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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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them, the one in Cjf to the extent of nearly forty
bars. Eleven of them were given in a short form
in the Klavierbiichlein (1720), written for his son
Friedemann. When used for the later work,
they were, however, more fully developed, ■
especially those in C major, C minor, D minor, and
E minor. The A minor Fugue, too, is without
doubt an earlier composition. Spitta considers
it belongs to 1707 or 1708. It is an open copy
of one in the same key by Buxtehude, and
judging from the pedal at its conclusion, it was
not at first intended for the clavichord. Perhaps
it is therefore somewhat out of keeping with the
rest of the woik — written so manifestly for this ,
instrument. Witness for instance the commence- |
ment of the 16th bar of the Eb minor fugue,
where the upper part stops shorten Cb, evidently
because Db was not available on most clavichords.
Again, in the 30th bar of the A major fugue it
is apparent that the imitation in the right hand
is accommodated to a limited keyboard. In the
second part of the work Db above the line occurs ^
but once— in the 68th bar of the Ab prelude.
In compiling this. Bach again availed himself
of eailier compositions, though not to such an
extent as in the first part. The prelude in C
is given, however, as a piece of 17 bars' length
in a Klavierbuch of J. P. Kellner's, with -.he
date ' 3. Juli 1726.' The Fugue in G had twice

n The Well-tempered Clavier, or preludes and fugues In all the
tones and semitones, both with the major third or Ut, Be, Ml, »nil
with the minor third or Ke, Mi, Fa. For the use and practice of
young musicians who desire to learn, as well as for those who are
already skilled in this study, by way of amusement ; made and com-
posed by Johann Sebastian Bach, Capellmelster to the Grand DuKe
of Anhalt-COthen and director of his chamber-music, 1722.


before been associated with other preludes. The
Ab Fugue first stood in F, it was shorter by more
than one half and it had another prelude. Other
instances of a similar kind may be adduced.

Three or four original MSS. are existing of
the first part of the work : not one (complete)
exists of the second. Still, notwithstanding
the many revisions Bach made of the first part,
there is perhaps, as Carl von Bruyck says (' Tech-
nische und asthetische Analysen,' p. 68), on the
whole a richer and broader display of contra-
puntal art in the fugues of the second part.

The two oldest printed editions appeared in
1800-1801. One was issued by Simrock of Bonn
and Paris, the other by Kiihnel (now Peters) of
Leipzig. The former was dedicated to the Paris
Conservatoire de Musique, the matter being sup-
plied by Schwencke. In it the second part is


placed first : many of the older readings are given,
and it has the long versions of the preludes which
most editions since have copied. The latter was
revised by Forkel, and it is to that he refers in
his well-known treatise. The first English edi-
tion was that edited by S. Wesley and C. Horn,
and published in 1811-12.^ The most complete
critical edition is that of the Bach Gesellschaft
(vol. xiv. 1865), by Franz KroU, with an ap-
pendix of various readings.

Editors have not been slow to make alterations
in the text of Bach. One of the most glaring of
these is the bar introduced by Schwencke in the
middle of the first prelude. Yet this bar has
been retained by Czerny, by Wesley and Horn,
and by many others. It is even used by Gounod
in his ' Meditation.' As an editorial curiosity it
is worth preserving : —

Bar 22.


Bar 23.

Of the First Part two autographs are known ;
one formerly belonging to Nageli, and now in the
Town Library of Ziirich, another in the pos-
session of Professor Wagener of Marburg. See
Spitta's Bach (Novello) ii. 665. Of the Second
Part no autograph is known to exist.

Since the above was in type I have discovered
that for years past there have remained in com-
parative obscurity original autographs of nearly
all the Preludes and Fugues of the Second Part.
They were bought at dementi's sale by the late
Mr. Emett. During one of Mendelssohn's visits to
England (June 1842) Mr. Emett showed them to
him, and he at once recognised them as being in
Bach's handwriting ^. Later on, in or about 1855,
Sterndale Bennett saw them, and he too pro-
' nounced them to be in the handwriting of Bach.
Since then they have so far lapsed out of sight
that they are not mentioned even by Dr. Spitta.
That they are authentic there can, I think, be
no doubt. Because, first, Clementi knew or
believed them to be bo : see the ' Second Part
of dementi's Introduction to the Art of Playing
on the Pianoforte, op. 43,' where, at p. 120, there
' 3 a ' Fuga by J. S. Bach from an original MS.
' »f the author.' It is the one in C, and was
ividently printed from No. i of this set. Secondly,
Mendelssohn and Bennett witnessed to the writ-
ng. Thirdly, their internal evidence points to
heir being the work of a composer, not of a
sopyist. Upon this conclusion I have thought
t worth while to make a bar by bar examin-
.tion of them. For the most part they agree
■ 7ith Kroll's text, and, for convenience, taking
iis edition (including the marginal readings) as
'standard, they compare with it as follows : —

