George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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that when there is room for individual expres-
there is still good work to be done, though
;an hardly hope that even the greatest com-
irs of the future will surpass the symphonic
mphs of the past, whatever they may do in
;r fields of composition. [C.H.H.P.]

S. A.), owes its existence, and its large per-
lal endowment, to the generosity and taste of
Henry Lee Higginson, a well-known citizen
Boston, and affords a good instance of the muni-
it way in which the Americans apply their
lit riches for the public benefit in the service
ducation and art. Mr. Higginson had for
; cherished the idea of having 'an orchestra
2h should play the best music in the best way,
give concerts to all who could pay a small
e.'' At length, on March 30, 1881, he made
intention public in the Boston newspapers as
iws : — The orchestra to number 60, and their
aneration to include the concerts and 'careful
iiing.' Concerts to be twenty in number,
Saturday evenings, in the Music Hall, from
iile of October to middle of March. Single
3ts from 75 to 25 cents (3s. to is.); season
5ts (concerts only) 10 to 5 dollars ; one public
arsal, is. entrance. Orchestra to be per-
ent, and to be called The Boston Symphony


r. Georg Henschel was appointed conductor,
Mr. B. Listemann leader and solo violin, A
musical library was purchased, and the first
ert took place on Oct. 22, 1881, at 8 p.m.
programme, and that of the 17th concert,
18, 1882, give a fair idea of the music per-
ed: —

Overture, op. 1 24, Beethoven. Air, Orpheus,
Symphony in Bb, Haydn. Ballet music,
munde, Schubert. Scena, Odysseus, Max
h. Festival Overture [Jubilee], Weber.
II. Overture, Leonore, no. i, Beethoven.
Dsody for contralto, chorus, and orch. (op.
Brahms. Symphony no. 8, Beethoven. "Vio-
oncerto, Mendelssohn. Overture, Phfedre,

ere were twenty concerts in all, and the

nded with the Choral Symphony.

ice the first season some extensions have

place. There are now 24 concerts in the

The orchestra numbers 72, and there is

rus of 200. There are three rehearsals for

concert, and on the Thursdays a concert is

in some neighbouring city of New England.

the performances and the open rehearsals

rowded, and so far the noble' intention of

bunder, 'to serve the cause of good art

■ has been fulfilled. We can only say Edo

tua. [G.]


lised October 15, 1878, and incorporated by

;tate legislature, April 8, 1879. Its object

J advancement of music by procuring the

1 MS. utter to Editor.


public performance of the best classical composi-
tions, especially those of a symphonic character.
The society in its five seasons has given thirty
regular concerts and as many public rehearsals
(six in each season), and two special concerts
with the public rehearsals — in aU, sixty-four en-
tertainments. At these concerts there have been
brought out 89 works, 14 of them for the first
time in New York. The orchestra numbers 70
players, and the soloist.s, vocal and instrumental,
are the most distinguished attainable. The
concerts of the first four seasons were given in
Steinway Hall ; those of the fifth in the Academy
of Music. Dr. Leopold Damrosch has been the
conductor since the start. Officers (1883) : —
president, Hilborne L. Eossevelt ; treasurer, W.
H. Draper, M.D. ; recording secretary, Eich-
mond Delafield ; corresponding secretary, Morris
Eetio ; librarian, D. M. Knevals, and twelve
others, directors. [F.H.J.]

