George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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Bt eary of the lonely mountain life, he went down the Rhine by
po and so to England. This story seems to be a pure fiction.
Vii I may have been Music-master to the Empres.s, but he went to
jO n in 1806, and is to be found in London every year from that
la' 5 the time of his death. In 1810 he was engaged on a monthly
lU ation. 'The Harmonic Budget.' which must have precluded
01 bsence from London. Finally, the Empress Josephine did not
» iwitzerland in 1810, or at any time after her divorce.

2 M. Z. vol. vll. p. 756.

8 sides MS.works which may have been novelties, and sonatas, etc.,
V© 1 the following 'first performances' : Symphony (June 15. 1808,
'ej i's Concert) ; PF. Ooncerto (Apr. 19, 1809, Ferrari's Concert) :
iyi vony (Mar. 28, 1811, New Musical Fund Concert) ; PF. Concerto
Ml' 6, 1812, five days before his death, Salomon's Concert).

' :opy is In the British Museum, but the torn condition of the
'itl age makes It impossible to say to whom it is dedicated.

=• imes.'Mayie, 1812.

^iilmllar notice, giving the same date (May 21), appears in the

G : leman's Magazine.'

' M. Z. vol. zvil. p. 311 : vol. zviii. pp. 291 and 762.



WOELFL.



479



Frankfort.® The foreign biographies of him are
almost all wrong as to the year of his death,
while they maintain that he died in the most
sordid penury, an assertion for which there
seems to be no ground at all.^

Woelfl possessed remarkable qualifications for
making a success in society. His portrait, about
a year before his death, represents a handsome
man, rather tall, somewhat stout, and of com-
manding presence.*" He possessed that indefin-
able charm of manner which so much contributes
to social success. He was, above everything,
a ' good fellow,' and a pleasant, witty talker,
fond of a good dinner (with a special penchant
for grapes), a good story, and good company.
His indolent disposition did not prevent him
from being proficient in the amusements of
society ; he played cards with great skill, and it
was difficult to find his equal at billiards.^'




As a musician, Woelfl exhibits all the excel-
lences that flow from a sound training. Like
other composers of that time he wrote much
trivial music, but his sympathies were steadily
on behalf of a more elevated style. Pupils
who wished him to teach them how to play
the showy variations that conclude his cele-

8 Mme, Woelfl appears to have been established as a singer at
Frankfort since 1^0 1 (A. M. Z, vol. vi. p. 402). Kxamiiiatlon of the
Philharmonic programmes reveals no trace of Woelfl as a performer.

9 This Is Schilling s account of his death : ' W. starb . . . im Keiche
des Mammon, unfern von London. In einem Dorfer mlt Schulden
belastet vergebens gegsn Krankheit, Kummer, Noth und Eland
ankiimpfend, jeder Haife entbehrend, ungekannt und von Allen
verlassen— auf elnem faulen Strohlager.' It Is just conceivable that
Woelfl might, If deep In debt, have given himself out as dead to de-
ceive his creditors, and lived some years after In obscurity. But the
following entry of burial, dited May 2.5, 1H12. In the Registers of
S. Marylebone, ' Joseph Woelfl, widower, aged S'',' makes this supposi-
tion most Improbable Woelfl s condition Is given wrongly In the
entry, and his age Is at variance with most accounts.

10 There was a portrait by Tlelker. This, or another, engraved by
Scheffner. was Issued with the A. M. Z. for Feb. 19, ](-06. The portrait
In the ' Harmonic Budget ' was drawn by Pyne and engraved by Mayer.
The original water-colour sketch by Pyne Is In the Hope collection of
portraits at Oxford, and from it the woodcut here given l^ taken.

n Had Mr. Cipriani Potter. Woelfl's pupil, been still alive the per-
sonal traits of Woelfl's character might have been more clearly exhi-
bited. Much of what is stated in the text is due to reminiscences of
Mr. Potter's conversations, kindly communicated by his son, Dr. Pot-
ter, and by Mr. A. J. Bipklns.



480



WOELFL.



