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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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Elegy on the Death of Sterndale Bennett, etc.,
which have been performed at the Philharmonic
Concerts, the Crystal Palace, Leeds Festival,
Antwerp Cathedral, etc. [G.]

WINN, William, bass singer, born May 8,
1828, at Biamham, Yorkshire, taught sing-
ing by Sir G. Smart and Schira, made his fiist
appearance in London in 'St. Paul' Oct. 24,
1855, at St. Martin's Hall. He became popu-
lar in oratorio and glee music. In 1864 was
elected a Gentleman of Her Majesty's Chapels
Royal, and in 1867 Vicar Choral of St. Paul's.
He is a member of the Noblemen and Gentle-
men's Catch Club, and is Honorary Secretary of
the Round, Catch and Canon Club. His song
' Nothing more,' and the prize glee, ' Go, Rose,"
are well-known favourites. His elder daughter
and pupil, Florence, born Nov. 1857, is a-
favourite contralto concert singer. [A.C.}

WINTER, Petee, opera composer, much es-
teemed in his day, born at Mannheim 1754, died
at Munich Oct. 17, 1825. At 10 he played the
violin in the Elector Karl Theodore's celebrated
band. He had some instruction in composition
from the Abb^ Vogler, but really formed himself
as a composer later in life. In 1776 he became
Musik-director of the court theatre, and in this
post made acquaintance with Mozart, against
whom he took a great dislike, and whom he
damaged later in Vienna by spreading false re-
ports about his private life.' When the Court
removed from Mannheim to Munich Winter fol-
lowed, and became in 1788 Court-Capellmeister.
This post he retained to his death, and was
treated with the greatest consideration, receiving
on more than one occasion leave of absence for
two or three years. He visited Vienna twice,
first in 1781, when he produced three ballets, and
again during the years between 1793 and 1797,
when he had nine operas performed at the Burg-
theater and Schikaneder's theatre, including
'Das unterbrocheneOpferfest' (Burgtheater, June
14, 1796), and a cantata 'Timotheus, or the
power of music' (1797), by the Tonkiinstler
Societat. The intercourse he maintained with
Salieri was important as inducing him to pay
more attention to the vocal part of his composi-
tions. This is perceptible in all the works written
in Vienna. He also visited Italy (Naples and
Venice, 1791 and 1793), Prague (1796), Paris
(1802 and 1806), London(i8o3-5),andltalyagain
(Milan and Genoa, 1817-19). Besides a number
of operas, of which the greatest and most lasting
favourites were ' Maria von Montalban ' (Munich
1798) and the ' Unterbrochene Opferfest,' popular
on account of its catching melodies. Winter

1 John's 'Mozart,' 2Qd ed., i. 393, 695.



composed a quantity of church music, cantatas,
Lieder, part-toiigs, and instrumental works vsym-
phonies, overtures, and concerted pieces for
various instruments), most of which were printed,
but have long since disappeared. His singing
Metliod (,Schott, Mayence, with German, French,
and Italian words) is however still of value.

We append a list of his operas, classified ac-
cording to the places where they were first pro-
duced : — Munich: 'Armida' (1778), 'Cora ed
Alonzo' and 'Leonardo e Blandine' (i779)'
'Helfeiie and Paris ' (German, 1780), *Der liet-
telstudent' (German operetta, 1781), 'Bellero-
phon' (Geiman, 1782), ' Scherz, List, und Rache'
(operetta, 1784), 'Circe' (1788), ' Jery und La-
tely' (German, 1790), 'Psyche' and 'Der Sturm'
(Shakespeare's 'Tempest,' (1793), 'Marie von
Montalban' (German, 1798), 'Der Frauenbund'
(German, 1805), ' Colmal' (1809), 'DieBlinden'
(German, 1810). Naples: 'Antigone' (1791).
Venice: ' Catone in Utica' (1791), ' I Fratelli
rivali ' and ' II Sacrificio di Creta ' (179a). Vi-
enna : ' Armida und Rinaldo ' (German melo-
drama with chorus and dances, 1793), 'I due
Vedovi ' and ' Das unterbrochene Opterfest ' (Ger-
man, 1796), ' Babylons Pyramiden' (German,
with Mederitsch, nicknamed Gallus, 1797), and

* Das Labyrinth ' (sequel to the ' Zauberflote,'
German, 1798).' Prague : ' Ogus, il Trionfo del
bel sesso' (1796). Paris: 'Tamerlan' (1802),

* Castor e Pollux ' (1806). London : ' Calypso '
(1803), 'Proserpina' (1804), 'Zaira' (1805).
Milan : ' I due Valdomiri ' and ' Maometto '
(1817), 'Etelinda' (1818), 'Sanger uud Schnei-
der' written in Geneva, but first produced in
Munich (^1820), his last work for the stage.