SYMPSON (or SIMPSON, as he sometimes
spelled his name), Christopher, was an eminent
performer on, and teacher of the viol, in the 17 th
century. During the Civil War he served in
the army raised by William Cavendish, Duke of
Newcastle, in support of the royal cause, and
afterwards became an inmate of the house of Sir
Eobert Bolles, a Leicestershire baronet, whose
son he taught. In 1655 he annotated Dr. Cam-
pion's 'Art of Setting or Composing of Musick
in Parts,' another edition of which appeared in
1664, and the tract and annotations were added
to several of the early editions of Playford's
'Introduction to the Skill of Musick.' [See
Campion, Thomas, and Playford, John.] In
1659 he published 'The Division Violist, or,
An Introduction to the Playing upon a Ground,'
dedicated to his patron. Sir Eobert Bolles, for
the instruction of whose son he tells us the book
was originally prepared, with commendatory
verses by Dr. Charles Colman, John Jenkins,
Matthew Lock, John Carwarden, and Edward
Galsthorp, prefixed. In 1665 he published a
second edition with a Latin translation printed
in parallel columns with the English text, and
the double title, 'Chelys, Minuritionum Artificio
Exornata sive, Minuritiones ad Basin, etiam Ex-
tempore Modulandi Eatio. The Division Viol,
or, The Art of Playing Ex-tempore upon a
Ground,' dedicated to his former pupil, Sir John
Bolles, who had succeeded to the baronetcy. A
third edition appeared in 1712, to which a por-
trait of Sympson, finely engraved by Faithome,
after J. Carwarden, was prefixed. In 1665 he
published 'The Principles of Practical Musick,'
of which he issued a second edition in 1667,
under the title of 'A Compendium of Practical
Musick, in five Parts, Teaching, by a New and
Easie Method, i. The Eudiments of Song.
2. The Principles of Composition. 3. The Use
of Discords. 4. The Form of Figurate Descant.
5. The Contrivance of Canon.' This was dedi-
cated to the Duke of Newcastle, and had com-
mendatory verses by Matthew Lock and John
Jenkins prefixed. It became popular, and other
editions with additions appeared in 1678, 1706,



1714, 1722, 1727, and 1732, and an undated
edition about 1760. A porfrait of the author,
drawn and engraved by Paithorne, is prefixed
to the first eight editions. Sir John Hawkins
in his History gives a long description of the
Division Viol and Compendium (Novello's
edition, pp. 708-712). He tells us also that
Sympson ' dwelt some years in Turnstile, Hol-
born, and finished his life there' (at what date
is not stated), and that he was of the Romish
communion. [W.H.H.]

SYNCOPATION. The binding of two simi-
lar notes so that the accent intended for the
second appears to fall upon the first. [See Accknt.]
In the Coda of the great 'Leonora' Overture
('No. 3') Beethoven has a passage given out syn-
copated on the wind and naturally on the strings,
then fice versa.

It was not however always sufficient for Bee-
thoven's requirements, as may be seen from a
well-known place in the Scherzo of the Eroica,
where he first gives a passage in syncopation —








and then repeats it in common time, which in
this instance may be taken as an extreme form
of syncopation.


Schumann was fonder of syncopation than any
other composer. His works supply many in-
stances of whole short movements so syncopated
throughout that the ear loses its reckoning, and
the impression of contra-tempo is lost : e. g. Kin-
derscenen, No. 10 ; Faschingsschwank, No. i,
and, most noticeable of all, the opening bar of
the ' Manfred ' Overture.

Wagner has one or two examples of exceed-
ingly complex syncopation : an accompaniment
figure in Act 2 of ' Tristan und Isolde,' which
runs thus throughout.


^i= ^=i^=^===

and a somewhat similar figure in Act i of ' Got-
terdammerung ' (the scene known as 'Hagen's
watch '), where the quavers of a 1 2-8 bar are so
tied as to convey the impression of 6-4. Tlie
prelude to Act 2 of the same work presents a
still more curious specimen, no two bars having
at all the same accent.


Mollo Modo.







Its effect in the accompaniment of songs ma
be most charming. We will only refer to Mei »
delssohn's 'Nachtlied' (op. 71, no. 6), and ] lii
Schumann's ' Dein Bildniss' (op. 39, no, 2). [F.C ^

SYNTAGMA MUSICUM, i. e. Musical T« *
tise. A very rare work, by Michael Preetoriua *