WOELFL.



brated 'Non Plus Ultra' sonata always met
with a rebuff, and were not allowed to go on to
the variations till they had mastered the opening
alle<Tro, The ease with which he threw otf
trifles to catch the popular ear did not blind
him to their trivial character or impair his
respect for his art. Consequently, much of his
work, sonatas, quartets, concertos, and sympho-
nies, is thoroughly solid, showing great instrumen-
tal effect and, especially, contrapuntal artifice.^
His works, therefore, continued to appear in pro-
grammes for several years. '^ A strongly marked
rhythm and a predilection for sweeping arpeg-
gios, continued, on the pianoforte, from one hand
to the other were regarded by his contemporaries
as his chief mannerisms.^ He also had a knack
of writing minuets with variations, a habit that
diverges somewhat from the beaten track. His
facility in composition was remarkable. When,
on taking some string quartets to a publisher,
he found that worthy disinclined to undertake
the publication of classical music, he forthwith,
by way of sweetening the pill, composed a set of
waltzes in the shop.*

In extempore performance, few attained such
proficiency. At Vienna he rivalled Beethoven,
and was even said to surpass him. At Mayence
a military band came playing down the street in
which the concert-room was situated, in the
middle of an extempore performance. Most per-
formers would have been disconcerted by such
an interruption. Woelfl, however, catching the
rhythm of the drums, worked his themes into
a march, and using this as a middle movement
for his Fantasia so long as the drums could
be heard, proceeded without a break to his
finale.* He had so complete a mastery of the
technique of the pianoforte that he could play
a concerto in C major with equal ease in C'J
major, transposing it as he went.* He be-
longed to the school that aims at breadth of
effect rather than minute accuracy of render-
ing, and his enormous hands placed almost two-
thirds of the keyboard under his immediate
control, and enabled him to produce with ease
effects that to ordinary players were absolutely
impossible. Two passages may be quoted to
exemplify the size of his hands, the first a
favourite phrase for winding up a cadenza, the
second a passage for the left hand that few could
e.\ecute, as he did, clearly and neatly : —



$



-*- -li- -P-

-^ 1 ' — i 1—



t:



:qi=t:



1 See e.g. the Minuet of the G minor Symphony.

3 E.g. a Symphiiny or Overture by Woelfl appears in the Philhar-
monic pr.rgrammes of May 31. 1813, Feb. 13, ISl.i, May 1, 1815, May 24,
1M9. and Mar. v», 1822. ' The Calm ' was played at Leipzig in 1819 by
Schneider (A. M. Z, vol. ixii. p. 44).

3 A movement marked MartiaU, and replete with chords thus
spread out. is the piece that represents Woelfl in that curious series
of parodies, *Latour's26 Imitative Variations.*

* A. M. Z. vol. vil. p. 423.

S Ibid. vol. iv. p. Icrr.

« Comp. Beethovkh, voL I. p. 169 a.



:^



tr .

A



ii



The only pupil of Woelfl who attained mui
eminence was Mr. Cipriani Potter, but, as |
was Principal of the Royal Academy of Mus
for more than a quarter of a century, and pp
fessor of the pianoforte there for ten years befoi
that, it is probable that Woelfl influenced mui
cal development in this country more than hi
been generally suspected. In opera his impo
tance is nil. It is as a composer for and a pe
former on the pianoforte that he claims attei
tion. His performance could scarcely be equalli
in his own time, and his pianoforte compositioj
have not yet lost all their interest.

The following is a tolerably complete list
his works : —



rNSTETTMENTAL W0BK3

Op. 1. 2 Sonatas, PF. ; F, G (1795).

Op. 2. 3 Sonatas, PF. and Violin (1796).

Op. 3. 3 Sonatas, PF. (1797).

Op. :^. Sonata, PF. with Flute obbligato (1801).

Op. 3. 3 Quartets for Strings (1805 ?>.7

Op. 4. 3 Quartets for Strings ; C, F, C minor (1793).

Op. 5. 3 Trios, PF. Violin, and Cello ; C, Eb, C (1798).

Op. 5. Grand Sonata C Le diable a quatre '), PF. ; E. Also ' (

Op, 6. 3 Sonatas (dedicated to Beethoven), PF. ; Ab, D, A (179^

Op. 6. Trios for PF. Violin, and Cello.

Op. 7, 3 Sonatas. PF. (1799).