Of his church works there are now in the
Royal Chapel at Munich 26 Masses, 2 Requiems,
3 Stabat Maters, and a quantity of graduales,
offertoires, vespers, etc. For the Protestant
court chapel he wrote 7 cantatas, 2 oratorios, a
German Stabat Mater, and smaller anthems.

Winter's strong points were just declamation,
agreeable melody, brilliant choral writing, and
rich instrumentation, which he never suffered to
overpower the voices. His weakness was in
counterpoint, which he had never found an
opportunity of mastering thoroughly. As a
whole his church music is preferable to his
operas ; which, though vocal and melodious, have
neither originality, greatness, dramatic force,
fire, nor genius. His airs are specially weak,
never seeming fully developed. Winter could
amuse and entertain, but to seize the imagin-
ation, to touch, to agitate, was beyond him.
This is why even his best and most popular
works disappeared from the stage soon after his
death. [C.F.P.]

WIPPERN, Louise (Hakrters-Wippern),
born 1835 or 1837 ^^ Hildesheim or Buckeburg.^
On June 16, 1857, she made her first appearance
at Berlin and played Agatha in ' Der Freischiitz,'
and Alice in ' Robert le Diable' with such suc-

' Theie two were written for Schikaneder's theatre.
2 ■ Neue Burliuer Musik Zeitung.'


cess as to obtain a permanent engagement!
Berlin in September of the same year. She k
the post until her retirement, and was a gi
favourite both in dramatic and in the ligl
parts, viz. Iphigenia, Jessonda, Paniina,
sanna, Fidelio, Inez (^L'Africaine), the Print
of Navarre (John of Paris), Mrs. Ankersti
(Gustavus III.), Gretchen (Faust), Elizab
(Tannhaiiser), Valentine, etc. In Dec. il
she married at Biickeburg an architect nan
Harriers. She sang for three seasons in L
don at Her Majesty's, appearing first, Ji '
II, 1S64, as Alice. She pleased 'on accoun;
the freshness of her tone, her firm delivery of ;
notes, her extreme earnestness and her unqu
tionable feeling ' (Musical World). She v
an admirable actress. Her parts in Lond
were but few, viz. Pamina (July 6, 1865), An
lia (Un Ballo), Leonora (Trovatore), Zerli
(Don Giovanni) ; but several of her best pa
were in the hands of Fraulein Tietjens, then
the zenith of her fame and powers, and Mn
Harriers- Wippern was placed at great disa
vantage. In May 1868, while at Konigsbei
slie was seized with diphtheria, which com|jell
her to visit Italy. She reappeared at Beri
Jan. 5, 1870, and sang there for a year or moi
but her voice and strength were so much ii
paired that she was compelled to retire fri
regular work. She died Oct. 5, 1878, frc
another throat disease, at the Hydropathic I
tablishment at Gorbersdorf (Silesia). [A.C

WISE, Michael, born in Wiltshire (probab
at Salisbury), about 1648, was admitted a chi
of the Chapel Royal under Captain Cooke in 166
In 1663 he became a lay- clerk of St. Georg*
Chapel, Windsor. In 1668 he was appoint
organist and master of the choristers of Saiisbu;
Cathedral. On Jan. 6, 1675-6 he was admittt
a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal in the place
Raphael Courteville, deceased, being describe
in the cheque-book as 'a counter-tenor fro
Salisbury.' At the time of the coronation
James II. (April 23, 1685) he was suspends
from that ofiice, and Edward Morton officiate
in his stead. The cause of such suspension
unknown. There is in the Bagford collection i
tlieBritishMuseum library acoarse political son;
published in London in 1680, entitled 'Tl
Wiltshire Ballad,'^ from which it appears thi
Wise had been engaged with other Wiltshire me
in getting up a petition for calling a parliamen
It is possible that this siding with those oppose
to the Court policy may have been made tb
pretext for his suspension. On Jan. 27. 1686-;
Wise was appointed almoner and master of tl)
choristers of St. Paul's Cathedral. But he di
not hold those offices long. On Aug. 24, 168;
being at Salisbury, he had a dispute with hi
wife, in the heat of which he rushed out int') tli
street, and the hour being late, was challengei
by a watchman, with whom he commenced
quarrel, and received a blow on the head frot
the man's bill which killed him. The place c