A detailed account is given in vol. iii. pp. 25-! "
It remains only to speak of its interest as a bibl '|
graphical treasure. It was originally designed ;
four volumes, three only of which were publish) **'
with a supplementary collection of plates whi ™
Forkel mistook for the promised fourth volui ^
The fu-st volume of the edition described '
Fetis was printed at Wittemberg in 1615 ; i 'J
second and third at Wolfenbiittel in 1619 ; I ''
the collection of plates — Theatrum Instruni "
torum seu Sciagraphia — at Wolfenbiittel in 1 6j
A copy of this edition is in the Town Library
Breslau ;^ Mr. Alfred H. Littleton also possei
a very fine and perfect copy, which correspoi
in all essential particulars, with that descri!
by Fetis. But neither F^tis nor Mendel sei
to have been aware of the existence of an ol
edition. A copy of this is in the possessioi
the Rev. Sir F. A. G. Ouseley. The ist volu ^,
bears the same date as Mr. Littleton's co
Wittebergae, 1615'; but the 2nd and ,
volumes are dated 'Wolfenbiittel, 1618'; i If"
the difference does not merely lie in the std
ment of the year, but clearly indicates an earSi ifl
issue. In the edition of 1618, the title-page
the 2nd volume is printed entirely in black ;
that of 1619, it is in black and red. The til
page of the 3rd volume is black in both editi
but in different type : and, though the con
of the 2nd and 3rd volumes correspond genei
in both copies, slight typographical differei
may be detected in sufficient numbers to p:
the existence of a distinct edition, beyond i\'
doubt. It has long been known that tweri!
pages of the General Introduction were inij "'
than once reprinted; but these belong to f 1 *
first volume, and are in no way concerned wj! "*•
the edition of 1618, of which, so far as we ha' ' '
been able to ascertain, Sir F. Ouseley's copy''!"''
an unique example. '"*

But, apart from its rarity, the book is doal' ""
interesting from the extraordinary dearth of otK)' I"'"!'
early treatises on the same subject. Three simfl ' ''*
works only are known to have preceded it ; «' '"'
the amount of information in these is compM ' "•"!
tively very small. The earliest is a small voIub'' '•"hi
of 112 pages, in oblong 4to, by Sebastian 3E!W
dung, entitled ' Musica getuscht und aussgei


' In our description of this edition, in the article PeaetobIJ
following errata occur —

Vol. iii. p. 256, line 19. for 1518 read 1618.
note, /or 1519 rend 1619.
2 See the exhaustive Catalogue by Emll Biihm (Berlin, 18€^



si, 151 1.' It is written in German dialogue,
ied on between the ' Autor ' and ' Silvanus ';

is illustrated by woodcuts of Instruments,
unlike those in the Syntagma. The next,
in small oblong 4to, is the ' Musica instru-
talisch deudsch ' of Martin Agricola, printed
Vittemberg in 1529, but preceded by a Pi'e-

dated Magdeburg 1528. This also con-
s a number of woodcuts, like those given by
lung. The third and last treatise — another
ng4to — is the 'Musurgia sen praxis musicee*
Htomarns Luscinius (Othmar Nachtigal, or
thtgall), dated Argentorati (Strasburg) 1536,
reprinted, at the same place, in 1542. The
portion of this is a mere Latin translation of
dialogue of Virdung. The book contains 102
ss, exclusive of the Preface, and is illustrated
/oodcuts, like those of Virdung and Agricola.
11 these three volumes are exceedingly scarce,

much prized by collectors, as specimens of
y typography, as well as by students, for the
t they throw upon the Instrumental Music
he i6th century, concerning which we pos-
so little detailed information of incontestable
iority. The Breslau Library possesses none
lem. A copy of Nachtigal's ' Musurgia ' is in
British Museum ; and also a very imperfect
' — wanting pages 1-49, including the title-
! — of Agricola's 'Musica Instrumentalis.'

Littleton possesses perfect copies of the en-

n earlier work by Nachtgall — 'Musicasln-
itiones' — printed at Strasburg in 1515, does

touch upon Orchestral or Instrumental
iic ; and does not, therefore, fall within our
ent category. [W.S.K.]

ZEEN. [See Siren, vol. iii. p. 517.]