1 See Bockstro's life of Mendelssohn, pp. 83, 81.

I. Prelude: — In bars i, 2, 6, 9, 17, 21, 23,

where the groups of demisemiquavers occur,
the MS. stands as at (a). The latter half of
(a) bar 1.2. 6.

bar 3 stands as at (6). At bar 14 five bars are
erased and rewritten differently ; the substitution
(6) (c)



accords with our text. Fugue : — the first bar of
the subject is grouped throughout (c) ; bar 24,
the under stave is in the alto clef for four bars ;
bar 66 the middle part is a minim D ; bar 67,
the motion of semiquavers is arrested by (d).

Both Prelude and Fugue have the upper stave
in the G clef. The other numbers (with the
exception of No. 1 7, which is also in that clef)
have it in the soprano clef.

II. Like Kroll's text throughout,

III. Prelude ; — ten sharps in the signature,
some of the notes being marked both in the
upper and lower octave of the staves. Fugue : —
signature like Prelude; bars 16, 19, 20, 26, 27,

J Mr. Cummings has shown (Mus. Times, March 1885, p. 131) that
the edition projected by Kollmann in 1799 was never published. [See
Bach, vol. 1. p. 117.]

Ii 3


the demisemiquaver passing notes are omitted ;
as is also the semiquaver passing note, bar 28.

IV, Is missing.

y. Is missing.

VI. Prelude : — at bar 10, two bars are erased
and eight bars are substituted at the foot of the
page, the eight bars accord with text ; bar 1 8,
and the seven bars that follow, accord with
marginal reailing ; at bar 22, the under stave
is in the alto clef till bar 26 ; after bar 37 two
bars are inserted at the foot, the two bars accord
with text. Fugue : — throughout like text.

VII. Prelude : — bar 30, like text ; bar 49,
the C in the upper stave is an octave lower;
bar 66, no flat to D in bass. Fugue ; — throughout
like text.

VIII. Prelude : — nine sharps in the signature,
on the same principle as signature of No. 3.
Fugue : — signature like Prelude ; bar 14, the
secondB is omitted ; bar 18, like marginal reading.

IX. Prelude : — bar 9, second quaver in bass
B not A ; bar 21, no turn on AjJ ; bar 50, bass
like neither text nor margin, but (e), this is sub-
stituted in the place of an erasure, apparently
like text ;




bar 54, no chord in the upper stave, simply E.
Fugue: — bar 15, trill on tenor D; bar 18, no
natural to second E in alto.

X. Prelude : — throughout like text. Fugue: —
in bar 18 and similar ones, the quaver of the
compound time is written exactly under (or
over, as the case may be) the semiquaver of
the simple time. This throws a light on like
instances in Bach's works, notably so on the way
the Prelude in D (No. 5 of the Second Part)
should be played ; bars 70, 'Ji, (f), so the Fugue

XI. Prelude: — throughout like text. Fugue: — 1 2 and the seven bars that follow, in Gr clef ;
from bar 89 to the end is written at the bottom
of the Prelude, with ' Final zur folgend Fuga.'

XII. Is missing.

XIII. Prelude : — nine sharps in the signature
of both Prelude and Fugue, on the same principle
as Nos. 3 and 8.

XIV. Prelude: — end of bar 18 (g); bar 27,
(0) p^—


the third E in upper stave is marked J. Fugue : —
bars 3, 6, 11, there is a trill on the final minim
of subject; bar 15, the last quaver of middle


part is C only ; bar 16, a trill on G in middle
part ; bar 53, the last C in upper stave is not J.

XV. Prelude: — bar 24, no 3 to last D; bar
45, trill on first B. Fugue : — no B to last C in
upper stave, bar 64.

XVI. Prelude: — bar 9, like margin; bar 21,
bass like text. Fugue : — bar 9, no Q to first E ;
bars 12, 13, 16, and 22, like text; bar 82, no B
to last A.

XVII. Prelude : — six flats in the signature, on
the same principle as the extra sharps are marked
in Nos. 3, 8, 13 ; bar 6, the demisemiquaver is
G not F; bar 42, no b to second A ; from the
end of bar 53 to the beginning of bar 56, is as
at {h) ; bar 75, no appoggiaturas. Fugue : — sig-






— <=d-

nature like Prelude ; from bar 6 the under stave
is in the alto clef for two bars and three quarters ;.
the latter half of bar 14 is as at (i) ; bar 32, the


upper part enters at the commencement with a
B minim.