3 Bepiinted by the Ballad Society in 'The Baerford Ballads.'


burial is unknown ; no traces of it can be
nd in the registers of the cathedral or any of

churches in Salisbury. Wise's principal
ipositions are for the church, and they are
aong the glories of our cathedral music. He
led melody to science, and in setting sacred
:ds evinced as much judgment as genius. His
hems, "Awake up, my gloiy," "Prepare ye

way of the Lord,'' and " The ways of Zion
mourn," have lost none of their charm by use
ige, and are still listened to with admiration
all those who hear them, and whose feelings
attuned to church music of the most elegant
I expressive kind.'

six of his anthems are printed in Boyce's
ithedral Music,' and an Evening Service in Et>
.^imbault's ' Cathedral Music' Other anthems
I services exist in MS. in the Tudway collec-
1, the library of the Eoyal College of Music,
1 the choir-books of many of the cathedrals,
ne catches by him are included in ' The
isical Companion,' 1667, and his duet ' Old
iron thus preached to his pupil Achilles,' has
en been reprinted. [W.H.H.]

iVITTECZEK, Joseph VON, ijnperial councillor
Vienna, died about 1859, became acquainted
;h Franz Schubert through Spaun.^ Im-
issed by the great musical genius of the in-
red youth he endeavoured to collect all Schu-
■t's compositions, manuscript or printed, with
;racts from newspapers and biographical
;ices, concerning him, and also drew up
'eral thematic lists of his vocal and instru-
intal music, etc. The whole collection he
jueathed to Spaun under the condition that
his death it should become the possession of
; Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna,
d be deposited in their archives, where it now
ms one of the most precious treasures, and
lere its materials have since been consulted
many Schubert-questions. The collection is
w often known as Spaun's ; it is however an
; of gratitude and justice to record the name
its proper founder — Witteczek. [C.F.P.]

WIXOM, Emma (Mme. Nevada), born in
52, at Austen, Nevada, U.S.A., from which
ritory she has taken her professional name,
e learnt singing at Vienna under Mme. Mar-
ssi. On May 17, 1880, she made her first
pearance on the stage, atHerMajesty'sTheatre,

Amina. Although praised for the fresh-
38 of her voice, and for her evident intel-
ence and earnestness, her appearance in such

important character was considered prema-
re, and she did not re-appear. In Italy she
d better fortune, and after singing there in
rious places, made her first appearance May 1 7,
83, at the Op^ra Comique, Paris, as Mysoli on
i revival of * La Perle du Bresil ' (F^licien
ivid), and was favourably received in that,
d Sept. 28 in Mignon. In 1884 she sang as
icia at the Italiens. She was engaged at the
)rwich Festival of 1 884, and on the whole made
lecided success, especially in Mackenzie's 'Rose

1 See Spaun, vol. ill. p. 648 a.



of Sharon' (Oct. 16), and at the miscellaneous
concerts, but in the soprano music of ' Elijah *
she was overweighted. On Nov. 7 she sang in
the ' Rose of Sharon ' at the Sacred Harmonic
Society on its production in London. During the
winter of 1884 she sang in the United States
in Italian opera. On Oct. i, 1885, she married
at Paris Dr. Raymond Palmer. She was an-
nounced for a concert tour in America for the
winter of 1885, and is now (1887) in Mapleson's
Opera Company at Covent Garden. [-A-C.}

