George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

. (page 117 of 194)
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Ex. 1. (a)



WORKING-OUT.



487



■^-ted-r ^^^H-,*-T-l- -\\. 1 r






^-!-»-q-*-^-


i«-t_i^ N K fH^-1




_S.q_^l_i_=l_,[U_ - ^^ -1 . i> ^ C ^


"^


(6)


=r=r=i


6 ^-^-=- \^


1 '


^— M=^ — z^ — Y~^-


'


-^■(zl. ^_« — ^ -p-


\-P


— ^ F- — \ ^ ' —


1^^^


N 1^ . > N


->.. 1 1


- Kl ' "1 ^ n .^1 r^J=-"'-"-^-


-*-14-J


. r - , t-f r





With regard to the harmonic or tonal struc-
mre of this part of the movement, composers'
uinds came to be exercised very early to find
liome way of infusing order into its apparently
ndefinite texture. As long as movements were
?ery short it was sufiicient merely to pass
through a key which had been noticeably absent
n the fir^t part ; and this object, combined with
he ti-aditions of the short dance forms, in which
he elementary design of sonata movements was



prefigured, to cause stress to be laid ou the Sub-
dominant key. But this was soon found to be in-
suflBcient to relieve the design of indefiniteness ;
and composers then hit upon the use of sequences
as a way of making their progressions intel-
ligible ; and this device is afterwards met
with very frequently in the ' working-out ' in
every variety of treatment, from the simple and
obvious successions used by Corelli and Scarlatti,
and other masters of the early Italian instrumental
school, up to the examples of sequence piled on
sequence, and spread in broad expanses with
steps of several bars in length, such as are used
by Beethoven, Schumann and Brahms.

In order to show how order may be infused into
the apparently unrestricted freedom of this part
of a movement, the working-out of the first move-
ment of Beethoven's Pastoral Symphony may pro-
fitably be examined, as it is singularly clear and
simple, both in the development and distribution
of figures, and also in the plan upon which the
harmonic and tonal successions are distributed.

There is not a single bar in it which is not
clearly based upon some figure from the first
half of the movement ; but it happens that the
superior opportunities for development offered
by the first subject are so great that it alone
serves as the basis of the whole division, the
second subject being ignored.

From the melody of the subject five conspi-
cuous figures are extracted for the purposes of
development, (a) (6) (c) (cZ) (e) in the following
quotation : —

^•^- (a) (6) W




The working-out begins with the reiteration
of the first figure of all, as in Example 3 ; and




then two bars of the subject are given twice,
as if to call the attention of the hearer to the
matter to be discussed. The whole process
in these eight bars is repeated exactly on other
degrees of the scale, for the purposes of design,
and this process ends with the figure (6), which
thereupon becomes the centre of interest, and
taking the form shown in Ex. 4, is launched
Ex. 4. (6)



488



WORKING-OUT,



upon a career which lasts unchecked for thirty-
six bars, embracing a long crescendo. The cli-
max being reached, Beethoven, in a manner very
characteristic of him, drops quickly from fortis-
simo to piano, in order to make another start
in climbing to another fortissimo. But by way
of guarding against the monotony of beginning
again at once with the same materials, he intro-
duces a short passage of more broken character
with quicker changes of harmony, in which
there is a witty bit of by-play founded on the
latter part of the figure just before predominant
(Ex. 5), and pointed allusions to the first subject.



Ex. 5.




Then the rhythmic figure (6) again asserts itself,
and resumes its course for another thirty-six bars,
matching the first thirty-six in distribution, but
starting from another point in the scale, and
making the one vital charge of the harmony in
the passage down a third instead of up a third ;
and the whole is followed by the same broken
passage as before, but transposed. The reference
to the subject with which this concludes is carried
a step further to the figures (cl) and (e), which
from that time are continually used, in balanced
groups of passages mounting thirds each time,
till the end of the working-out, and always
plainly. The following quotation will serve to
illustrate the manner in which this part of the
subject is worked, persisting through modula-
tions, and even somewhat changing its character,
without losing its identity (Ex. 6).
Ex. 6.




rfTT fff r



irLU ^ ^^y



^^m






I I I ' ' ' ' CSS I ■ ' ■




gg^jaj^^^^



This constant use of the first subject through
the whcjle of the working-out is a littlo un-
common, but it is made specially effective in



WORKING-OUT.

this instance by the difference of character
which subsists between the two phrases of the
subject. In connection with this is to b^
noticed the nicety of management by whicW
Beethoven avoids making the figure he had
used at the latter part of the working-out
come too soon and too obviously in the re-
capitulation. He not only interpolates a fresh
passage on the Dominant between one phrase o^
the subject and another, but when the melody
{d) (e) comes in again it is hidden away under
an ornamental variation, so that its prominence
is reduced to a minimum.

