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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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2 Hrr onn statement to Ella, quoted by i ougiu lu bis Supplement
to F^tls.




Europe in the Middle Ages, that it is almost
impossible to sketch the one without touching
upon the other. Before the 12th century music
of a popular kind was almost entirely in the
hands of the wandering or ' roving ' musicians,
who, associated with actors, acrobats, loose
women, etc., led an unsettled life. That their
free and lawless existence offered great tempta-
tions to those of an unstable character may be
inferred from the fact that their numbers in-
creased so much that severe imperial and pro-
vincial edicts were enacted for their repression.
' E.oving men ' were considered ' shadows,' and
as such out of the pale of law ; they could not
inherit landed property, recover debts, nor par-
take of any Christian sacrament.

Yet by the agency of these wandering vaga-
bonds most of the ancient tunes or songs that we
have were preserved. If a new melody grew up
like a wild-flower, these fifers, fiddlers, or min-
strels took it up and made it known far and wide.
Although a social outcast, it was no breach of
etiquette to allow the musician in the houses
of high or low degree, and learn from him the
last ballad or the newest dance-tune. On all
great occasions, fetes or church festivals, large
numbers of them flocked together for the exercise
of their merry calling. But their associating
together as a ' band ' was a matter of mere mo-
mentary convenience, and their performances
only consisted of playing the melodies of songs,
vocal dance tunes, and marches. Bagpipes being
favourite instruments in these bands, we can
form an idea of the quality of the 'music'
Trumpets and kettle-drums were strictly for-
bidden to ordinary minstrels, being reserved for
the exclusive use of princes and men of high

These instruments predominated in the bands
which officially performed on state occasions, or
at royal banquets. It is said that King Henry
VIII's band consisted of fourteen trumpets, ten
trombones, and four drums, in conjunction with
two viols, three rebecs, one bagpipe, and four
tambourines. Queen Elizabeth's band consisted
(15S7), beside a small number of other instru-
ments, of ten trumpets and six trombones.' The
Elector of Saxony had in 16S0 twenty court-
trumpeters and three kettledrums, with ap-
prentices trained for the performance of each
instrument. Other courts had their trumpeter-
corps, and their respective numbers were con-
sidered an indication of the importance, wealth,
or power of the court. In the German Empire
they formed the guild of ' Roj'al Trumpeters
and Army Kettle-drummers,' which enjoyed
many privileges and were under the special
protection and jurisdiction of the Grand Marshal
of the Empire, the Elector of Saxony. No one
could be admitted to this corporation without
having previously served an apprenticeship of
several years. There is no doubt that this
coipuration exercised a very beneficial effect
upon the artistic education of its members.

' T.avoix.Histoire de rinstrumeotation depuis le XVI Steele jusqu'i

Dos juUl'S.

The following example of a trumpet jt
Bach's Christmas Oratorio, proves a
instruments and players of those ti:iB
capable of doing, and we must remerei
Bach did not write for artistes of a p
celebrit}', but for simple members of 1^
band of Leipzig : — i

Trumpet in DQ Andante.





The style of trumpet-music, due in £ ;
degree to the limits of the instrument, p 1
its individuality down to our time ; ai 1
a phrase in the great works of Bach, ;
and others, may have been played as a ' i
at a royal banquet.

But with regard to the roving musi :
As early as the 13th century those ' pipe '
were settled in towns, and who felt tl
minious position of being classed w
wandering vagabonds, combined and
' Innungen,' or corporations for their
protection, in Germany, France, and I
The first of these, the ' Brotherhood of S
lai,' was instituted at Vienna, 12SS, and
as ' protector ' Count Peter von Ebers
high Imperial ofiicial. He organised a
of Musicians,' obtained an Imperial cha
its perpetuation, elaborated a set of laws
guidance of the members, and presided
for twenty-two years.^ In Paris a ' I
Minstrels ' was appointed and statutes 1
for the incorporation of the ' Brotherhooc
Julian,' 1321.^ [See Eoi DES ViOLONS,
pp. 145-7.] In England the appointn
' Patron' of minstrels owed its origin to a •
circumstance. Randal, Earl of Chester,
suddenly besieged, 12 12, in Rhydland Ca
the Welsh at the time of Chester fair, .
de Lacy, constable of Chester, assemblf
pipers and minstrels, who had flocked
fair in great numbers, and marching a1