XVIII. Prelude: — bars 12, 14, 15, 40, like
margin. Fugue : — throughout like text.

XIX. Prelude: — throughout like text. Fugue;
— bar 16, like margin.

XX. Prelude: — bar 19, no Q to last G; bar
24, like upper margin ; bar 30, bass like margin..
Fugue: — bars 6 and 15 like margin; bar 28,
J to last C only ; J to C in last chord ; but, no E
in the upper stave and no upper A in the lower

XXI. Prelude : — bar 36, third semiquaver
in bass, A not C ; bar 63, like margin ; bar 67,
no t] to B. Fugue : — bars 5 and 6 like margin ;
bar 89 as at {k).

XXII. Prelude : — seven flats in the signature,
on the same principle as Nos. 3, 8, and 13 ; bar
16, b to G in bass; bar 81, crotchet F in upper
stave, no semiquavers E, D. Fugue : — signature
like Prelude ; no staccato marks in the subject ;
bar 22, B not Cb in tenor; bar 33 like margin ;
bar 77, F not D in tenor.

XXIII. Prelude :— seven sharps in the sig-
nature, on the same principle as Nos, 3, 8, 13,
22 ; bar 45 like text. Fugue: — signature like
Prelude ; bar 70, no x to C. This manuscript
is in a much worse state of preservation than
are the others. \

XXIV. Prelude:— throughout {not likeKrol^s
but) like Chrysander's text. Fugue:— bar



Kroll) like margin ; no appoggiatura in the last

These MSS. (with the exception of No. 9) are
low in the possession of Miss Emett, daughter
>f the late Mr. Emett who bought them at Cle-
aenti's sale. No. 9 is in the possession of Mrs.
Jlarke of Norwood. They are for the most part
D excellent preservation and very clear. [F.W.]

WOLF, THE. I. A term applied to the
larsh howling sound of certain chords on keyed
nstruments, particularly the organ, when tuned
ly any form of unequal temperament.

The form of unequal temperament most widely
idopted was the mean-tone system. The rule of
his system is that its fifths are all a quarter of
, comma flat. The thirds are perfect, and are
[ivided into two equal whole tones, each of
?hich is a mean between the major and minor
ones of the diatonic scale; hence the name
klean-tone system.

The total error of the whole circle of twelve
ifths, at quarter of a comma each, amounts to
hree commas. Since the circle of twelve perfect
ifths fails to meet by about one comma, the
ircle of mean-tone fifths fails to meet by about
wo commas, or roughly, nearly half a semitone.
.n the mean-tone system on the ordinary key-
)oard there is always one fifth out of tune to this
ixtent, usually the fifth G jf-E b. There are also
bur false thirds, which are sharp to about the
ame extent, usually B-Eb, Fjf-Bb, Cjf-F, and
xJ-C. All chords into which any of these five
ntervals enter are intolerable, and are ' wolves.'

The use of unequal temperaments disappeared
n Germany during the latter part of the i8th
;entury, probably under the influence of Bach.
Jnequal temperaments ceased to be employed in
he pianoforte in England at about the termin-
i,tion of the first third of the present century,
it the same time the transition process began
lere in connection with the organ; and by 1870
t was practically complete, few cases only of
he unequal temperament then surviving. The
'Volf has in consequence ceased to have any but
listorical and scientific interest. [See also Tem-
'ERAMENT', vol. iv. pp. 72, 73 ; and Toning, ibid.
88, 189.] [R.H.M.B.]

II. In bowed instruments the Wolf occurs,
iwing to defective vibration of one or more
lotea of the scale. When it occurs, it is
fenerally found more or less in every octave
.nd on every string. DiflFerent instruments
lave it in different places : it is most common
.t or near the fourth above the lowest note
n the instrument, in the violin at C, in the
ioloncello at F. The more sonorous and biil-
iant the general tone, the more obtrusive it
lecomes : if the tone be forced, a disagreeable
ar is produced. Hence it is idle to attempt to
lay the wolf down : the player must humour
he troublesome note. It is commonly believed
hat there is a wolf somewhere in all fiddles, and
) is certain that it exists in some of the finest,
.ff. in Stradivaris. Probably however it is
Iways due to some defect in the construction or