The harmonic structure of this working-out
is as simple as the distribution of subject matter.
Everything from beginning to end is reducible
to balancing groups of passages of different
lengths. To begin with, a passage of eight bara
is divided into groups of four bars, represent!:
C as tonic and dominant alternately, and this
directly answered by a similar set of eight bai
divided also into fours and treating the root F ii
similar manner. This in its turn is followed b;
a long passage of forty bars, in which there
only one change of harmony. The first twelv(
bars are on Bb, and the next twenty-eight on D,5
and this in its turn is followed by a short passage?:
of six bars, in which the harmony changes morei'
quickly; making altogether forty-six bars of very
definite design ; and this is instantly followed by
another forty-six bars starting from G, of exactly
the same design saving the one very artistic
change before alluded to — namely, that the one
change of harmony in the long passage devoted
to the rhythmic figure {d) is down a third instead
of up. These ninety-two bars are therefore ex-
actly divisible into two groups of forty-six, which
match exactly ; and the remainder of the work-
ing-out (thirty-six bars) is made of a series of
melodic sequences, rising thirds each time, with
a short passage consisting of closer repetitions of
concise figures to prepare the re-entry of the first
subject after the principal key has been reached.

The exactness of these balancing portions will
be best appreciated by a condensed scheme of
the central ninety-two bars, which form the most
conspicuous feature of this working-out. In the
following example the second line represents
the passage which follows immediately after t
that represented by the first.



Ex. 7.

12 bars.

1 ■ ■ 1


28 bars.

1 1


^ bars.

r r








^V-^-


— —





— s< —




■:


12 bars.

1 1

^


28 bars.


3 bars.

1 1

1 "^ i


1 1 SI

=3 1


-a-
:z


^ ' ^









-^-





A point of great interest in connection with
working-out is the device of transforming figures
and subjects by modification of intervals or
rhythms, in such a way that they either take a
new interest without losing their identity (as hap-
pens in the case of some of the figures used in )



WORKTNG-OUT.



WOTTON.



489



le working-out of the Pastoral Symphony), or
se are by degrees divested of such identity as
ey had, and merged in some other subject,
sethoven was the first great master who de-
sloped this device to any degree of importance ;
became with him quite a marked feature
instrumental music, and has been used by
ery notable composer since his time. In con-
ation especially with working-out, it is used
metimes to enhance the interest of a figure
lich is much used in development ; and
metimes, and with importance, to dovetail one
:tion of the movement into another, by causing
subject, or a figure extracted to form a subject,
d change by degrees till it takes the form of
rt of the subject of another. A most notable
stance is the dovetailing of the ' working-out ' to
e 'recapitulation' in the first movement of
ethoven's Sonata, Op. 91, in E minor. An
aamental passage put over a part of a subject
th a phrase quoted in the working-out ends as
(a) Ex. 8, which has at first sight no osten-
le connection with the principal subject. But
order to make the continuity of the movement
close as possible, and also of course to intro-
ce a feature of interest, Beethoven makes
.s figure pass through five modifications, and
m come out as the first phrase of the subject
recapitulation. The changes are as follows,
) being the end of the ornamental passage,
(c) (d) and (c) its successive modifications,
i (_/) the beginning of the recapitulation of
s principal subject. The device is enhanced
this case by the echoes of imitation ; and by
s dying away of the old figure in a constant
ainuendo, and its bursting out with renewed
our as the impulsive first subject.




^



^ n I *



^^S




.=1=



(/)



1 — -^^ — ■ — a 1 — *



^- J—

he actual process of working-out is not con-
fi: 1 to the one position of the central division in



a Binary movement ; it is frequently used also
in the Coda, which occasionally is of larger pro-
portions and more full of interest than the
actual working-out — as in the first movement
of Beethoven's Sonata in EP, Op. 81 a. A
working-out also occurs in many rondos, occu-
pying the place of one of the episodes, in a
central position similar to that which it occupies
in a Binary movement.

In many overtures which are theoretically in
Binary form, the working out is almost entirely
suppressed, and a mere short passage of modu-
lation is interposed in its place between the
exposition of the subjects and their recapitu-
lation. [C.H.H.P.]