2 Forkers Geschichte der Musik, Vol. 1. 2ter Abacbnltt,
(Leipzig. 1801.)

3 Schletterer'3 Geschichte der Spielmannszunft In FranlWl
(Berlin, 18S4.)





)wards the castle so terrified the Welsh
ey instantly fled. In honour of the event
ris of Chester received the title of
IS of the minstrels.' ^ This dignified title
iwever no influence whatever upon the
s of music, but merely perpetuated some
public ceremonies once a year, down to
[ of last century. But in Germany it was
it. There the first guild at Vienna was
d during the next two centuries by most
large Imperial towns, who established
bands of ' townpipers,' or ' townmusi-
ander the leadership of the ' Stadtpfeifer,'
id to provide all ' musics ' at civic or
festivities. Wandering musicians were
prohibited from playing within the
ries of the corporation. In some towns
mber of musicians was regulated accord-
the importance of the occasion, or the
f the family requiring a band. The ' full
could only ofiRciate on civic state occa-
)r in connection with religious festivals.
erman could only employ a reduced num-
nd if at a citizen's wedding more than
lur to six pipers were employed, both the
feifer and the oflendiug citizen were
3 in a fine. Kettledrummers and trum-
lared not perform except at a nobleman's
tion ; the lowest rank of. the social scale
uld indulge in this luxury being a doctor-
Although the town bands had as yet
or instrumentation, consisting mostly of

fifes, flutes, schalmey, bombard (a sort of tenor
or bass oboe), zinken (or cornetti, horns similar
in shape to a cow's horn, with six holes, and
played on a mouth-piece like that of a brass in-
strument), bagpipes, viols and drums, — yet they
are the first germs from which modem bands

In the year 1426 the Emperor Sigismund
granted as ' an act of special grace ' to the
town of Augsburg the privilege of maintaining
a corps of ' towntrumpeters and kettledrum-
mers,' a grant extended during the next century
to most other free towns; yet it does not seem
that the results, in a musical sense, were of such
importance as we might expect.

In the pieces written for a band, which date
from about three centuries ago and have been
preserved to our time, we find a strange habit of
keeping difi'erent classes of instruments separate.
Flutes, reed instruments, trumpets, and hunting-
horns, were mostly treated as forming distinct
bands. Louis XIV entrusted LuUy with the
organisation of certain regimental bands, which
were to form a part of the regular army. Before
that time the great officers commanding in the
field engaged music, if they wanted it, at
their own expense. These bands consisted at
first of oboes (in four parts — treble, alto, tenor
and bass, or bassoon) and regimental drums.
The following march is one of the many written
by Lully, the notation being that given by

Premier Air de la Marche Franfaise pour les Hautiois fait par M. de LuUy.

]=- r f ii=i . N

qs I . N z=m.

■I S I ^^=1


■ . 1 ■ • » I ^— r

iH 'J < J jLJt

irneys General History of Music, vol. ii. p. 3S5. (London i 2 Georges Kasliier, Manuel gin^ral de Musique Mllitaire. etc.

1 (Paris, 1848.)

L. rV. FT. 4.





A more ambitious composition is the next i ' cornets ' are ' Zinken,' mentioned previ
piece, evidently written for town bands. The I [See Zinken.]


/-^ J. Pezb:



Trombono Alto.

Till the 17th century the music played by the
bands of trumpeters was learned by ear, and
transmitted without notation, as something of a
secret nature. AVhen princes took comm;iud of
their armies in the field tjiey were accompanied
by their trumpeters, both for signalling and for
enlivening the dreariness of the march or camp.

