George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

. (page 113 of 194)
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2 Bombardones in Eb.
2 Contrabasses in Bb.
And 2 Drums, with Cym-
bals.5



470



WIND-BAND.



English bands of line regiments consist of^



1 Piccolo.
1 Flute.

1 or 2 Oboes (C-Clarinets ?).

2 E D Clarinets.

From 8 to 10 B b Clarinets
(3 parts).

1 Alto Clarinet in Eb.

2 Bassoons (or Bass Clari-

nets).
4 Horns in E b.



2 Cornets in B *7.

2 Trumpets in E'7.

1 or ;i Baritones in BH.

1 or 2 Euphoniums in B ''.

2 Tenor Trombones in Bb.

1 Bass Trombone in G.

2 or 3 Bombai-dones in E b.
1 Contrabass in Bb (')•
Side and Bass Drum with

Cymbals.



Military bands are now constructed upon the
same system throughout the civilised world.
Varying from twenty to sixty-five members, the
instrumentation differs only in minor details
from that of the bands named above.

An event of interest in the annals of military
music took place in the year of the French Ex-
hibition, 1867, as in connection with it a grand
contest for military bands was organised, and
every sovereign of Europe invited to allow one
of his military bands to compete. The following
bands responded, England making no appearance.







•&2




State.


Bands.


.o'S
S 3


Conductor.












^^




1. Austria.


Band of the 73rd
Regiment.


76


Zimmermann.


2. Tiussia.


Band combined of
two Kegiments of
the Guards.


87


Wieprecht.


3. Bavaria.


Taud of 1st Infan-
try Regiment.


51


Siebenkas.


4. Baden .


Band of Grenadier
Regiment.


54


Burg.


6. Belgium


Combined bands of
the Guides and
Grenadier Regi-
ment.


59


Bender.


6. Holland


Combined bands of
Chasseurs and
Grenadiers.


56


Dunkler.


7. France .


(a) Band of Mount-
ed Guides.


62


Cressonois.




(6) Garde de Paris.


56


Paulus.


8. Spain. .


Band of 1st En-
gineer Corps.


64


Maimo.


9. Eussia .


Band of Mounted
Guards.


71


Dorfeld.



The jury consisted of twenty members, under
the presidency of General Mellinet, and included
George Kastner, A. Thomas, Hans von Billow,
Felicien David, Leo Delibes, Grisar, Professor
Hanslick ; etc., etc.

The contest took place in the Exhibition before
30,000 spectators. The result was —

First prize : (a) Prussian band ; (6) Paris
Guards ; (c) Austria.

Second prize : (a) Bavaria ; (6) Eussia ; (c)
French Guides.

Third prize : (a) Holland ; (b) Baden.

Fourth prize : (a) Belgium; (b) Spain.

About the same time Mr. Gilmore brought the
band of the 22nd Eegiment of New York to
Europe, giving concerts at Liverpool, Dublin,
the Crystal Palace, Paris, etc. Although the band
had a great reputation, its performances sur-
passed the expectation of even the most fastidious
critics. Placed under exceptionally favourable



WIND-BAND.

circumstances at New York, Mr. Gilmore waal
able to organise a band of unusually good per-
formers, capable of rendering the most difficult'
passages in concerted pieces with a precision and;
refinement deserving the highest praise, andj
containing a number of solo-players of great skill
and taste. Tlieir intonation was correct, the
attack vigorous and precise, while the gradations]
of tone from the greatest fortissimo to an almost!
vanishing point of pianissimo proved not only a '
most careful training of the band, but also the
artistic merit of the conductor.

Their programmes (although, like those of
other military bands, consisting mostly of ar-
rangements of orchestral works) were carefully
chosen and interesting. A noteworthy number ;
was an adaptation of Liszt's ' Rhapsodie Hon-
groise,' the technical difficulties of which are
rather increased by its transference from the
piano to a wind-b.and, but the rendering oft
which created among the audience a genuin^
enthusiasm. The daily papers of May 1S78, as -
well as the musical periodicals, were unanimous
in their praise of ' Gilmore's Band.'