WORNUM. The name of "Wornum is inti-
mately connected with the invention and
development of the Upright piano, since it
is Robert Wornum's action, patented in 1826,
though not completed until the ' tie ' was added
in 1828, that is the universally adopted Cottage
or Pianino action. Its excellence was early
recognised, but at first in France, where Pape
introduced and Pleyel adopted it. From this
circumstance it has been called the ' French '
action ; its use, however, has extended to
wherever upright pianos are made, and it
does not appear likely to be superseded. Robert
Wornum, the father of the inventor, was of a
Berkshire family, originally Wornham, and was
born in 1742. He was a music-seller in Glass-
house Street, and from 1777 in Wigmore-street,
and died in 1815. His son Robert Wornum,
born 1780, was the inventor of diagonally and
upright-strung low upright pianos in 1811 and
1813, whichhe named, respectively, the 'Unique'
and the ' Harmonic' He brought out his
well-known 'piccolo ' piano, in 1827, and finally
perfected his crank action in 1829. He was
intended for the Church, but the mechanical
bias prevailed, and he went into partnership
with George Wilkinson, in a pianoforte business
in Oxford Street in 1810. A fire in 181 2 caused
a dissolution of this partnership. He ultimately
established the present Warehouse and Concert
Room in Store Street, and died in 1852. The
present head of the firm of Robert Wornum &
Sons is Mr. A. N. Wornum, who has succeeded
to his grandfather's inventive talent. [See
Pianoforte, vol. ii. p. 7196.] [A.J.H.]

WOTTON, William, 'Orkyn maker,' in
i486 built a 'pair of organs' for Magdalen
College, Oxford, for £28, and in 1487 agreed to
make a similar instrument for Merton College,
which was to be completed in 1489. [V. deP.]

WOTTON, William Bale, bassoon-player,
was born at Torquay, Sept. 6, 1832. His father
was corporal-major in the 1st Life Guards, and he
was thus brought up among the best regimental
music. His fondness for the art showed itself very
early ; he learnt tlie flute and cornet, and at the
age of thirteen entered the band of the regiment.
The bassoon he learned with John Hardy, an ex-
cellent player, under whom he laid the foundation



490



WOiTON.



of that artistic style and cbarm of tone which
distinguij-h him. He studied orchestral playing
at the Koyal Academy under the late Mr.
Charles Lucas. His first appearance as a soloist
was at the Town Hall, AVindsor, where he and
the late ^Yilliam Crozier (a naost admirable
player, who died early in 1871, after having been
for many years First Oboe at the Crystal Palace)
played a duet for oboe and bassoon under the
direction of Dr. (now Sir George) Elvey. On the
death of Baumann he would have accepted en-
gagements with Jullien for the Promenade
Concerts, and with Alfred Mellon for the Orches-
tral Union, if Waddell, his bandmaster, had not
peremptorily forbade it. He was then transferred
from the bassoon to the saxophone, of which he
was the earliest player in England. In 1886 he
left the Life Guards and joined the orchestra of
the Crystal Palace, in which he has played
First Biis.soon ever since. He is also a member
of the orchestras of the Philharmonic, Albert
Hall, and many others, and is Professor of the
Bassoon at the Eoyal College of Music. [G.]
WRANIZKY, Paul, conductor of the or-
chestra at the two Court Theatres at Vienna,
and a popular composer of operas and instru-
mental music, born Dec. 30, 1756, at Neureusch
in Moravia, was educated at the monastery
close by, and at Iglau and Olmiitz, where he
perfected himself, especially in violin-playing.
In 1776 he went to Vienna to study theology
at the Imperial Seminary, and at once obtained
a post as conductor. He then studied com-
position with Kraus, a Swedish composer then
living in Vienna, and produced a number of new
works which attracted notice. Towards the
end of 1780 he became conductor of the court-
theatres, and remained so tiU his death. He was
also for many years capellmeister to Prince Lob-
kowitz. His operas were great favourites, and
became known nearly throughout Germany. The
one which was oftenest and longest performed
was 'Oberon' (May 23, 1791), a serio-comic
fairy opera, libretto adapted by Giesecke from
Wieland, which at one time ran the 'Zauber-
flote' hard. Special mention should also be
made of 'Diegute Mutter,' comic opera (1795);
' Der Schreiner,' Singspiel (1799); 'Mitgefiihl,'
Liederspiel (1804) ; all produced at the court
theatre, as were also many ballets, including : —
' Die Weinlese,' 'Das Urtheil des Paris,' 'Der
Sabinerraub,' all between 1794 and 1800. Ger-
ber gives a detailed catalogue of Wranizky's
operas, ballets, and instrumental music. Among
his many works, mostly published by Andr^
in Paris and Vienna may be specified : — 12
symphonies ; string-quintets, quartets, and
trios ; 3 trios for 2 flutes and ceUo, op. 83 ;
concertos for cello, op. 27, flute op. 24; and
sonatas for pianoforte, violin, and cello. He
also left much music in MS. His connection
with the Tonkiinstler-Societat must not be passed
over. He entered it in 1793, and having be-
come secretary undertook at Haydn's instigation
to reorganise its affairs, then in a very bad state.
In 1797 he completely efiaced the difficulties