SYSTEM. The collection of staves necessary
for the complete score of a piece — in a string
quartet, or an ordinary vocal score, four; a PF.
trio, four ; a PF. quartet, five ; and so on. Two
or more of these will go on a page, and then we
speak of the upper or lower system, etc. [G.]

SZYMANOWSKA, Marie, a distinguished
pianist of her day, who would, however, hardly
have been remembered but for Goethe's infatua-
tion for her. She was born about 1 790, of Polish
parents named Wolovvski, and was a pupil of
John Field's at Moscow. She travelled much_
in Germany, France, and England, and died at
St. Petersburg of cholera in Aug. 1831. One of
her daughters married the famous Polish poet
Mickiewicz, whom she had introduced to Goethe
in July 1829. Goethe knew her as early as 1821,
and even then overpraised her, setting her above
Hummel ; ' but those who do so,' says Felix
Mendelssohn, who was then at Weimar,^ ' think
more of her pretty face than her not pretty play-
ing.' Goethe renewed the acquaintance in Aug.
1823, at Eger, where she and Anna Milder were
both staying, calls her 'an incredible player,'
and expresses his excitement at hearing music
after an interval of over two years in a remark-
able letter to Zelter of Aug. 24, 1823, again com-
paring her with Hummel, to the latter's disad-
vantage. Mme. Szymanowska appears to have
helped to inspire the ' Trilogie der Leidenschaft,'
and the third of its three poems, called ' Aussoh-
nung,' is a direct allusion to her. In 1824 she
was in Berlin. ' She is furiously in love (rasend
verliebt) with you,' says Zelter to the pioet, ' and
h as given me a hundred kisses on my mouth for you .'

Her compositions were chiefly for the PF.,
with a few songs. [G.]

CHUTZ, Heinrich (name sometimes La-
sed Sagittarius), ' the father of German
lie,' as he has been styled, was bom at
tritz, Saxony, Oct. 8, 1585. Admitted as a
later into the chapel of the Landgraf Mau-
of Hesse-Cassel, besides a thorough musical
ning, Schiitz had the advantage of a good
sral education in the arts and sciences of the
I, which enabled him in 1607 to proceed to
University of Marburg, where he pursued
1 some distinction the study of law. The
.dgraf, when on a visit to Marburg, observing
lis proUgi a special inclination and talent ibr
lie, generously oflfered to defray the expense
lis further musical cultivation at Venice un-
ite tuition of Giovanni Gabrieli, the most
inguished musician of the age. Schiitz ac-
lingly proceeded to Venice in 1609, and
ady in 1611 published the firstfruits of his
lies under Gabrieli, a boolc of five-part madri-

dedicated to his patron. On the death of
irieli in 1612, Schiitz returned to Germany
1 the intention of resuming his legal studies,

the Landgraf's intervention secured him
more for the service of art. A visit to

Dresden led to his being appointed Capellmeister
to the Elector of Saxony in 1615, an office which
he continued to hold, with some interruptions,
till his death in 1672. His first work of import-
ance appeared in 1619, ' Psalmen David's sammt
etlichen Motetten und Concerten mit 8 und mehr
Stimmen,' a work which shows the influence of
the new Monodic or Declamatory style which
Schiitz had learned in Italy. His next work in
1623, an oratorio on the subject of the Resur-
rection, testifies the same earnest striving after
dramatic expression. In 1627 he was commis-
sioned by the Elei'tor to compose the music for the
German version by Opitz of Rinuccini's ' Daphne,'
but this work has unfortunately been lost. It
deserves mention as being the first German
opera, though it would appear to have been
remodelled entirely on the primitive Italian
opera of Peri and Caccini. Schiitz made no
further efforts towards the development of opera,
but with the exception of a ballet with dialogue
and recitative, composed in 1638, confined him-
self henceforward to the domain of sacred music,
introducing into it, however, the new Italian