As they served on horseback, the ciostom a
of looking upon trumpet-music as being sped
appropriate to the cavalry service, and eventu
it became regularly attached to it. The mus
these bands, consisting only of trumpets
kettledrums, was naturally very simple.

Troupano L



N-i N-1 r e


The denomination ' Trompano * in the above
score is somewhat singular. The usual names

1685"')°''*"'' ^*"'"'"' fttnfetl'nmlffe blasende Miullc, etc. (Frankfort,
» Mm. Mai. S19S, KOniglicbe Hof- und StaaUbibUothok, Manich.

for the four different parts of trumpet-Bifl
were — Clarino primo, Clarino secundo, PuS
pale, and Toccato. In the example abov^ i
fourth part is either for Trumpet (in which 01

the bars written SS are to be played


etongue,') or for kettledrums, but prob-
ir both combinerL

fact that all trumpet and horn music
d from the absence of snch important
Js as the third and seventh of the domi-
jhord, gave it a monotonous character,
viate this the device was adopted of
■ to the principal body of trumpets, in the
the tonic, a few tuned in other keys. In
owing example we find two trumpets thus
iced, one in the dominant and one in the



second, the principal reason for the use of the
latter being the note G, by which a modulation
into A minor is effected. Rude as may be
these first attempts for enriching the harmonies,
they are nevertheless the starting-point of the
modern brass band. The adoption and exten-
sion of the custom of mixing in both trumpet-
and horn-bands a variety of diflferently-tuned
instruments made almost every harmonic pro-
gression possible, providing the band was nu-
merous enough.


an in C.


in G (alto).

)iiBA in D.

IPAL in C.

I inCandG.

longh trombones were in frequent requi-
they seem not to have been so often com-
with either trumpet- or horn-bands as
have been expected. In a collection of
ran hymns by Johannes Kriiger (' Psalmo-
ira,' publ. 1685) we meet with a fine ex-
of the employment of a choir of five trom-
which weave around the simple four-
tiorale a richly figured and most effective
panimer.t. The diversity of duties im-
upon town-bands — having not only to pro-
he music for all sorts of civic fetes, but
I high church-festivals to take part in the
il portion of the sacred rites — necessarily
an enlargement of the limits of ancient
nentation. Ti-ombones came into general
id being combined with flutes, oboes, pom-
ziriken (cometti), and sometimes a couple
mpets and kettledrums, some very decent
ausic emerged by slow degrees from the
oua noise of former times. Instrumental
now began to be noted down, and we are
d to trace its progress as we come nearer
!th century. Bands separated more dis-
' into three classes, each striving to perfect
n special mission — the full orchestra ad-
ig itself to the cultivated musical intellects.

jLubage. tte.

Kni. SIM, ESnlcUche Hof- and Staata-

whilst the military and brass bands appealed to
the masses at large.

A new era begins with the invention and
rapid improvement of the clarinet, which for
wind-bands is as important as the violin is
for the orchestra. Its brilliant tone, capable of
every shade, from the softest to the loudest ; its
large compass, extended by the introduction of
the smaller clarinets as well as by tenor and
bass clarinets, at once placed it in the rank of
the leading instrument, and the oboe was pushed
into the second place. Two more instruments
were so perfected in their construction as to
become important additions to wind-bands,
namely the bassoon and the French horn.

From 1763 military music assumed a definite
form, and although still very rudimentary, we
can trace in the instrumentation, as fixed by
order of King Frederick II. of Prussia (Fre-
derick the Great), the foundation upon which
further development, in the shape of additions
of other instruments, soon manifested itself.
This first organisation comprised two oboes,
two clarinets, two horns, and two bassoons,
to which after a short time were added a
flute, one or two trumpets, and a contrafagott.
The French bands of the Republic (1795) con-
sisted of one flute, six clarinets, three bassoons,
two horns, one trumpet and one serpent,
besides a number of side-drums. In the time




of Napoleon military bands made rapid strides,
botb with regard to the augmentation of their
numbers and to their executive capacity, and
were admitted to be the best then in existence.
It seems that between the years 1805 and 1808
the addition of bass-drum, cymbals and triangle
was made; and also into the Prussian bands that
most useless of toys, the crescent, found its way.