Their instrumentation was as follows : — 2 pic- j
colos, 2 flutes, 2 oboes, i Ab piccolo clarinet, '
3 Eb clarinets, 8 first, 4 second, and 4 third Bb
clarinets, i alto and i bass clarinet, i soprano,
1 alto, I tenor and i bass saxophone, 2 bassoons,
I contrafagotto, i Eb cornetto, 2 first and 2 second
Bb cornets, 2 trumpets, 2 fliigelhorns, 4 French
horns, 2 Eb alto horns, 2 Bb tenor horns, »^
euplioniums, 3 trombones, 5 bombardons, J-
drums and cymbals — 66 in all.

A few words are necessary with reference
to horn-bands. Like trumpets, horns enjoyed
the distinction of being reserved for the upper
classes. They were used for signalling during
the progress of the chase, and for playing merry
fanfares and other pieces when the huntsmen
took their meal in the forest or returned home.
They developed a distinct characteristic strain,
which with its lively rhythm, mostly in 6-8
time, suited its purpose admirably. [See HoRU,
vol. i. p. 751.] The number of fine compositions
in which phrases for the horns ' k la chasse *
occur give i)roof of the enduring impression
they made, and they lost nothing of their effect
by being transferred from the forest to the stage
or concert-room. The most noted of these com-
positions is the overture to the opera ' Le jeune
Henri,' by Mehul, which soon after its appear-
ance made itself known over Europe under the
name of ' Hunting Overture,' or ' Jagd Sym-
phonie.' It is almost entirely constructed on
old French hunting fanfares, and even yet is »
favourite.




/I f f- f



WIND-BAND.



tr



WIND-BAND.



471



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Having already recorded the reformation of
le Prussian cavalry brass-bands by "Wieprecht,

reformation which very soon extended into
jarly every other European state, and the im-
rovements of Sax, we may now proceed to the
rass-bands of the present time.

No statistical record of the number of private
rass-bands in Great Britain has yet been
)mpiled, but their number is very large. A
msiderable number of these bands have reached

high state of excellence. Of course, looked
pon from the point of 'high art culture,'
rass bands are of no account. But viewed as a
jpular agent for the improvement of the
usifal taste of the people, they are of great
aportance. The comparative ease with which
brass instrument may be learned, the similarity
■ execution upon all of them, which promotes a
eling of equality, and gives no technical ad-



vantage to any player, and the imposing effect
which a well-managed brass-band is capable of
producing — these circumstances offer attractions
to the toiling multitude which no other form of
music can equal.

Originally introduced by some of the large
employers of labour in Lancashire as an innocent
and desirable recreation among their workpeople,
brass-bands soon multiplied. As they improved
in executive capability, an honourable spirit of
emulation arose among the better ones for a
public recognition of their respective claims to
superiority. This led to the organisation of
public contests, coupled with the award of prizes
for superior merit. It is really marvellous
that these contests have survived the tests of
half a century, and flourish now more than ever.
The task of employing part of the scanty leisure
in the study of an uninteresting * part,' the se-
vere rehearsals neces-ary to ensure pre-eminence,
and the fine results achieved by many of the ex-
isting bands, furnish a sufficient proof of the
love of music among those whose life is passed
in useful activity. These contests are watched
annually by hundreds of thousands of spectators,
and the award of prizes is a source of ever-
increasing interest to the multitude, while it
gives a distinguished position to the winning
band. Mr. Enderby Jackson of Hull deserves
to be mentioned as having been the active pro-
moter of many of these contests in the midland
and northern counties. The highest success
which he acliieved was the organisation of the
'Grand National Brass-band Contest' at the
Crystal Palace, Sydenham, on the lotii and iith
of July, t86o. a hundred and sixty -nine
bands were entered as competitors, the actual
number appearing at the Palace being about
seventy less. On six platforms the competition
proceeded from lo a.m. till late in the afternoon
of each day. Three judges officiated at each
platform and selected the two best bands of those
which had played before them. The twelve
bands thus selected had a final struggle for the
honour of the first prize before the combined
eighteen judges, whose award on the fii-.st day
gave the following prizes : —

First prize. — The Blackdyke Mills band; con-
ductor, Mr. Longbottom.