Op. 7. 3 Sonatas, PF. and Violin ; Eb, D, A (1800).

Op. 8.

Op. 9. Fantasia and Fugue. PF.

Op. 9. 3 Sonatas. PF. and Violin (or Flute) ; Eb. E minor, C (Ut

Op. 10. 6 Quartets for Strings, in two Books ; Bk. I. C, £, A (131
Bk. ii. G, D minor, F (li-OO).
•Op. 11. 3 Sonatas, PF. and Flute (1800).

Op, 12,

Op. 13. Sonata, PF. and Flute ; D (1801).

Op. 14. 3 Senates sur des Id^es prises de la Creation de Hl]l
PF. and Violin ; A, D. C (ISOl).

Op. 15. 3 Sonatas, PF. (1801).

Op. 16. 3 Sonatas, for PF. Violin obbligato, and Cello od 1(6.; )
D. G.

Op. 17. Sonata (4 hands), PF. ; (1S04). Also ' Op. 69.'

Op. IS. 2 Sonatas, PF. and Violin, and Fantasia for PF. solo.

Op. 19. Sonata (or Sonatas). PF.

Op. 19. 3 Sonatas, PF. and Violin ; D minor, 0, Kb (1604).

Op. 20. Concerto (Xo. 1, in G). PF. and Orchestra (1802).

Op. 21.

Op. 22. 3 Sonatas (4 hands), PF.9

Op. 22. 3 Sonatas, PF. ; G, A, D minor.

Op. 23. 3 Grand Trios. PF. Violin, and Cello ; D, E. minor.

Op. 24. 3 Progressive Sonatas, PF. and Violin; G. A minor, (IK

Op. 25. 3 Sonatas. PF. Violin, and Cello ; C, A, E minor (1W).U

Op. 2"\ Gr ind Sonata (preceded by an ■ Introduzione," coDsMini
an Adagio and Fugue in (5 minor), PF. ; C minor."

Op. 25. A Grand Trio, FF. Violin, and Cello.

Op. 26, Concerto (No. 2, in E). PF, and Orchestra asOJ). '

Op. 26. 3 Sonatas, PF. (1808).

Op. 27. 3 Sonatas, Nos. 1 and 2 for PF. solo ; Xo. 3 for PF. i
Violin (or Flute) obbligato ; D minor, F. D (1S04?).12

Op. 28. Fantasia and Fugue, PF. ; D minor (1805?).

Op. 28. Grand Sonata, PF.13

Op. 28. Grand Sonata. PF., with accompaniment for TloUn (UO ■

Op. 28, 3 Sonatas, PF. a809?).n



7 Advertised in Intel). Blatt. of A. M. Z., May. 1805. No. xL

8 The Andante from the second of these Sonatas was arrangei
a Song (A. M. Z. vol. iv, p. 564 ; Beylage iv. 1801).

9 The two titles given under Op. 22 are perhaps only different
scriptions of the same work.

10 3 Sonatas for PF. Violin, and Cello, in C, G, and E minor, w
published in London as Op. 25. Probably the second SonaU had b
transposed. ,

11 This Sonata appears to have been printed asNo. 12of»B<'pert'
des Olavecinistes, by NSgeli of (1805), and the Introduction i
Fugue have been published .separately by Diabelli of Vienna.

12 No. 1, Nos. 1-2, and No. 3, also appear as Op. 27. We also I
Op. 27 described as 3 Sonatas. PF. solo : probably an accidental r
description. Sonata No. 3 was also published as Op. 2*.

13 This may possibly be identical with the work next mentionea
M A. M, Z. vol. xi. ; Intell. Blatt. ill.



I



WOELFL.



WOELFL.



481



Op. 28. Sonata, PF. and Violin ; D. Also in Op. 27.

Op. 29.

Op. 30. 3 Quartets for Strings ; Eb, C, D (1805?).

Op. 31. Grand Duo, PF. and Cello (or Violin), 0805).

Op. 32. Concerto (No. 3, in F, ' dedicated to his friend J. B. Cramer'),
PF. and Orchestra (1807).

Op. 33. 3 Sonatas, PF. ; C, D, E (1807).!

Op. 34. 3 Sonatas, PF. and Violin (or Flute); F, 6, Eb a804?).
Use ' Op. 37.'