adjustment. Violins with a soft free tone are
least liable to it : and the writer's viols in all
three sizes are quite free from it. The cause of
the wolf is obscure, and probably not uniform : it
may result from some excess or defect in the
thicknesses, from unequal elasticity in the wood,
from bad proportion or imperfect adjustment of
the fittings, or from some defect in the propor-
tions of the air chamber. It may be palliated
by reducing some of the thicknesses so as to
diminish the general vibration, and by as perfect
as possible an adjustment of the bar, bridge, and
sound-post : but in the opinion of violin-makers
where it is once established it cannot be radi-
cally cured. Some instruments have what may
be termed an anti-wolf, i. e. an excess of vibra-
tion on the very notes where the wolf ordinarily
occurs. The writer has a violin which exhibits
this phenomenon on the B and C above the stave.
When these notes are playedybr^e on any of the
strings, the B or C an octave below is distinctly
heard. This is probably a combinational tone
due to the coalescence of the fundamental tone
with that produced by the vibration of the string
in each of its 2-3 parts. In some Forster
violoncellos the wolf is so strong as to render
them almost useless. [E.J.P.]

WOLFF, AuGUSTE Dbsir^ Bernard, pianist
and pianoforte maker, head of the great firm of
Pleyel-Wolff" et Cie., born in Paris May 3, 182 1.
At 14 he entered the Conservatoire, studied
the piano with Zimmermann, and took a first prize
in 1839. S^ 'w^s also a pupil of Leborne for
counterpoint, and Hal^vy for composition, and
under these auspices composed several pianoforte
pieces, published by Eichault. At 2 1 he entered
the staff of the Conservatoire as ' r^p^titeur ' —
teacher of pupils in dramatic singing — and kept
it for five years, when he gave up teaching to
become the pupil and partner of the well-known
pianoforte-maker, Camille Pleyel, who, being
old and infirm, was looking out for a dependable
assistant. M. Wolff entered the business in
1850, became a member of the firm in 1852,
and naturally succeeded to the headship of it
on the death of Pleyel in 1855. From that day
his exertions have been unremitting, and while
still adhering to the principles of his illustrious
predecessor, and the processes of manufacture
which made the Pleyel pianos famous, he, with
the scientific assistance of his friend M. Lissajoua
the acoustician, has devoted all his attention to
increasing the volume of tone without losing
sweetness. His repeated experiments on the
tension of strings, on the best possible spot for
the hammer to strike the string so as to get the
fullest tone and the best 'partials,' on the damper,
etc., have proved very fruitful, and led him to
patent several ingenious contrivances. These are,
a double escapement, which he is still peifecting,
a transposing keyboard, a ' ptidalier,' which can
be adapted to any piano, thus enabling organists
to practise pedal passages without spoiling a piano
by coupling the notes, and lastly the ' pedale
harmonique,' a pedal which can be used while



playing chroinatic passages, as it can be applied
to the melody alone, or to any specific notes, at
the option of the player. It is owing to such
labours as these, and M. Wolff's indefatigable
activity, that the firm of Pleyel- Wolff still keeps
its place in the front rank of pianoforte makers,
and gains so many distinctions. Thoroughly
liberal, and a philanthropist in the best sense of
the word, he has contrived to give his 600 work-
men a real interest in the success of the business
by forming a special fund, amounting already to
nearly 150,000 francs (£6,000), out of which
benefit societies, retiring pensions, etc., are
provided. Not ceasing to be an artist because
he has gone into trade, M. Wolff has founded a
prize — the Prix Pleyel- Wolff — for a pianoforte
piece with or without orchestra, to be competed
for annually. In fact, whether as artist or manu-
facturer, M. Auguste Wolff was a notable person-
age in the French musical world of his day. His
health had been on the decline for more than a
year, and he died at Paris, Feb. 9, 1887. [A.J.]

WOOD, Mrs. [See Paton, Makt Anne,
vol. ii. p. 672].

WOODYATT, Emilt, daughter of a con-
fectioner, at Hereford, was taught singing by Sir
G. Smart, and first attracted public attention in
Jan. 1834, at a concert of the Vocal Association,
and later at Hereford Festival of same year.
She became a favourite singer of the second
rank at the various festivals, oratorio and other
concerts. In 1839 ^^® became a member of the
Female Society of Musicians, on its foundation,
and in 1840 vi^as elected an Associate of the
Philharmonic Society at the instance of Sir
G. Smart, Cramer, and Edward Loder. On Oct.
37, 1841, she married William Loder the violon-
cellist, who died in 1851, and retired soon after
her marriage. [See Loder.] The dates of neither
her birth nor death have been ascertained. [A.C.]