Second prize, — The Saltaire band; conductor,
Mr. R. Smith,

Third prize. — TheCyfarthfa band; conductor,
Mr. R. Livesey.

Fourth prize. — The Darlington Saxhorn band;
conductor, Mr. H. Hoggett.

Fifth prize. — The Dewsbury band ; conductor,
Mr. John Peel.

The bands obtaining the first and second
prizes on the first day were not allowed to enter
into the competition of the second day, when the
following bands respectively succeeded : —

First prize. — The Cyfarthfa band; conductor,
Mr. R. Livesey.

Second prize. — The Dewsbury band ; con-
ductor, Mr. J. Peel.



472



WIND-BAND.



Third prize. — The Goldshill Saxhorn band ;
conductor. Mr. J. Blandford.

Fourth prize. — The Chesterfield band; con-
ductor, iSIr. H. Slack.

Fifth prize. — The Meltham MiUs band ; con-
ductor, iSIr. H. Hartley.

The united bands, comprising over looo brass
instruments, performed the following programme
each day : — ' Kule Britannia,' chorus — ' Halle-
lujah,' Mendelssohn's ' Wedding IMarch,' chorus
— ' The Heavens are telling,' and ' God, save
the Queen.' The Times report of the proceed-
ings said : — ' The effect of the combined legions
of " blowers " (upwards of 1200 strong) was tre-
mendous. Tlie organ which accompanied them,
and which on less exceptional occasions is apt to
drown everything, was scarcely heard. . . . The
whole performance was conducted with wonder-
ful vigour and precision by Mr. Enderby Jackson
of Hull, a sort of "Delaporte " in his way' ; etc.

Since then the movement has gone on in the
Northern Counties and in Scotland, -ndth fluc-
tuations. There are periodical contests at many
towns in Lancashire, Yorkshire, and elsewhere,
and there is even a monthly organ for the move-
ment, The Brass Band News (Wright & Eound,
Liverpool). It is, however, extremely difficult
to obtain accurate information on so independent
and fluctuating a matter. [See Bkass Bands,
in Appendix.]

In America similar circumstances produced
similar results to those in England. A small
army with a small number of bands leaves the
musical field open to private enterprise, and the
music-loving masses of large areas have them-
selves to provide the bands for their open-air
recreation. It has been stated that in America
there are 200,000 men connected with brass
bands. Although we cannot go the whole length
of this estimate, yet we may safely assume that
the number of private bands is very large.

In all Continental countries the enormous
armies absorb most of the average wind instru-
mentalists for military band purposes. Being
pennanent establishments, and carefully culti-
vated by the states as bands, the members of
which have the privilege of following their pro-
fessional pursuits undisturbed when not actually
required on duty, it follows that there is no need
for a development of private brass or other bands.
This fact has to be considered when comparing
the number of private bands on the Continent
with those of England and America.