Op. 35. 3 Sonatas, PF. and Flute ; C, G, D (1806). (Scotch Airs.)

Op. 36. Concerto (No. 4. ' The Calm,' in G), PF. and Orchestra
1B06).2

Op. 36. Grand Sonata. PF. ; Bt>.

Op. 37. Grand Duet. PF. and Harp ; Bb.3

Op. 38. 3 Sonatas, PF. ; G, D, B minor. (Scotch Airs).

Op. 38. Sonata, PF. : D (1808 ?). Also ' Op. 58.'

Op. 39.

Op. 40. Symphony (ded. to Cherubini), No. 1 ; G minor (1808?).

Op. 41. Symphony, No. 2 ; C (1808 ?).

Op. 41. Grand Sonata (' Non [or ' Ne *] Plus Ultra'), PF. ; F.4

Op. 42. Sonata (4 hands), PF. with Flute (or Violin), ad lib. ; G.
ainor. A Version of his G minor Symphony.

Op. 43. Grand Concerto militaire, PF. and Orchestra ; C.

Op. 43. 3 Sonatas (ded. to Catalan!), PF. and Flute (or Violin),
llso ' Op. 45.'

Op. 44.

Op. 45. Sonata (or Sonatas), PF.

Op. 45. 3 Sonatas (ded. to Catalan!). PF. and Flute (or Violin).
Uso ' Op. 43.'

Op. 46. Grand Duet for PF. (4 hands) with Flute ace. Probably

Op. 42.'

Op. 46. 3 Sonatas, PF. with ace. for Flute ad lib.; 6, F, 0.
Scotch.)

Op. 47. Sonata (or Sonatas). PF.

Op. 47. 3 Sonatas, PP. with ace. for Flute (or Violin) ad lib.;
>,G,F.

Op. 48. 3 Sonatas, PF., Flute, and Cello ; 6, F, D (1810?).

Op. 49. Concerto (No. 5, ' The Cuckoo," in D), PF. and Orchestra
1810?). Also 'No. 4."

Op. 50. Grand Sonata (' Le diable k quatre "), PF. ; E.5

Op. 51.

Op. 52. Sonata for Harp, with ace. for Flute ; C.

Op. 53. 3 Sonatas, PF. ; F, C. Bb.

Op. 54. 3 Sonatas, PF. ; G. A minor, D.

Op. 55. 3 Grand Sonatas, PF. ; A minor, D, A.

Op. 56. Practical School for the PF., consisting of 50 Exercises. In
wo Books.

Op. 57. Duet, Harp and PF ; F.

Op. 58. 3 Sonatas, PF.

Op. 58. Sonata, PF ; D. Also Op. 38.

Op. 69. Divertissement (' La Voyage de V^nus,' or ' V^nus en
■oyage"), PF.

Op. 60. Sonata, PF.

Op. 61. Second Sonata, ' With the Manly Heart.'

Op. 61. Second Divertissement, PF. ; Eb.

Op. 62. Grand Sonata, PF. ; D.

Op. 63.

Op. 64. Grand Concerto (in E), PF. and Orchestra.s

Op. 65.

Op. 66. 3 Trios, PF. Violin, and Cello.

Op. 66. Trio, PF. Flute, and Cello ; C.

Op. 67. Grand Sonata, PF. and Violin ; B.

Op. 68. Grand Sonata, PF. and Violin ; D minor.

Op. 69. Sonata (4 hands), PF. ; C. Also ' Op. 17.'

OPERATIC WOKKS.

Der HOllenberg, opera. Libretto by Schikaneder. Schikaneder'a
i^'heatre, Vienna, 1795.

Das schSne Milchmadchen Oder der Guckkasten, operetta. Na-
lonal Theatre. Vienna, 1797.

Der Kopf ohne Mann, operetta. Schikaneder's Theatre (?), Vienna,
798.

Das Trojanische Pferd, operetta. Libretto by Schmieder. Written
n 1799 (A. M. Z. vol. it. p. 238), but apparently never performed.



' 1 The second Sonata in an English edition is in D minor. ¥itia
, ives 3 Trios for PF. Violin, and Cello, as Op. 33, but it would appear
he a misprint for 23.