WEIST TOUCH.

which existed in 1779, when Haydn had thougl
of entering. Haydn had a great respect for hin
both as a man and an artist, and expressly desirt
that he might lead the strings at the first pe
forraances of the 'Creation' and the 'Seasons
AYranizky died in Vienna, Sept. 26, 1808. [C.F.P
WRESTPLANK' and ^VEESTPINS. Tl
Wrestplank or Pinblock of a pianoforte is tl
carrier of the wrest or tuning-pins, and is >
great importance to the tone and stability
the instrument, its solidity maintaining the d\
continuance of the upper partials of the strinj
as it also contributes to the enduring resistam
against their tension. In modern pianos it
built up of layers of wood with grain runnir
alternately longitudinally and transversely ; tl
woods employed being generally beech ar
wainscot. A brass plate which is to be oftt
seen covering the wrestplank and is attractii
to the eye, plays no real part in assuring tl
solidity of the structure. Broadwoods' met
pin-piece, a plate of iron f inch thick, throug
which the wrestpins screw into the woode
wTestplank beneath, is the surest means f<
keeping the pin in position without crushir
the wood where the leverage of the string
exerted, or allowing the tuner the facile bi
unsound practice of rocking the pin from side 1
side. Becker of St. Petersburg exhibited i
Paris, 1878, a grand piano wherein this part 1
the instrument was entirely of iron, and c&
together with the frame. The bar was not bore
for wrestpins, but was the bed for a system 1
mechanical tuning-pins, the principle of which
the female screw analogous to the machine heac
used in guitars, etc. Becker has been followe
by others, as was shown in the London Invei
tions Exhibition, 1885, where four more or le;
ingenious adaptations of this principle wei
submitted. The prime objection to mechanic:
tuning-pins, first introduced in pianos in 1800 b
John Isaac Hawkins, and tried again fro:
time to time, is in the fact that the ela.'
ticity of the wire is rebellious to a method ;
tuning that proceeds throughout by very sma
degrees. The string requires to be drawn u
boldly, so as to give at once the tension intende<
Without this the operation of tuning becomi
tedious to the ear, which tires with a proce.
which, through the slow and imcertain respoa
due to the points of friction, seems interniinabl
[See PiANOFOKTE, Tone, Toning.] [A.J.H

WRIGHT, Henry, music-publisher. [S<
Walsh, vol. iv. p. 380.]

WRIST TOUCH (Ger. Handgelenh).
pianoforte playing, detached notes can be pr
duced in three difl'erent ways, by movement
the finger, by the action of the wrist, and 1
the movement of the arm from the elbo^
[Staccato.] Of these, wrist-touch is the mo
serviceable, being available for chords at
octaves as well as single sounds, and at tl

1 Wrest from «;r<E3(aw,A.S., to strain a string to a required tensic
O.E. wrest, a tuning hammer ur key.

The claricord hath a tunely kynde.

As tne wyre is wiested high and lowe.— Skelton.



.!



WEIST TOUCH.



WULLNER.



4ai



,me time less fatiguing than the movement
om the elbow. Single-note passages can be
:ecuted from the wrist in a more rapid tempo
lan is possible by means of finger-staccato.
In wrist-touch, the fore-arm remains quiescent
a horizontal position, while the keys are
ruck by a rapid vertical movement of the
md from the wrist joint. The most important
■plication of wrist-touch is in the performance
brilliant octave-passages; and by practice the
icessary flexibility of wrist and velocity of
Dvement can be developed to a surprising
tent, many of the most celebrated executants,
long whom may be specially mentioned
iiexander Dreyschock, having been renowned
• the rapidity and vigour of their octaves.
i:amples of wrist octaves abound in pianoforte
isic from the time of Clementi (who has an
;ave-study in his Gradus, No. 65), but Bee-
jven appears to have made remarkably little
3 of octave-passages, the short passages in the
aale of the Sonata in C, Op. 2, No. 3, and the
io of the Scherzo of the Sonata in C minor
Piano and Violin, Op. 30, No. 2, with per-
os the long unison passage in the first move-
nt of the Concerto in Eb (though here the
apo is scarcely rapid enough to necessitate
use of the wrist), being almost the only
imples. A fine example of wrist-touch, both
octaves and chords, is afforded by the accom-
riment to Schubert's ' Erl King.'
n modern music, passages requiring a com-
ation of wrist and finger movement are some-
63 met with, where the thumb or the little
fer remains stationary, while repeated single
es or chords are played by the opposite side
the hand. In all these cases, examples of
ich are given below, although the movements
the wrist are considerably limited by the
lionary finger, the repetition is undoubtedly
duced by true wrist-action, and not by finger-
cement. Adolph Kullak {Kunst des An-
ags) calls this ' half-wrist touch ' {halbes
ndgelenk).