WOELFL,^ Joseph, was born at Salzburg,,
probably in 1772, and his instruction in com-
position and pianoforte-playing was due to
Leopold Mozart^ and Michael Haydn. No
mention of him occurs, however, in the corre-
spondence of Leopold Mozart and his son. In
1792 or 1793 he began his public career at
Warsaw. He was already a brilliant pianist,
and his performances brought him into great
request as a teacher. Amongst his pupils was
one, the son of a banker named Ferguson, who
subsequently attained some notoriety as a per-
former and composer.* But Warsaw, in the
throes of the partition of Poland (1794), was no
place for an artist, and Woelfl betook himself
to Vienna, where he was received with favour,
both as composer and performer. His first
opera, 'Der HoUenberg,' was composed to a
libretto by Schikaneder, and brought out at his
theatre in 179.S. This was followed by 'Das
schone Milchmadchen ' for the National Theatre
in 1797, and ' Der Kopf ohne Mann ' at
Schikaneder 's in 1798. The value of these
pieces does not appear to have been great, but
they were successful at Vienna, and the last
two were performed at Leipzig, and ' Der Kopf
ohne Mann ' at Prague also.' To this period the
curious combination-piece, ' Liebe macht kurzen
Prozess,' may possibly belong. On the whole,
Woelfl was not of much account as a composer
for the stage. As a pianoforte virtuoso, he
stepped into the first rank, and was even able
to contest the palm of supremacy with Bee-
thoven.® Socially, Woelfl's pleasing manners
may have helped him to sustain the rivalry,
from their contrast to his competitor's brusque
demeanour. His strength lay in contrapuntal
skill and in remarkable execution, in part due
to the immense size of his hands. The heat
of their partisans recalled the strife of the
Gluckists and Picinnists, ^ but the two artists
themselves appear to have respected and ad-
mired each other. We hear of them as im-
provising duets at the house of Von Wetzlar,
and Woelfl dedicated one of the best of his
earlier works (op. 6) to Beethoven." At Vienna

2 The uncertainties that envelope Woelfl extend even to the .spell-
ing of his name, vfhich appears variously as Wolffl, Woefel, Woelfle,
WOIfel. Wolfell, Woelf, Woelft, Wulff. and Woelfl, the last of which,
on the whole, seems most probably correct. The Parisians despaired
of either pronouncing or spelling his name, and called him Wolf, as
they spell Kreutzer Kretsche, and to this day persist in writing Lislz.

3 In the I'rospectus of ' The Harmonic Budget,' Woelfl is stated to
be ' a scholar of the great Mozart,' which seems most Improbable.

4 Schilling— who spells the name Furguson.

5 A.M. Z. vol. i. 448. andIntell.Blatt.][i.,vol. lv.p.253;T0l.T. p.249.

6 See Beethoven, vol. 1., p. 1786. ' Seyfried.
8 See Beethoven, vol. i. pp. 169 o and 178 b.



the younfj composer married, in 1798, Therese
Klemm, an actress at the National Theatre;
and in the summer of the same year set out on
an extended tour, whether with or without
Madame Woelfl seems uncertain. He travelled
through Brunn to Prague, where he gave a suc-
cessful concert, and thence to Leipzig. Two
concerts, about Michaelmas,' signalised his ar-
lival, and his stay was of considerable length.
On April 11 and 23, 1799, he gave two more
concerts,^ and then pursued his way through
Dresden and Berlin to Hamburg, arriving there
in May.' At Hamburg he made another con-
siderable stay, and won many friends. More-
over, though the traditions of C. P. E. Bach
still lingered in the place, his playing elicited
great admiration. From Schmieder he obtained
the libretto of an opera called ' Der trojanische
Pferd,' and set himself to the composition of the
music. It does not, however, appear that the
work was ever produced, and perhaps it was
never completed. Woelfl had intentions of going
ou to London,* but seems to have left Hamburg
at the beginning of December with Kighini,
probably for Berlin.*

The next clear mention of Woelfl is at a con-
cert in Leipzig, Oct. 21, 1800.* On Dec. 10,
he gave a concert in Berlin at which Mozart's
' Davidde Penitente ' was performed. In the
next year he journeyed to Paris, perhaps through
Brunswick and Mayence,'' certainly through
Hanover,* reaching the French capital in Sep-
tember 1 801. There he soon began to attract
great attention. On the 5th Brumaire (Oct. 26)
the Journal de Paris described him as Tun
des hommes les plus etonnans de 1' Europe sur
le Piano.' His wit and courtesy suited French
taste, and his execution was at its acme. He
speedily assumed a leading position, and in the
next spring was reported to be writing an
opera for the Theatre Feydeau.^ This epoch
may be regarded as the culminating point in