2 The number of this Concerto is very doubtful. It is given as
Jo. 4 in A. M. Z. vol. Ix. Intell. Blatt. x., and this number has been
dopted, but Breitkopf * Hfirtel call it No. 1 (cp. Op. 20) in their
.'atalogue, and F^tls describes It as No. 6.

3 This Duet seems to have been brought out at Salomon's Concert
n May 21, 1806. It could also be played on two PF.s. and was ar-
anged for 4 hands on one PF. by the author. The 3 Sonatas for PF.
nd Violin or Flute of Op. S4, were published by Clementi with Op.
7. by a misprint, on the title-page.

4 See NoN Plc9 Ultra, vol. li. p. 465 o.

5 This Sonata was also published as Op. •'>, unless, indeed, this is a
nisprint. It is possible that Op. 50 Included some other Sonatas, as
he publisher (Birchall) announces this as ' a 4th Grand Sonata for
'F.'

6 The publisher (Birchall) describes this Concerto as ' by the late
'. Woelff. being the last composition of that celebrated author." It
s, therefore, probably the Concerto played at Salomon's Benefit Con-
ert. May 16. 1812.

VOL. IV. PT, 4.



Liebe macht kurzen Process, oder Die Heyrath auf gewisse Art,
comic opera, composed by Hoffmeister, Haibel. Siissmayer, Henne-
berg, Stegmayer, "Triebensee, von Seyfried, and Woelfl.7

L'Amour Romanesque, comic opera, in one act. Libretto by D'Ar-
mand Charlemagne. Theatre Feydeau, 1804.

Fernand on les Maures, heroic opera In 3 acts. Theatre Feydeau,
Paris, 1805. Produced anonymously.

La Surprise de Diane ou le Triomphe de 1' Amour, grand ballet.
King's Theatre, London, Dec. 21, 1805.

Alzire. grand ballet. Composed by Kossi. King's Theatre, London,
Jan. 27, 1807.

VOCAL MUSIC.

Die Geister des See's (words, from Schiller's " Musenalmanach ' for
1799, by Fraulein Amalie von Imhoff). Ballade, with PF. ace. vol. i.
(1799).

11 Lleder und eine vierstimmige Hymne von Bamler, with PF. ace.
vol. ii. (1799).

6 English songs, dedicated to Mme. Bianchi.s

INSTEUMENTAL MUSIC WITHOUT OPUS-NUMBEB,
I. Foe the PF.
Sonata ; C minor.9

Bouquet de Flore (ded. to his pupils), containing (1) Favourite
German air with 9 var. : (2) Favourite Polacca, arr. as a Rondo
with ace. (ad lib.) for Flute ; (3) Augustin, a favourite German
Waltz, arr. as a Capriccio, with Flute or Violin ad lib. ; (4) Sonata
(4 hands) in F ; (5) 6 Waltzes with ace. for Harp ad lib. ; (6) Turkish
March and Rondo with ace. for Harp ad lib.

The Cabinet (Rondos, Airs with var., and military pieces). This
was to be completed in 12 numbers to be published monthly. The
titles of the first seven numbers are as follows:— 0) 'lullaby,'
Variations; (2) "Alone by the Light of theMoon,' Eondo ; (3) 'What's
the matter now,' Variations; (4) 'The Linnet,' Eondo; (5) 'Lord
Cornwallis's March ;' (6) " Donna Delia '; (7) ' Fair Ellen was a gentle
maid.'

The Harmonic Budget, Issued In twelve monthly numbers, com-
mencing July 1, 1810 '«:—
6 Preludes, PF.
12 Waltzes, PF.
Trio, PF. Flute, and Cello ; 0.
6 Preludes.

3 Songs—' The Sigh,' ' Soul of my Love,' ' Rosalie.'
March, PF. ; D.
6 Preludes, PF.
3 Polaccas, PF.
Sonata, PF. ; E.
6 Preludes, PF.

Fisher's Minuet with var., PF. and Harp ; Bb.
Duet, PF. and Violin ; D minor.
Overture to ' La Bataille de Salamine,' PF. (4 hands) ; C minor.
Duet, PF. ; C.
Allegretto; Bb.