WORGAN, James, wasorganist of St. Botolph,
Aldgate, and St. Dunstan in the East. In 1737
he became organist of Vauxhall Gardens, which
office he resigned about 1751. He died in 1753-

John Worgan, Mus. Doc, his younger brother,
born in 1724, studied inusic under him and
Thomas Eoseingrave. He became organist of
St. Andrew Undershaft, and of St. John's Chapel,
Bedford Row. He graduated as Mus. Bac. at
Cambridge in 1748. In 1731 he succeeded his
brother as organist at Vauxhall Gardens, and
in 1753 also as organist of St. Botolph's, Aid-
gate. In 1753 he was appointed composer to
Vauxhall Gardens, and continued so until 1761.
In 1770 he was re-appointed to the office and
held it until 1774, when he resigned both it
and the organistship of the gardens. In 1775
he proceeded Mus. Doc. He died Aug. 24,
1794. He excelled as an organist, and when-
ever he played, crowds of professors and ama-
teurs resorted to hear him. In a satirical song
upon Joah Bates, composed by Samuel Wesley,
he was placed upon an equality, as a player,
with Handel ■ —

Let Handel or Worgan go thiesh at the organ.


His compositions include an anthem for a thanks!
giving for victories, 1759; two oratorios, 'Han
nah,' produced at the Haymarket Theatre, 1 764.
and 'Manasseh,' produced at the Lock Hospital j
Chapel, 1766; many books of songs composed
for Vauxhall ; psalm tunes, glees, organ music,
and harpsichord lessons. [W.H.H.] I

WORKING-OUT; (also called Free Fan-
tasia ; and Development ; Durchfiihrung). The
central division of a movement in Binary form,
such as commonly occupies the first place in a
modern sonata or symphony. A movement of this
kind is divisible into three portions. The first of
these consists oftheexpositionofsubjects, and the
last of the final recapitulation of them, and the
central one of free discussion of the figures thej'
contain. Both first and last are made as defi-
nite as possible — the first, in order that the
subjects may be clearly understood, and the
balance and contrast between two distinct
keys established ; and the last to complete the
cycle by summing up the subjects put forward
in the first division, and to emphasize strongly
the principal key of the movement. The second
or central division of the movement is con-
trasted with both first and last by being made
as indefinite as can be, consistently with some
underlying principle of design, which is neces-
sary to make abstract instrumental music in-
telligible. The complete and rounded state-
ment of subjects is avoided, and so is any
definite and prolonged settling down into keys ;
so that the mind is led on from point to point
by constant change of phase and aspect in the
figures, and by frequent steps of modulation.
The division is called the 'working-out' or the
' development ' portion, because the music is car-
ried on by working out or developing the figures
and phrases of the principal subjects, by reiterat-
ing and interlacing the parts of them which are
most striking and characteristic, and subjecting
them to variation, transformation, fugal treat-
ment, and all the devices both technical and
ideal of which the composer is master.

With regard to the form in which this part
of the movement shall be put, the composer is
left to a great extent to his own resources and
judgement. The musical material employed is
almost invariably derived from the subjects and
figures of the first division of the movement, but
they are sometimes so transfigured by ingenious
treatment that they look quite like new. The
contrast of character between the principal sub-
jects and accessories is generally sufiicient to
supply plenty of variety, and in most cases
both 'of the principal subjects are thoroughly
discussed; but sometimes one subject prepon-
derates over another in strong features of rhythm
or melody ; and as in such a case it is much
more available for working effectively, it oc-
casionally happens that a more tranquil or
plain subject is altogether neglected in the
' working-out.'

The independent introduction of figures and
subjects which did not appear in the first divi-


sion of the movement (the so-called 'exposition '),
iB not strictly consistent with the principle of
design upon which a Binary movement is
founded. In Beethoven's works, which are the
best models of a consistent and liberal treatment
of Instrumental forms, it is only met with con-
spicuously and frequently in early works, such
as the pianoforte Sonatas up to op. 14; and
these obviously belong to a time when he had
not so thorough a grip on the form as he ob-
tained afterwards. Among bis Symphonies the
Eroica is the only striking exception ; and in
that great work the fact may be explained by the
poetical undercurrent in his mind. Among his
finest Trios and Quartets an instance is hardly
to be found, and the same is the case with
Mozart's best Quartetts and Symphonies.

The instances in which new features are in-
troduced in company with iigures of the first
division of the movement are on a different foot-
ing, as their appearance does not then make
any break in the development or working
out of the principal ideas, which goes on
simultaneously, and is for the time only en-
hanced by fresh by-play. A very happy in-
stance is in the first movement of Beethoven's
Symphony in Bb, where a figure of the first sub-
ject, after being toyed with for some time is made
to serve as an accompaniment to a new and very
noticeable phrase. In the following example, (a)
is the tune of the first subject in its original
form, (6) the passage in the working-out in which
it serves as accompaniment to a new feature.

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