England having in no way contributed to
improve or even influence the progress of wind
instrumental music, we have of necessity to
pursue its course on the continent, from whence
any important advance was simply adopted.
It is difficult to trace the introduction of mili-
tary bands into the English service. In 1783
the Coldstream Guards had a band of eight
musicians — two oboes, two clarinets, two horns
and two bassoons. The Duke of York, wishing
to improve the musical service, imported from
Germany what probably was the first ' full
band' of twenty-four men, who, besides the
above-named instruments, brought flute, trum-
pets, trombones and serpent. To these were
added three negroes with tambourines and cres-
cent.i A fuller description of the circumstances
attending this introduction of a foreign band
may be found in Parke's 'Musical Memoirs,' vol.
ii. p. 239 (London, 1830).

In the beginning of the present century various
inventions were introduced to improve the im-
perfect state of trumpets and French horns and
render thein capable of producing a complete
scale. A similar slide to that of the trombone
was added both to trumpets and horns, but its
manipulation was so difficult that it did not
gain ground. A more important addition was
that of heys to the bugle. Although the tone
was thereby rendered unequal, yet this defect
was compensated for by the gain of a complete
chromatic scale, and the key-bugle became
a much-used favourite instrument in most mili-
tary and brass-bands of the time. [See Bugle,
vol. i. p. 280.] The greatest event however
for all brass instruments was the invention
of the Valve. [See voL iv. p. 215.] Emanating
from two obscure musicians in Prussia, it at
first did not meet with the approval of the
musical profession, who thought that the ' good
old ' character of the brass instruments was
thereby deteriorated.

Valve-trumpets were introduced here and
there, but without creating a favourable impres-
sion. Thus it went on till two men came to the
front — one as a reformer of military music, the
other as the inventor of scientifically-constructed
brass instruments— Wieprecht and Sax. The
former had an anomalous position, for being a
civilian his propositions for reforming a purely
military establishment were received but coolly
by the military authorities. However, persever-
ing in his endeavours, he at last succeeded so far
as to be allowed (at the expense of the command-
ing officer) to introduce his instrumentation in a
cavalry brass-band. It consisted of two high

1 C. F. Pohl, Mozait uad Haydn In London. (Wleu, 1867.)


trumpets in Bb (comettinos), two key-bugles
Bb, two alto-trumpets in Eb (cornettos), ei;
trumpets in Eb, two tenor-horns in Bb, one b:
horn in Bb, and three trombones in Bb,
former all having two or three valves, the lat
being slide-trombones. The great advanti
of this innovation was so apparent that Wiepre^
was requested to introduce it into the bandt
the Prussian Life Guards, and he went so fir
to give the members of these bands perso:
lessons, to be assured of a proper perception
his ideas. In 1838 he was appointed directoi
all the Guards' bands, and in this influent
position he successfully dealt with the format)
and style of playing of the military bai
throughout Germany. The first grand effi
of combining many bands for a monster p
formance, at which he oflSciated, was at a fi
given at Berlin on May 12, 1838, to the Empei
Nicolaus of Russia, who was on a visit to t
King of Prussia, when Wieprecht conducted
performance of sixteen infantry and sixte
cavalry bands, consisting of 1000 wind-insti
ments, besides 200 side-drummers. He direct
this great mass of musicians, all dressed in br
liant uniforms, in plain civilian garb, and it
said that the Emperor was so struck with t
incongruity of the thing that Wieprecht w
hurriedly put into uniform to conduct a seco:
performance before the crowned heads four da
after.^ Without following in detail the mai
results of his well-directed efforts, we will on
give the instrumentation of the first milita
(reed) band, as reformed by him.