24 Preludes dans les Modes majeurs et mineurs les plus usitfis.
Bon Jour, Eondeau favori ; G.
Bon Soir, Rondeau favori ; D.
La Chasse, Rondo ; C.
Eondo, Bb.

3 Eondeaux ; B b. D, B b.
Eondo facile et brillante ; 0.
Heigho, Eondo.

Hark I hear the evening hell. Rondo.
March and Military Rondo.
Grand March.

Portuguese March (ded. to Bishop of Oporto), 1810 ; D.
3 Polonaises, Harp and PF.
Polacca.

12 Valses a803).
6 Valses.

6 Valses (4 hands).

6 deut5che Tanze (1807?).

Grand Fantasia— O mon cher Augustin.

Two Books of Duets with favourite airs from Le Nozze de Figaro.

7 This work has been variously ascribed to each of the first three
named, but Woelfl's share was far the largest, amounting to nearly
half the work, viz. Nos. 4, 5, 7, 10, 11, 14, and 15, out of a total of IS.
The date usually given is 1801. If internal evidence is to go for any-
thing, it must have been written for Schikaneder's Theatre, and
Woelfl's participation in the work makes an earlier date more prob-
able.

8 Of these songs, Nos. 2, 3, and 6, were afterwards (laiO) printed In
' The Harmonic Budget.'

9 This Sonata did not appear under Woelfl's name. It was pub-
lished by Lodi about 1797 as op. 18, and an arrangement of it for 4
hands, in which it was attributed to Lodi, was published more than
thirty years after by Crelle. The Sonata, however, was almost cer-
tainly composed by Woelfl, Lodi's share in it being confined to the
Insertion of a few errors, after the fashion of the ignorant schoolboy
who has got a good copy of verses done for him. For the whol»
history of this very curious transaction see Woelfl's Letter to Lodi
which remained unanswered, in the A. M. Z. for 1800 (vol. ii. Intelti
Blatt. No. 10). and Fink's article on the matter in the same journal
in 1832 (vol. xxxlv. pp. 737 sq.).

10 A good deal of the music in this publication appears to have
been published separately either before or afterwards, as e.g. the
songs, Fisher's Minuet, the Preludes (?).

Ii



482



WOELFL.



WOHLTEMPERIRTE CLAVIER.



Ettdinage.i

A series of Pieces published by Anilr^ :—
Ko. 1. Marcia e Rondo Pastorale ; D.

2. Donald, Rondo ; G.

3. I'astle Goring. Kondo ; G.

4. Air with var. ; A.

5. Air (The Storm) with var. ; G.

6. Romance (Je suis eacore) with var. ; G.

7. Variations ; G.

8. Do. ; C.

9. Do.; F.
10.

11. The favourite Tambourine aveo Introd. et Final, Varia-
tions ; C.

12. Variations, Harp and PF.

13. March and Rondo. Also ' Marcia e Rondo Pastorale.'

A series of Airs with variations published in Vienna (by Traeg?) : —
No. 1. 9 var. sur le Terzetto, Pria ch'io impegno. (1797.)

2. 9 var. sur une Vii:ce d'Alcina. (1797.)

3. 9 var. sur Weil der Moiid so lieblich scheint. (1797.)

4. 9 var. sur \cY. schQn willkommen. (1798.)
6. 9 var. sur Herbey, herbey ihr Leute. (1798).2

6. 9 var. sur La stessa, la stessissima. (Salieri.) (1799.)

7. 9 var. sur Die HOUe ist flnster. (1801.)

8. 9 var .3

9Tar. sur Weibchen treue; Bb. (Winter's Labyrinth.) (1799.)

9 var. sur Kind willst du ruhig schlafen. (Winter's Opferfest.)
0799.)

9 var. sur Wenn ich nur alle MSdchen wusste. (1798.)

9 var. sur Schau. das du bald ein Meister. (Des Schneider Hochzelt.)
(1799)

9 var. sur Mein Vater hat gewonnen. (Llebe macht kurz. Process.)
OMl-) *

9 var. sur Se vuol balLire. 0802.)

Var. on ' Oh cara harmonia ' (air from ' Die ZauberflOte.'

Var. on Wenn's Lieserl nur wollte.