1 A. M. z. vol. i. p. 479.

2 DOrffel's ' Geschichte der GeTrandbaus Concerte."

3 A. M. Z. vol. ii. p. 409. * Ibid. p. 31.

5 Ibid. p. 410. The statement here made differs from that of
all other biographers. Schilling seems to suggest that Woelfl
returned to Vienna, but all other writers assert that he went from
Hamburg to London, and from London to Paris, reaching the French
capital in 180L The facts given in the test show that this account
cannot be correct, and it seems improbable that Woelfl went to
London at all at this time, though Mr. J. W. Davison, in the Preface
to his edition of the ' Non Plus Ultra ' Sonata declares, without giving
any authority, that the Military Concerto (op. 43) was composed in
London In 1800. On the other hand, the following circumstances
seem, taken together, to make strongly against the London visit : —

(1) Woelfl left Hamburg in Dec. 1799 with Bighini (A. M. Z. vol. ii.
p. 410). Now Bighini almost certainly was going to Berlin to pro-
duce ■ Tigrane," in the early part of 1800 (A. M. Z. vol. ii. p. 620).

(2) Woelfl's letter to Lodi (A. M. Z. vol. ii. Intell. Blatt. no. x.). Is
dated ' Auf der Reise, den 15 Decemb. 1799,' which suggests that he
had left Hamburg and was on a journey in Germany. This is exactly
the date at which he would be travelling to Berlin with Righini.

(3) A Berlin letter of April 1800 (A. M. Z. vol. Ii. p. 622), declares
that Woelfl had been there three separate times since the preceding
June ; It is hardly likely that he went three times from Hamburg to
Berlin and back again between June and December, 1799.

(4) No trace of him in England at this time Is forthcoming.

(5) The programme of the concert in London on May 27. 1805. at
which he appeared, pointedly asserts that it was ' his flrst perform-
ance in England." (' Morning Chronicle,' May 27, 1805.)

6 DOrffel's ' Geschichte.' ^ A. M. Z. vol. iv. p. 157.

« A. M. Z. vol. lii. pp. 690 and 834. The last passage renders it likely
that the hornplayers Gugel accompanied him, and that the Trio for
-horns and PF. was written for this tour.

» A. il. Z. vol. iv. p. 604.


his career. Henceforward he falls, in sc
strange way, under a cloud.

Whether this was the result of a faux
cannot be exactly determined. If Fdtis's
cumstantial story is to be believed, Woelfl stri
up a friendship at Paris with the bass-sin
Ellmenreich, who was given to card-sharpi
In 1804 the pair travelled to Brussels, and gi
a concert which proved a failure. But the lit
social clubs of the town oSered opportunities
Ellmenreich of making money by gambli I
He was caught cheating, and the pair wo '
have fallen into the hands of the police but
the intervention of the Secretary of the Depa
ment of La Dyle. By his exertions they
caped, and went off together to London, whi
they arrived at the beginning of 1805. Wo(
does not appear to have been a party to t
fraud, but his intimacy with EUmenreich cau£
society to avoid him. He was not received
before, and finally died in obscurity and gr<
poverty near London, when is quite uncerta;
Of course this story amply accounts for the d
appointing close of Woelfl's career. But it seei
to be incorrect in almost every detaU. Th
Woelfl was brought into relations with EUme
reich by the project of the latter for establis
ing a German Opera in Paris is likely enough
but Woelfl appears to have been in Pai
throughout 1804,*' whereas Ellmenreich 1(
Paris at the end of 1803, and was at Vieni
at the beginning of iSos.''^ The statement th
Woelfl was received with less favour in Englai
than on his previous visit can only be true on tl
supposition that he had been there before, whic
as already observed, is at all events dubion
Moreover, Woelfl had no reason to complain
his reception in England in 1805 ; he certain
did not die in obscurity, and it is not likely th;
he died in poverty.^'

