere
virtuoso ; he soon won himself a place among the
composers and writers on music. His duties
as Clitic of the 'Estafette,' under the two signa-
tures of 'Tibicen' and ' Auletfes,' leave him ample
time fur composition. His works include a quan-
tity of PF. pieces ; songs with PF. accomjia-
niment ; duets for soprano and alto, etc. ; 2
orchestral symphonies (in F and A); ' Nuit du
Sabbat,' caprice symphonique in 3 parts ; 3 con-



certos for PP. and orchestra, cello and orchestra
and violin and orchestra; PF. quintet in L
minor ; PF. trio ; sonata for PF. and violin
suite for flute, and 6 duets for PF. and organ li
He has also published a Mass for 2 choirs and 2 «
organs; Psalm cxii. for chorus, orchestra, and
organ ; several motets, and two collections oj
'Symphonies' for organ. His Ballet in 2 acts,
called ' La Korrigane,' was produced at the Opera,
Dec. I, 1S80, with success, though his ' Maitre
Ambios,' an opera in 3 acts and 4 tableaux to a^
libretto by CopptSe and Auguste Dorchain, prO'
duced at the Opera Comique in May, 1SS6, vvae
not so fortunate. The work will, however, con
firm M. Wider in popular estimation and the
respect of connoisseurs; for the pains he bestows
on all his compositions, coupled with the grace i
and distinction of his melody, and his horror of
vulgarity, seem to point him out as fitted to please
both the public and the select few. His Sym:
phony in A was played at the Crystal Palace^
March 19, 18S7. [G.C.j

WIECK, Friedrich, a remarkable pianoforte
teacher, and father of Madame Schumann, waj
born Aug. 18, 17S5, at Pretsch, near Torgau, iij
Saxony, began life as a student of theology al
Wittenburg, pi-eacher and private tutor, and j
was for some time engaged in a piano factory
and library at Leipzig. His first wife w;
named Tromlitz, and was the mother of Clan
Josephine, his famous daughter, and of twof^
sons, Alwyn and Gustav. This union, howv:
ever, was broken off, and the lady marriedj
Bargiel, father of Woldemar Bargiel. Wieck;]
married again, July 31, 1S28, Clemen tin*
Fechner, by whom he had a daughter Makim
About 1844 he removed from Leipzig to DreM
den, where he resided till his death, Oct. 6,
1873, spending the summer at Loschwitz, and
leading a very musical life, his house a rendez-
vous for artists. Mendelssohn endeavoured to,
secure him as Professor of the Piano in the'
Leipzig Conservatorium, but without success,
and Moscheles was appointed instead.

Wieck began to teach the piano on Logier's
system, but soon abandoned it for a method of^
his own, if that can be called a metliod which
seems to have consisted of the application of the
greatest care, sense, and intelligence possible to
the teaching of technique and expression. He
has embodied his views on the piano and singing
in a pamphlet entitled 'Clavier und Gesang'
( 2nd ed., Leipzig, 1 875), translated by H. Kriiger,
of Aberdeen, with three portraits. [See vol. iii.
p. 423 &.] Among Wieck's pupils may be men-
tioned Hans von Billow, who, in a letter quoted in
the tran,slationjust mentioned, speaks of liim with
respect and gratitude. But his daughter Clara
is his best jDupil, and his greatest glor^'.

An institution called the ' Wieck-Stiftung'
was founded in Dresden on Aug. iS, 1871,
his S6th birthday, partly by funds of his own.
He continued to see his friends almost up to the
end of his life, and an amusing account of a visit
to him in 1872 is given by Miss Amy Fay
('MusicStudy in Germany," London, i8S6,p. 147).


published some Studies and Dances for the
110. Exercises in Singing, and a few pamphlets,
jrfall der Gcsangkunst' (Decay of the Art of
ging), etc. He edited a number of classical
noforte works which are published anony-
isly, but distinguished by the letters DAS
!r alte Scliulmeister). For portrait, see p. 492.
iIarie Wieck, daughter of the foregoing, was
a in Leipzig about JS30, and educated by her
ler. She vi.sited England in 1S64, and np-
rs to have been the first to perform the
icerto of Robert Schumann, in London, viz.
;he Crystal Palace, on March 5 of that year.
: now resides in Dresden, and is much
lemed as a teacher both of the pianoforte and
fing. She has edited several of her father's
ka. [G.]