Var. sur Menuet de Fischer ; Bb.5

9 var. on a favourite German air, ' by the celebrated J. VToelfl.'
No. 7 ; A.6

Bomance de 1" opera Une Folie par M^hul var. p. Clav. ; G.

An dante varid ; G.

n. Othee Instecukntal Woeks.
Concerto dl Camera, PP. with ace. for Strings and Flute ; E bJ
Eedouten-TSnze for Orchestra. 8
2 Trios for two Clarinets and Baisoon.

Grand Sonata for the Harp, in which is Introduced a favourite air
of Cosi fan tutte (sic). Also published for P.F.
Concerto. PF. and Violin.
Trio. PF. and two Horns (1801 ?).s
Overture for Orchestra ; C minor.'O r J "O" TIT T

WOHLTEMPERIRTE KLAVIER, DAS—

The well-tempered Clavichord, better known
in England as ' The 48 Preludes and Fugues '
— probably the most extensively known of all
Johann Sebastian Bach's works. It is in two
Parts, each containing 24 preludes and 24 fugues.
The first part was completed at Cothen in 1722
when Bach was in his 38th year, and to this
alone he gave the above name. Subsequently
(1744) he finished 24 more preludes and fugues
'through all the major and minor keys ;' and so
like in design to the former series are these,
that they have come to be regarded as the second
part, the entire collection being now universally
known under the one title.

1 Played at Berlin Dec. 10, 1800. but perhaps never printed. See
A. M. Z. vol. ill. p. 237.

2 The airs of Xos. 4 and .5 come from Winter's 'Labyrinth.'

3 No. 7 was certainly published by Traeg. No. 8 is assigned to this
series on conjecture only.

* The air, by Henneberg. is taken from 'Liebe Macht.' etc.

s Also published in ' The Harmonic Budget.'

6 This is very likely identical with No. 7 published by Traeg.

' This was No. 3 of a series of pieces published by Chappell t Co.
under this title. No. 1 was by J. B. Cramer.

8 See Redouten-Tanze, vol. 111. p. 896.

» Cp. A. M. Z. vol. ill. 834 and v. 71.

11 The three works last mentioned were never perhaps printed.
The PF. and Violin Concerto was pla.ved at Berlin, Dec. 10. 1800
(A. M. Z. vol. HI, p. 237), the Trio at Leipzig about Michaelmas 1S03
(A. M. Z. vol. V. p. 71), and the Oterture at a Philharmonic Concert
In London on March 25, 1822. The same (or a similar) Overture had
been played tnice before, and the Programmes of the time suDgat
the existence of Symphonies and Overtures which were nut printed.
The Concerto in C which he transposed at Dresden (A. M. Z. vol. i.
p. 5601 may also not have been printed, though it may have been
Op. 43.



Ohlj



His own full title is as follows : — ' Das wohlj
temperirte Clavier oder Praeludia und Fugen^
durch alle Tone und Sendtonia so wohl tertiam
majorem oder Ut Me Mi aniangend, als auch:
tertiam minorem oiler Re Mi Fa betrefFend.
Zum Nutzen und Gebrauch der Lehrbegierigen
ilfustcaflschen Jugend als auch derer in diesem
Studio schon habil seyenden besondern Zeit '
Vertreib aufgesetzet und verfertiget von Johann
Sebastian Bach p. t. Hochfiirstl. Anhalt. Cothen-
isciien Capell-Meistera und Directore derer
C&vamer -Miuiquen. Anno 1722.' '^

It was Bach's intention by this work to test
the system of equal temperament in tuning. To
this end he furnishes a prelude and fugue in each
key, the keys following one another not according
to their relationship, but simply in the order of
chromatic ascent.

A credible tradition says that most of the first
part was written rapidly ; in a place where Bach
had no regular musical occupation, and where
he was deprived of any musical instrument —
probably when accompanying his prince. This
tradition is supported by Gerber, whose father,
Heinrich Gerber was a pupil of Bach in
Leipzig soon after 1722. Forkel, however, who
probably possessed some general information on
the subject from Bach's sons, says that earlier
compositions were used in compiling the first
part. Many of the preludes had certainly already
appeared as independent compositions. In re-
writing these Bach often considerably lengthened



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