2 Flutes.
2 Oboes.

1 Ab (high) Clarinet.,

2 EiJ Clarinets.
8 B r? Clarinets.
2 Bassoons.
2 Contrabassoons.
2 Tenor Trombones.
2 Bass Trombones.

2 Side Drums, Bass
(47 men in all.)

For the cavalry he organised the bands th
(trumpet-bands) : —

3 Comettinos in Bb.
3 Cornettos in Eb.
6 Cornets in Bb.
6 Tenor Horns.
3 Euphoniums.
12 Trumpets.
6 Tubas (Bombardonea).
(39 men in all.)

2 Soprano Cornetts in E
2 Altocornets in Bi7.
2 Tenor Horns in B7.
1 Bariton Tuba (Eupl

4 Bass Tubas (Bomb

4 Trumpets.
4 French Horns.
Drum, Cymbals and Cresce


1 Cornettiuo in Bb.

2 Cornettos in Eb.
4 Cornets in Bb.

2 Tenor Horns.
8 Trumpets.
1 Euphonium.

3 Bombardones.
(21 men in all.)

And for the light infantry (Jager) the instn
mentation was called ' horn-music,' consisting

1 Cornettino in B

2 Cornettos in Eb
4 Cornets in Bb.
2 Tenor Horns.

4 French Horns.
3 Trumpets.

2 Euphoniums.

3 Bombardons.

The regulation instrumentation of the A^
trian bands at the same period difi'ered from d|
above in so far that it regarded less the artisi
completeness than the production of great!

2 For a description of a similar performance see Berlioz, *ToJ«l
Musical.' Letter IX. Berlioz wrongly calls him Wibrecht.



jr, or loudness. We find therefore no flute,
s, or bassoons. It consisted of —



tan Infaidry Band 1860.


Ii A -> Clarinet,
nettinos {B 5).
nets (B t>).
lOr Horns.
nch Horns.
lOr Trombones.
IS Ti'ombones.
3 and 1 Bass Drum and
) pair of Cymbals.
(35 men in all.)

The same at present.
1 Piccolo in E|7.
1 Flute.

1 High A & Clarinet.

2 Ec Clarinets.
8 BU Clarinets (in 4 parts).
4 Horns (Eb).
2 First Flu gel Horns.
2 Second ditto.
2 ditto. B t? Bass (or Tenor

2 Euphoniums.
10 Trumpets El? (in 4 or 5

2 Bass Trumpets (B!J).

3 Bombardons in F.
3 Tubas inEb, C, or Con-
tra Bfe.

2 Side and 1 Bass Drum
and Cymbals.
(47 men in all.) i

his regulation number has however on nearly
jccasions been overstepped, and there are
uently bands of from seventy to ninety per-
lers. The natural aptitude of some of the
onalities, notably Bohemia, Hungary and
tria proper, for instrumental music, has made
strengthening of the number of performers a
paratively easy matter to the bandmaster,
pontini recommended to the special com-
,ion for the reorganisation of the French
tary bands, at Paris, 1845, the following as
best instrumentation for bands of infantry
ments : —

4 Saxhorns in B'P (Cornets).

4 Ditto (Althoms).

4 Bass Saxhorns in B I? (Eu-

4 Contrabass Saxhorns

2 Horns without valves.

2 Ditto with 3 valves.

3 Trombones (sUde — alt.,
tenor, and bass).

3 Ditto, with valves (ditto).
1 Serpent (Ophicleide).
1 or 2 Contrafagotts.


ncert Flutes.

10 First B h Clarinets.
10 Second Ditto,
to Clarinets.
3S Ditto,
•st Oboes.
;ond Ditto.

ssethorns (Alt. Clarinet

•st Bassoons.
;ond ditto.

rh Saxhorns in E b (Cor-

. it was not adopted.