Brass-bands are confined by the narrow capa-
city of brass instruments to a limited range of
executive possibility ; but good work done, in
whatsoever shape, is worthy of praise. Let us
point out some mistakes frequently made. Some
conductors wish to widen the legitimate range
of brass-bands by adding brass clarinets to
them. This is a most absurd proceeding, by
which the very character of the instrumentation
is destroyed. A squealing Eb clarinet, the notes
of which float over the brass tone of the band
like a drop of vinegar in a basin of oil, is to a
cultivated ear an abomination. So is the vigor-



WIND-BAND.

ous drumming. For marching purposes tb
addition of percussion instruments for tb
stronger accentuation of the rhythm is allowabh
but out of that limit, if an addition is made, i
should consist of kettledrums (timpani), whic
heighten the efl'ect and are in character wit
the instruments. Another regrettable point i
the absence of trumpets (with shallow moutl
pieces) and the gradual conversion of brass-banc
into 'horn-bands.' [SeeHoEN, vol. i. p. 748.] B
the universal use of the cornet, which absorbs tb
functions of trumpets a,ndJliiffelhorns, a variety (
tone-colour is lost, namely the contrast betwee
a combination of trumpets and trombones, an
one of fliigelhorns, althorns, euphoniums, an
bombardons, each combination quite distinct i
quality. Let us hope that if the monotony <
the brass-bands suggests the introduction of som
variety, it will be made, not in the addition t
reed or such-like instruments, but in the legit
mate restoration of those mentioned above.

Finally, we may once more refer to the mil
tary bands with reference to an estimate of thel
strength. On a necessarily incomplete calculi
tion, made from reports of bandmasters of eac
country, excluding all bands of the Indian ao
Colonial forces, and not counting the man
smaller bands of the German battalions
authorised by the state, we find in Europe 104
regimental infantry bands (reed-bands) and 3*
cavalry brass-bands, containing at the lowe
estimation over 51,000 military musicians

If we examine the musical results achieved I
this small army it must be confessed that tl
rapid strides which have been made in the pa
fection of all classes of wind-instruments h;
not been accompanied by a proportionate advai
in the artistic capability of these bands. It
outside our present scope here to analyse tl
causes of this stagnation. The connection of fl
bands with the military service, by which simpi
utility is placed in ' the front rank,' whilst tl
of art is relegated to the ' rear column,'
at the root of the evil. To the same cai
may also be ascribed the state of the literati
of wind-instruments, consisting mainly of d
music of the trashiest kind, or operatic arrang
ments of more or less merit. The few exarn}^
we have of pieces for wind-bands by the
masters are not generally of a high order,
lack the necessary characteristic of bold outlsj
Between the aims and effects of writing for H
orchestra and writing for military bands there!
the same difference as between a carefully er
cuted painting, where the smallest details ai
rendered with minute fidelity, and a large fresc
painted with bold strokes and bright colour
We may however indulge the hope that witt
bands (combining all classes of wind- and perco tl
sion - instruments) will at no distant period ni 0,
outside the military atmosphere. The variety
tone-colour, the broad contrast possible in a tmJ :
artistic instrumentation, and the brilliant efifec u
obtainable by a iuU-sized band of antist-pe ^
formers, are too palpable to remain neglected f
ever. When this great material is placed on |j






WIND-BAND.

er basis, and the attention of ever-varying
ion brings it before the cultivated world as
ething new, then perhaps the composer will
arise who with broad brush will lay on the
urs of tone-pictures of a new order, which at
ent are still hidden in the future.



WINDSOR TUNE.



473



lost of the following pieces were written for
:ial occasions, to which the instrumentation

to be adapted. A high-class literature for
tary bands does not exist, and a fixed instru-
tation applicable to most European countries
only been recently attempted.
[ozABT wrote : — Ten pieces for 2 flutes,
umpets in C, 2 trumpets in D, and four
ledrnms — C, G, D and A; two Divertimentos
similar instruments ; six Divertimentos for
oes. 2 French horns, and 2 bassoons ; three
nades for 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 French
IS, and 2 bassoons ; two Serenades for 2
nets, two alto-clarinets in F (basset-horn),
■ench horns, 2 bassoons, and a contrebass (or
ra -bassoon) ; and two Divertimentos for 2
inets, 2 oboes, 2 English horns (alto-oboe),
•ench horns, and 2 bassoons. (See Kochel's
seichniss Tonwerke Mozarts; Leipzig, 1S62.)
. J. GosSEC deserves especial mention in
lection with wind-bands. [See vol. i. p.
|. During the French Revolution he was
minted bandmaster of the Paris National
rd, in which capacity he had to write all the
ic for the grand national fetes. As most of
e were held in large open spaces, he organised
lU orchestra consisting entirely of wind-in-
ments, which accompanied his patriotic
ins and funeral cantata. Among these, the
in to the Goddess of Reason, to the Deity,