To return to certainties ; the three years and
half (Sept. iSoi-Apr. 1805) during which Par
was the centre of Woelfl's life were, on tl
whole, years of success. In the early part <
1804, his opera, ' L' Amour Romanesque,' wi
produced at the Theatre Feydeau with succes
In the next year he made his most considerab
venture with an heroic opera in three act
called ' Fernando, ou Les Maures,' which WJ
brought out anonymously at the Theatre Fej
deau. It was produced under very unfavourab.
circumstances, and was more of a failure than
deserved to be.'* Perhaps this mischance 1«
Woelfl to conceive a disgust for Paris. B
certainly left the French capital within a mont
or two without any other apparent reason, an

10 Op. A. M. Z. vol. It. pp. Ill and 320.

11 A. M. Z. vol. vl. p. 478 ; vol. vii. p. 142.

12 Ibid. vol. vi. pp. 281, 469, 602.

13 It may be added that it is not easy to see when Woelfl tnd K
menreich could have been at Brussels together. At the beginning

1802 both were in Paris. In the spring and summer EllmeMeu
went to London (A. M. Z. vol. iv. pp. 823 and 781), but Woelfl stayj
in Paris (A. M. Z. vol. Iv. p. 604). However, in the autumn of 18
Woelfl was at Amsterdam (A. M. Z. vol. v. p 115). and was tbougbt
be going to London, and It may have been about this time to»' "
two got Into trouble at Brussels. They are next heard »' '" °^f

1803 (A. M. Z. vol. V. p. 865). and are then both in Paris. But woelf
position there seems just as good after this date as before It.

u See on the whole affair, A. M. Z. vol. vii. p. 422.


jaired to London,' where he arrived about the
^nning of May, 1805. The first trace of
n is in an advertisement on May 18, of a
nefit concert by Mr. and Mrs. Ashe, which
Aes that he had just arrived in England, and
luld perform a concerto at this concert on May
— ' his first performance in England.' Besides
3 concerto (MS.), a grand symphony (MS.)
Woelfl performed at the concert, and
moforte concertos by him were played at other
icerts on June i and June 5, on the former
!asion by himself. He was received with the
latest applause,^ and everything shows that
retained his popularity throughout his seven
irs' residence in London. In 1806 his con-
•to known as ' The Calm ' created a positive
rore, being played at four concerts in about

months, and new compositions by him were
aost annually put forward as attractions at
} most important concerts.^ In 1810 the pro-
;ctus of ' The Harmonic Budget,' * presents
n as the fashionable composer of the day, and
portrait is one of the allurements to sub-
ibers. As a composer for the stage, Woelfl
'i. not make any greater mark in London
im in Vienna or Paris. Still, two ballets by
;a were produced at the King's Tlieatre,
a Surprise de Diane,' on Dec. 21, 1805, and
Izire ' (founded on Voltaire's ' Alzire '), on
1. 27, 1807. Both, especially the former,

. ased. His abilities were fully appreciated by
: artists and by the public, nor is any trace
: I falling off in popular esteem discoverable.
'. May 16, 1812, a new concerto of his was
lyed at Salomon's concert by Mr. Cudmore.^
!.veek later 'The Morning Chronicle' of May
! ;ontained the announcement, 'Died, on Thiirs-
. morning, after a short illness, at his lodgings
.;Grreat Mary-le-bone Street, Mr. Woelfl, the
vibrated pianoforte player.' ' It is impossible
; refore to understand the uncertainty as to
;., circumstances of Woelfl's death. An anxious

1 ussion was maintained in the 'Allgemeine
^8ikalische Zeitung,' in 1815 and 1816^ as to
fi ther he was dead or not. It asserted that
fjlfl had played at the Philharmonic Con-
st s, which did not begin till 181 3, and the
tiiev was only considered as settled by tlie
rriage of Woelfl's widow to an oboist at

1 16 of the strangest of the romantic tales current about Woelfl
Qi be mentioned here. Schilling asserts that he was named Music-
Dt r to the Empress Josephine in 1804, and followed her after her
Ih'ie (t.e.,of course, at the beginning of 1810) to Switzerland. Grow-

Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 114 of 194)