VIENER, "WiT.HELM, violin player, born at
gue, Aug. 1S3S ; learnt violin from Mildner,

harmony from Tomaschek, in the Conserva-
um there. After playing a great deal in
,gue, he left it at sixteen for Brussels, and
Qce came to London, where he has been
iblished ever since as an excellent teacher

player. He held the second violin at the
sical Union for many of its last years, was
it leader of the Philharmonic band with L.
ius for several seasons, and is widely known
. esteemed. [G.]

VIENTAWSKT, Henbi, one of the most
nent of modern violinists, was the son of a medi-
man, and born at Lublin in Poland, July 10,
5. His great musical talent showed itself so
y early that his mother, a sister of the well-
wn pianist Ed. Wolff, took him at the age of
) Paris, where he entered the Conservatoire,
i was soon allowed to join Massart's class.
early as 1846, when only 11, he gained the
i, prize for violin-playing. He then made a
r through Poland and Russia, but returned
Paris to continue his studies, more especially
omposition. In 1 S50 he began to travel with
brother Joseph, a clever pianist, and appeared
h gi'eat success in most of the principal towns
ihe Ket'ierlands, France, England and Ger-
ly. In i860 he was nominated solo-violinist
he Em peror of R ussia, and for the next twel ve
rs resided principally at St. Petersburg. In
2 he started with Anton Rubinstein for a
jthened tour through the United States, and
T Rubinstein's return to Europe, extended
travels as far as California. Returning to
rope (1874), he accepted the post of first pro-
or of the violin at the Conservatoire of Brus-
, as Vieuxtemps' successor ; but after a few
rs quitted it again, and though his health
1 failing, resumed his old wandering life of
rel. An incident connected with this last
r deserves record. During a concert which
jave at Berlin, he was suddenly seized by a
3m and compelled to stop in the middle of a
3erto. Joachim, who happened to be among
audience, without much hesitation stepped
;o the platform, took up Wieniawski's fiddle,
finished the programme amid the enthu-



elastic applause of an audience delighted by so
spontaneous an act of good fellowship.

Struggling against his mortal disease, Wien-
iawski made for Russia, but broke down at
Odessa, and was conveyed to Moscow, where he
die:! April 2, iSSo.

Wieniawski was one of the most eminent
modern violin-players; a great virtuoso, dis-
tinguished from the mass of clever players by a
striking and peculiar individuality. Technical
difficulties did not exist for him — he mastered
them in early childhood. Left hand and right
arm were trained to the highest pitch of perfec-
tion, and while the boldness of his execution
astonished and excited his audience, the beauty
and fascinating quality of his tone went stiaight
to their hearts, and enlisted their sympatliy from
the first note. The impetuosity of his Slavish
temperament was probably the most prominent
and most characteristic quality of his style, in
which respect he much resembled his fiiend
Rubinstein ; but warm and tender feeling, as
well as gracefulness and piquancy, were equally
at his conmiand. At the same time he was so
thoroughly musical as to be an excellent quartet-
player, though perhaps more in sympathy with
the modern than with the older masters. He
was one of the privileged few who, by sheer force
of talent, take hold of an audience and make
even the cold critic forget his criticism. Impe-
tuous, warm-hearted, witty, an excellent story-
teller — such was the man, and such were the
qualities which shone through his performances.
He has been accused of now and then overstep-
ping the bounds of good musical taste, and indeed
his fiery temperament led him sometimes to a
certain exaggeration, especially in quick move-
ments, or to such errors as the introduction of
an enlarged cadenza in Mendelssohn's concerto ;
but who would not readily forgive such pecca-
dilloes to so rare and genuine a talent ?

His compositions — two concertos, a number of
fantasias, pieces de salon, and some studies — are
not of much importance. The best-known are

Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 109 of 194)