were of so high an order and produced so
) an impression, that the Directorate of the
ubHc decreed him to be 'a composer of
first rank.' On the coUapse of the Republic,
new reign did not encourage popular fetes,
Gossec's work came to an end. Although
compositions in this line bore the stamp of
us, they are now almost forgotten.
EETHOVEN has left : — ; i) Marsch fiir Militair
ik (for the Grand Parade, June 4, 1816
). (2) March in F for the same. (3) Sextet

2 clarinets, 2 horns, and 2 bassoons in Eb
71). (^) Trio for 2 oboes and English horn

3 (op. 87). (5) Octet for clarinets, oboes,
is, and bassoons in Eb (op. 103). (6) Ron-

for 2 clarinets, 2 oboes, 2 horns, and 2 bas-
s in Eb. (7) Two ^quale for 4 trombones.
Three Duos for clarinet and bassoon.
lERUBlNi's autograph catalogue of his works
ains the following pieces for Wind-bands, but
•hat instrumentation we are not aware : —
I. Two marches, (i) MarcheduPr^fetd'Eure
oire ; (2) Marclie pour le retour du Prefet.
,. March for wind-instruments composed at
ma for the Baron de Braun. 1808. March
Vind-instruments. 18 10, Sept. 22. Ditto.

18 14, Feb. 8. March for the Band of the
onal Guard ; Feb. 1 3. Quick-step for ditto.



Spontini wrote several Marches for the Prus-
sian Guards' band.

KiJHNEE wrote a number of Fantasias and
Suites of variations for military band about fifty
years ago, mostly published by Schott & Co.

Berlioz. — op. 16, Symphonie funfebre et tri-
omphale, in three parts, for full military band,
and separate string orchestra, with chorus ad lib.
(Paris, Brandus).

Mendelssohn. — Overture in C for wind-in-
struments, op. 24. Although professedly for
military band, this overture is not effective for
outdoor performance. Even in the composer's
time Wieprecht rearranged it for military band.

Meyerbeer's four Fackeltanze, of all modern
compositions give the true character of military
music full scope. Generally for a trumpet-band
and orchestra, placed opposite each other at
the two ends of a great hall, the interweaving
of true fanfares with the strains of the orchestra
produces a most stirring effect.

Wieprecht deserves great praise, especially
as for his admirable arrangements of six com-
plete symphonies by Beethoven (2, 3, 5, 7, 9,
and ' Battle '), two of Mozart, about thirty over-
tures, besides numerous operatic fantasies, etc.
Most of these remain in manuscript.

Anton Reicha has written a number of works
for wind-instruments — twenty-four Quintets for
flute, oboe, clarinet, horn and bassoon (op. 88,
91, 99, 100); one Quartet for 4 flutes (op. 12),
etc.

Various collections of music arranged for mili-
tary bands exist, such as : — I. Boosey's Military
Band Journal — for full Band (monthly). Do.
Supplemental Journal (bi-monthly). ChappeU's
Military Band Journal (monthly). Lafleur's
' Alliance Musicale ' (monthly). II. Boosey's
Brass Band Journal (monthly). ChappeU's B. B.
Journal (monthly). R. Smith's B. B. Journals ;
and others. [J.A. K.]

WINDSOR OR ETON TUNE. This is first
found in Damon's music to the Psalms, 1591,
harmonised in four parts, and set to Ps. cxvi. It
is not in Damon's earlier work of 1579.^ As
no complete set of parts is known to exist, the
melody only can be quoted : —




This affords an example of Damon's method of
prolonging a tune by repetition, of which Haw-
kins speaks.