1 Goethe and Mendelssohn, p. 25.



Slilo Eecilativo, and the element of dramatic
expression. In 1625 appeared his 'Geistliche
Gesange,' and in 1628 his music to Becker's
metrical Psalms. After a second visit to Italy
in 1628, he published the first part of his ' Sym-
phonise Sacrae' (the second part appeared in
1647, the third in 1650), which has been regarded
as his chief work, and testifies how diligently
he had studied the new art of instrumental ac-
companiment which had arisen in Italy with
Monteverde. Two pieces from this work, The
Lament of David for Absalom, and the Con-
version of S. Paul, are given in Winterfeld's
•Gabrieli.' The Thirty Years War interrupted
Schiitz's labours at Dresden in 1633, and com-
pelled him to take refuge at the Court of King
Christian IV. of Denmark, and of Duke George
of Brunswick. In this unsettled time appeared
his 'Geistliche Concerte zu i bis 5 Stimmen,
1636 and 1639, and in 1645 his 'Sieben Worte '
(first published by Eiedel, Leipzig, 1870). This
last work may be considered as the germ of
aU the later Passion- music, uniting as it does
the musical representation of the sacred narra-
tive with the expression of the reflections and
feelings of the ideal Christian community. As
Bach later in his Passions, so Schiitz in this
work accompanies the words of our Lord with
the full strings. On Schiitz's return to Dresden,
he found the Electoral Chapel fallen into such
decay, and the difiiculties of reorganisation so
great for want of proper resources, that he
repeatedly requested his dismissal, which how-
ever was not granted. Like Weber at Dresden
with Morlacchi, so even in 1653 Schiitz found it
difficult to work harmoniously with his Italian
colleague Bontempi. Italian art was already
losing its seriousness of purpose, and in the
further development of the Monodic style, and
the art of instrumental accompaniment, was
renouncing all the traditions of the old vocal
and ecclesiastical style. This seems to have
caused a reaction in the mind of Schiitz, the re-
presentative of serious German art ; and his last
work — the four Passions, 'Historia des Leidens
und Sterbens unseres Herrn und Heilandes
lesu Christi' (1665-6) — is an expression of
this reaction. Instrumental accompaniment is
here dispensed with, and dramatic expression
restricted for the most part to the choruses ; but
in them is manifested with such truth and power
as to surpass all previous essays of the same
kind, and give an imperishable historical value
to the work. Schiitz himself regarded it as his
best work. Carl Riedel has made selections
from the ' Four Passions ' so as to form one
Passions-musik suitable for modern performances
— a questionable proceedmg. Schiitz died Nov.
6, 1672. His importance in the history of
music lies in the mediating position he occupies
between the adherents of the old Ecclesiastical
style and the followers of the new Monodic
style. While showing his thorough appreciation


of the new style so far as regarded the in
portance of dramatic expression, he had 11
desire to lose anything of the beauty and powe
of the pure and real a-capella style. And so h
his serious endeavour to unite the advantages 1
the Polyphonic and the Monodic styles, he ma
be considered as preparing the way for the lati
Polyodic style of Sebastian Bach. [See vol. i
5396,6656.] LJ-I^-^l*

STIMPSON, James, a well-known Birminj ^^
ham musician, born at Lincoln Feb. 29, 1821 'P
son of a lay vicar of the cathedral, who remove
to Durham in 1822, where James became
chorister in 1827. In February 1834 he Wi *
articled to Mr. Ingham, organist of Carlisle G
thedral; in June 1836 was appointed organist
St. Andrew's, Newcastle ; and in June 1841, (
Ingham's death, was made organist of Carlisle,

In February 1842 James Stimpson was unan
mously chosen organist at the Town Hall ai ^
St. Paul's, Birmingham, out of many conipetitoi fisl
and in the following year justified the choice I Wi
founding the Festival Choral Society and i ^\
Benevolent Fund, in connection with the Trie tril
nial Festivals. He continued organist ai
chorus-master to the Society until 1855. H
activity, however, did not stop here. In 1 844
was instrumental in starting the weekly Mom
Evening Concerts, of which, in 1859, he took
entire responsibility, to relinquish them only aj
heavy losses in 1867.