Schumann, 'Reconnaisance' (Carneval).



^^■



TTuA J..



Thalbbrg, ' Mose in Egitto.'



1



wmmf^



-• •■•-•-•-•-•-•-•-ii

I I 1 M I ! I I



ID



Ir ach frequent chord-figures as the following,
oh ihort chord is played with a particularly fiee
It loose wrist, the longer one being emphasized
J} certain pressure from the arm.

Mendelssohn, Cello Sonata (Op. 45).




Such passages, if in rapid tempo, would be
nearly impossible if played entirely from the
elbow. [F.T.]

WiJERST, RiCHAED Fekdinand, composer
and critic, born at Berlin, Feb. 22, 1824; died
there Oct, 9, 1881, Was a pupil of Rungen-
hagen's at the Academy, of Hubert, Ries, and
David in violin, and of Mendelssohn in com-
position. After touring for a couple of years, he
settled at his native place and became in 1856
K. Musikdirector, in 1874 Professor, and 1877
Member, of the Academy of Arts. He was for
many years teacher of composition in Kullak's
Conservatorium. He contributed to the ' Berliner
Fremdenblatt,'and in 1874-5 edited the 'Berliner
Musikzeitung.' His works comprise five operas,
symphonies, overtures, quartets, etc. None are
known in this country. He died Oct. 9, i88r. [G.]

WULLNER, Fbanz, born Jan. 28, 1832, at
Miinster, son of a distinguished philologist,
director of the Gymnasium at Diisseldorf.
Franz attended the Gymnasium of Miinster till
1848, and passed the final examination; study-
ing the piano and composition with Carl Arnold
up to 1846, and afterwards with Schindler. In
1848 Wiillner followed Schindler to Frankfort,
and continued his studies with him and F.
Kessler till 1852. The winter of 1852-3 he
passed in Brussels, frequently playing in public,^
and enjoying the society of Fetis, Kufferath, and
other musicians. As a pianist he confined him-
self almost entirely to Beethoven's concertos and
sonatas, especially the later ones. He then made
a concert-tour through Bonn, Cologne, Bremen,
Miinster, etc., and spent some little time in Han-
over and Leipzig. In March 1854 he arrived in
Munich, and on Jan. i, 1856, became PF. Pro-
fessor at the Conservatorium there. In 1858 he
became music-director of the town of Aix-la-
Chapelle, being elected unanimously out of fifty-
four candidates. Here he conducted the sub-
scription concerts, and the vocal and orchestral
unions. He turned his attention mainly to the
orchestra and chorus, and introduced for the first
time many of the great works to the concert-hall
of Aix. In 1861 he received the title of Musik-
director to the King of Prussia, and in 1864
was joint-conductor with Rietz of the 41st
Lower Rhine Festival.

In the autumn of 1864 Wiillner returned to
Munich as court-Capellmeister to tlie King. His
duty was to conduct the services at the court-
church, and while there he reorganised the choir,
and added to the repertoire many fine church-
works, especially of the early Italian school. He
also organised concerts for the choir, the pro-
grammes of which included old Italian, old Ger-
man, and modernmusic, sacred and secular. In the
autumn of 1867 he took the organisation and direc-
tion of the vocal classes in the king's new School
of Music, and on Billow's resignation the whole
production department came into his hands, with
the title of ' Inspector of the School of Music,'
and in 1875 of ' Professor Royal.' During this
time he wrote his admirable 'Choral Exei-cises



492



WULLNER.



for the Munich School of Music,' an English
edition of which, by A. Spengel, is now published
(London : Forsyth).

When Wiillner succeeded Bulow at the Court
Theatre in 1869, he found himself plunged into
personal difficulties of all kinds connected with
the production of Wagner's ' Eheingold ' ; but
his tact and ability surmounted all, and the result
was an unqualified success. The Rheingold was
followed by the 'Walkiire,' one of the most
brilliant achievements of the Munich stage in
modern times, and in 1870 Wullner was appointed
court-Capellmeister in chief. He also succeeded
Bulow as conductor of the concerts of the Aca-
demy of Music, and carried them on alone till
Levi was associated with him in 1872. In 1877
he left Munich,^ in order to succeed Eietz at



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