/ike Wieprecht in Germany, Sax in France

ited a revolution in the instrumentation of

military bands; but, whereas the former
1 prompted by purely artistic motives, the
er acted from scientific knowledge and for
rcantile purposes. [See Sax, vol. iii. p.
I.] He adapted the German invention of

valve to all classes of brass instruments, and
'e them the generic name of Saxhorns, Sax-
mba, Saxtuba, etc., ignoring the fact that
ve-trumpets, valve-horns and various other
ms of valve-brass-instruments were known,
hough not in general use, long before he
jpted them for his ' inventions.' The bombar-
is (by him called Saxtubas) were designed
Wieprecht, and introduced into the Prussian
ny before ' Saxtubas ' were heard of. ^ How-
sr, by a unity of design and a great number of
jenious improvements in the details of manu-

A. Kalkbrenner, ' Wllhelm Wieprecht, sein Leben und Wirken '

(Berlin, 1882.)
Wieprechts Schrlften. Published letter. (Berlin, 1867.)

facture, he deservedly gained a great name as an
instrument-maker. This, combined with influ-
ence at the court of Napoleon the Third, and
the enthusiastic support of Berlioz, enabled
him to bring about a complete reorganisation of
the French military bands, he obtaining almost
the monopoly of supplying the instruments. He
designed a peculiar clarinet of metal, very wide
in diameter and conical in shape, formidable-
looking on account of a great number of keys,
and called the Saxophone. The tone of this
instrument is quite distinct from that of any
other, and imparts to all French infantry bands,
who have from four to six of them (soprano, Bb,
alto Eb, tenor Bb, and baritone Eb), a peculiar
reedy tone. It is a difficult instrument, requir-
ing careful manipulation. The following lists of
French infantry bands show that the instrumen-
tation, as fixed by the government of the time,
has already been considerably departed from : —

In 1860.

2 Flutes.

2 Piccolos. ,

4 Clarinets.

2 Oboes.

2 Saxophones soprano.

2 Do. alto.

2 Do. tenor.

2 Do. bariton.

2 Cornets 4 pistons.

2 Trumpets (cylinder).

3 Trombones.

2 Saxhorns, B b alto.

3 Saxtromba, Eb.

2 Saxhoi'ns, baritone B b.

3 Do. baas in Bb (4

1 Do. contrabass in

1 Do. contrabass in

Side and Bass Drums and
Cymbals. 3

In 1884,
2 Piccolos in E b.

1 Flute in D (concert).

2 Oboes.

1 Eb Clarinet,
4 B b Clarinets.
1 Saxophone soprano.
1 Do. alto.
1 Do. tenor.

1 Do. baritone.

2 Bassoons.

1 Petit Bugle in Eb.

2 Pistons in B b.
2 Bugles in Bb.
2 Horns inEb.

2 Trumpets in Bb.

3 Altos inEb.

2 Barytones in B b.

3 Trombones.

Bass in B b (Euphonium).
Contrabass in E b.
Do. inBb.
Drums and Cymbals.*

The bands of two more armies may be men-
tioned ; the first on account of a rather peculiar
instrumentation, and the second as a curious
illustration of the influence of European ideas
upon a very distant people.


2 Flutes.

1 Oboe.

2Eb Clarinets.

8 B b Clarinets.

1 Piccolo inEb (Dp).
1 Flute inEb.

1 E 9 Clarinet.
10 B b Clarinets.

2 Saxophones sopr. inBb.
2 Do. alto inEb.
2 Do. tenor in B b.
2 Do; bass in C.

2 Fltigelhorns in B b.
4 Cornets in Bb.

3 Trumpets in E b.
2 French Horns.

4 Tenor trombones in 0.

1 Bass trombone in F.

2 Euphoniums in B7.
2 Bombardons in Eb.
2 Tubas in C.
1 Tuba (Contra F).
1 high (shallow Side Drum).
1 do. (long, old pattern).
1 Bass Drum.
1 Cymbals.
1 Lyra (Glockenspiel).

(To which are added, for
various instruments, 10
pupils under training.)

3 Albert Ferrin, Military Baads, etc. (London, ISfS.) ^

4 A. Kalkbrenner, • Die Organisation der MilitaiimusikchOre, ete.
(Hanover, 1884.)

1 5 Ibid.

4 Saxophones in B b.
4 Do. inEb.
2 Do. in B (bass).

2 Baritones in Bb.

3 Cornets in B 5.

2 Trumpets in Eb.

3 Trombones.

4 Euphoniums.

Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 112 of 194)