1 For an account of this extremely scarce work see Hawkins, Hist,
of Uusic, chap, cxvii.



474



WINDSOR TUNE.



In 1592 the tune appears in Este's 'Whole
Booke of Psalmes,' containing the Church Tunes,
and ' other short tunes usually sung in London
and most places of the Realme.' It is marked
as being one of the latter, and must therefore
have been in use for some little time previously.
In Este's Psalter it is harmonised by George
Kirby as follows, the melody in the tenor : —



E$^



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■^^^^=^-



ESE^i^^Egii



Tune. I



\^^^^^



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A=A,



Ei^p;



?c&i






^=m



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-l^lj..










Damon and Kirby merely harmonised the
melody, but whoever was its composer, it is only
an adaptation of tlie tune set by Dr. Tye to the
third chapter of his curious work, ' The Actes of
the Apostles, translated into Englyshe Metre . . .
with notes to eche Chapter, to synge and also
to play upon the Lute,' 1553. Here we find
the first, third, and fourth strains of Windsor,
and a fragment of the second. For the sake of
comparison Dr. Tye's tune is subjoined, reduced
into score in modern clefs.



^^



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Pe - ter and



Mean-



John they took their

J -^ J I



13:5^—=



^




WINDSOR TUNE.

A - bout the ninth hour for to pray, As they wen



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for to pray
- bout the

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wont to do.



for to pray.



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lame, Ev'n from his birth right poor,



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They brought and

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iald dai - ly the same, Ev'n at

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the tem - pie door.



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In Este's Psalter the tune has no distinctiv«
name, but in 161 5 it was inserted in the Scottisl
Psalter published by Andro Hart, as 'Diindie.
In Ravenscroft's Psalter, 1621, it is marked at
an English tune, and is doubly named ' Windsoi
or Eaton.' The tune was popular in Scotland,'
and this, coupled with the Scottish form of itt
earliest name led to the belief that it was indi-
genous to that country.

In Hart's Psalter of 161 5 the melody alone if '
given : —

Dundie Thine,




Here a slight variation occurs in the second
strain, and the leading note is omitted in the

1 The crotchet C is probably a misprint for D.

2 Burns, in his ' Cottar's Saturday Night,' refers to this tune:-

•Perhaps Dundee's wild warbling measures rise,
Or plaintive lilartyrs, worthy of the name.'
Care must be taken not to confound it with the ' Dundee ' of Ba»en»-
croft, which is the ' French tune ' of the Scottish Psalter.



WINDSOR TUNE.

fc, third and fourth strains, thus giving the
lody a modal form. This may have been done
issimilate its character to that of other tunes
;he collection ; but however this may be, the
idental was restored to the penultimate note
he last strain in Raban's Psalter, Aberdeen,

3:—

IX. Dundie Tune.

J J J , , 1



WINTER.



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throughout the hymn in the harmonised
.tish Psalter of 1635 : —



Dundie Tune.



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[G.A.C.]



T^INGHAM, Thomas, bom in London, Jan.
546. Began his career at the early age of
is organist of S. Michael's Mission Church,
;hwark. In 1863 entered the 'London Aca-
y of Music' of Dr.WyJde, and in 1867 became
jpil of Sterndale Beimett for composition,
of Harold Thomas for piano, in the Royal



Academy. In 18 71 he was appointed Professor
of the Piano in that institution, a post which he
still holds. Mr. Wingham's compositions, mostly
still in MS., contain 4 Symphonies — in D (1870),
in Bb (1872), in E minor, with choral Finale
(1873), in D (1883); 6 Overtures, one with
chorus; an Orchestral Serenade in Eb ; a grand
Mass in D ; a grand Te Deum, two Motets ; an



Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 113 of 194)