In 1845 Mr. Stimpson had the satisfaol
of having the pedals of the Town HaU 01
increased from 2 to 2^ octaves, so that
was able to perform the works of J. S,
unmutilated. He is still organist of the T(
HaU, and gives weekly recitals throughout
year to audiences varying from 600 to I
In the absence of a permanent orchestra — a &
remarkable in a town of the wealth, importaH|
and intelligence of Birmingham — many a you)
amateur has derived his first taste for classic
music from the excellent programmes of 1 ia
Stimpson. He played the organ at the prodij
tion of ' Elijah,' and Mendelssohn's last appeij ''.
ance in Birmingham was to conduct the oratoii a
for Mr. Stimpson's benefit April 25, 1847. Ij 1
introduced Sims Reeves and Charles Halle I ti
Birmingham, and laboured from 1849 until iSti i
in many ways, in the service of good mu8^ et
gaining thereby the gratitude and respect of 1 1 11
fellow townsmen. He has been Professor ) ei
Music at the Blind Institution for 25 years, j ij

D'Almaine published in 1S50 'The Organisi «i
Standard Library,' edited by Mr. Stimpson, CC t
sisting principally of pieces hitherto unpublish u
in this country. His other publications cons' [)]
mostly of arrangements, one of the best knovi 1
being the favourite anthem ' As pants the hai i
from Spohr's 'Crucifixion.' His long experien k
in teaching the theory of music is embodied it) ! ti
manual published by Eudall, Carte & Co. [G



A.BLATTJEE (Lat. Tahdatura, from Tahula,
a table, or flat surface, prepared for writing;
Ital. Intavolattira ; Fr. Tahlature; Germ.
ulatur). A method of Notation, chiefly used,
he 15th and i6th centuries, for the Lute,
gh occasionally employed by Violists, and
posers for some other Instruments of like

I common with all other true systems of
ition, Tablature traces its descent in a direct

line from the Gamut of Guido, though, in its
later forms, it abandons the use of the Stave,
It was used, in the i6th century, by Organists,
as a means of indicating the extended Scale of
the instruments, which, especially in Germany,
were daily increasing in size and compass. For
this purpose the lower Octave of the Gamut
was described in capital letters ; the second, in
small letters ; the third, in small letters with a
line drawn above them :—


D ii i'


tiis Scale was soon very much extended ; the
3 below Gamut G (F) being distinguished by
)le capitals, and those above g by small letters
two lines above them, the lower notes being
jfibed as belonging to the Double Octave, and
|;wo upper Octaves as the Once-marked, and
|;e-marked Octaves,

veral minor differences occur in the works
irly authors. Agricola, for instance, in his

' Musica instrumentalis,' carries the Scale down
to FF ; and, instead of capitals, permits the use
of small letters with lines below them for the
lower Octaves — ff g a etc. But the principle
remained unchanged ; and when the C Scale
was universally adopted for the Organ, its Tabla-
ture assumed the form which it retains in Ger-
many to the present day : —

Double Octave.

Great OctaTe.

Small Octave.

a •

i • • - —

t= _ _ , • !_J

■^ ^"p ^ GG AA BB

Once-marked Octave.


Tlirice-marked Octave,

Twice-marlted Octave.

•41- -•-

m- JL

^^^nzzz^n^^: _ , ■ ' — I — :zzz

le comparatively recent adoption of the C
l-board in England has led to some confusion
the Tablature of the lower Octave ; and hence
English organ-builders usually describe the

C as Double C, using tripled capitals for

owest notes — a circumstance which renders

on necessary in comparing English and Ger-

specifications, where the actual length of the

is not marked.

process of time, a hook was added to the
•8, for the purpose of indicating a Jf ; as,
!), 4 (djf), etc. : and, in the absence of a
sponding sign for the b, 0, was written for d b,
eb, etc., giving rise, in the Scale of Eb, to
ionstrous progression, Djf , F, G, Gjf, Ajf, C,

Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 11 of 194)