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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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Dresden as Capellmeister of the court-theatre,
and artist-director of the Conservatorium, and
here he remained until called to fill the place of
Hiller at Cologne, April i, 1885.

Wullner's works include: — 'Heinrich der
Finkler, cantata for voice and orchestra — first
prize at the competition of the Aix-la-Chapelle
Liedertafel in 1864; PF. pieces for 2 and
4 hands, and chamber-music ; several books
of Lieder for single voice ; important choral
compositions, with and without orchestra, such
as masses, motets, Lieder for mixed chorus, a
Miserere for double choir, op. 26; Psalm cxxv.
for chorus and orchestra, op. 40, etc. ; a new
Arrangement of Weber's ' Oberon,' the additional
recitatives being compiled from materials in the
opera (the libretto by F. Grandaur of Munich).
In this form ' Oberon ' has been put on the stage
at several of the great German theatres. — His
editions of six of Haydn's Symphonies (Rieter-
Biedermann) must not be overlooked, [M.F.]

1 The UoiTersity conferred on him the honorary degree of Doctor.



WYLDE.

WYLDE, Henry, conductor and compose)
born in Hertfordshire, 1822 : though intende
for Holy Orders, had so strong a bent for music
that he was placed at sixteen under Moschelei
and in 1843 became a student at the Roys
Academy under Cipriani Potter, of which b
afterwards was appointed one of the Professoi
of Harmony. In 1850 he obtained the degre
of Mus. Doc. of Cambridge University. H
acted as Juror in the Musical Instrumer
Section in the International Exhibitions of 185 J
and 1S62, and in 1863 was elected Professor «
Music at Gresham College, London. In 185
the New Philharmonic Society was founded b
Sir Charles Fox, and others, on the advice 1
Dr. Wylde. [See New Philharmonic SociEr
vol. ii. p. 452.] In 1858 he assumed the so!
responsibility of the undertaking and conducte
its annual series of concerts till 1879. ■'-''"• WyU
founded the London Academy of Music, aii
built St. George's Hall, Langham Place, i
its purposes, which was opened in the summer
1867. The London Academy has since open*
'oranch establishments at South Kensington ai
Brighton. Dr. Wylde's musical compositions i
elude a setting of Milton's Paradise Lost for soU
chorus and orchestra, performed by the N(
Philharmonic Society, May II, 1853, and May
1854 ; and a Cantata ' Prayer and Praise ' for t
same ; selection performed, June 9, 1852 ; Piai
forte Concerto in F minor performed April 1
1852 ; Pianoforte Sonatas; a 'Rhapsodic for piai
(op. 2) ; Fantasia sur un air favori (op. 6) ; Engli
songs from Goethe and Schiller ; English sonj
' The Sea Nymphs,' vocal duet, etc. Dr. Wyl
is also the author of ' The Science of Maai
' Modem Counterpoint,' ' Music in its Art M^
teries.' Mr. John Francis Barnett, the compos
and teacher of piano at the Royal College
Music, was a pupil of Dr. Wylde's. [A.<




Fbiedeicb Wiece. See p. 451.



Y.



f^ANIEWICZ, violin player. See Janie-
|_ wicz, vol. ii. p. 30 h.

YANKEE DOODLE. The origin of the
^merican national air is enveloped in almost as
reat obscurity as that which surrounds the au-
lorship of ' God save the King.' Though the
3ng is but little more than a century old, the
umber of different accounts of its origin vphich
re given in American works is extremely be-
ildering. The most satisfactory course will
lerefore be to notice briefly the various existing
:atements on the subject, together with a few
jmarks on the credibility of the different
leories.

I. It has been stated repeatedly in American
eriodicals during the past forty years that a
allad existed in England which was sung to
le tune of ' Yankee Doodle,' the words of which
m —

Nankee Doodle came to town,
On a little pony.

He stuck a feather in his cap,
And called him Macaroni.

nd that another baUad sung to the same tune
egan ' The Roundheads and the Cavaliers.'
loth these songs were said to date from the
me of the Rebellion, and the ' Nankee Doodle '
1 the former is stated to have been a nickname
n- Cromwell, and to have alluded to his entry
ito Oxford ' on a small horse with his single
lume, which he wore fastened in a sort of knot,
hich the adherents of the royal party called

Macaroni " out of derision.'

This story is said to occur in the ' Musical
Reporter' of May 1841 ('Historical Magazine,'
857, p. 221), but whoever invented it showed a
ick of aiitiquarian knowledge in fixing upon the
eriod of the Civil War as the date of the song.
fo scholar could imagine Cromwell 'with a
ingle white plume,' and the occurrence of the
?ord ' Macaroni ' alone points to the date of the
hjrme, the term having tirst arisen in connection
dth the Macaroni Club, which flourished be-
ween 1750 and 1770. The Rev. T. Woodfall
iCbsworth, undoubtedly the greatest living au-
thority on English ballads, in reply to an enquiry
ddressed to him on the subject, writes as fol-
3WS : — ' I believe that I have seen and weighed,
Qore or less, every such ballad still remaining in
irint, and most of those in MS. that search has
etected : and I can declare unhesitatingly that

never came across any indication of such an
nti-Cromwellian original as the apocryphal
' Nankee Doodle came to town." I believe that
Lone such is extant or ever appeared. . . . There
s no contemporary (i.e. 1 640-1 660 — or, say,
648-1699) ballad specially entitled " The

I Or ' on a Kentish.'



Roundheads and the Cavaliers," although sepa-
rate rhymed poems on each class are well known
to me — not songs or meant to be sung.'

2. It has not escaped notice that the nursery-
rhyme,

Lucy Locket lost her pocket,

Kitty Fisher found it,
Not a bit of money in It,

Only binding round it.

which has been familiar as far back as the-
memories of those now living, has always been
sung to the tune of 'Yankee Doodle.' This
fact has been pressed into the service of what
we may call the pre-Revolution theory in a very
ingenious manner, principally owing to that in-
ventive and unreliable antiquary, Dr, Rimbault.
In the 'Historical Magazine' (1858, p. 214) a
letter from this gentleman is printed in which
he states that the tune occurs in Walsh's ' Col-
lection of Dances for the year 1750' under the
name of ' Fisher's Jig,' that Klitty Fisher was a
celebrated beauty of Charles II. 's reign, whose
portrait appears among Hollar's engravings of
English courtesans, and that it is certain that
the air is known in England as * Kitty Fisher's
Jig.' Walsh's ' Collection of Dances for the year
1 750 ' seems unfortunately to have disappeared :
there is no copy of it in the British Museum,
Royal CoUege of Music, or Euing Libraries, and
though the present writer has examined many
collections of dance tunes of the i8th century,
no copy of ' Fisher's Jig ' has turned up. The
statement that Kitty Fisher lived in the reign of
Charles II. is absolutely wrong. Her real name
was Fischer, and she was the daughter of a Ger-
man. She was for many years a reigning toast
in the last century, and in 1 766 was married to
a Mr. Norris. She died in 1771. It would
therefore have been impossible for her portrait
to have been engraved by Hollar, even if he had
engraved a series of portraits of English courte-
sans, which was not the case. It is not to be
wondered at that in the face of this tissue of
mis-statements we should find Lucy Locket —
whose name is unmistakeably borrowed from the
Beggar's Opera — described as, like Kitty Fisher,
' a well-known character in the gay world.'

3. In LitteU's 'Living Age' (Boston, Aug.
1 861), a story is told, on the authority of a
writer in the New York ' Evening Post,' to the
effect that the song is sung in Holland by Ger-
man harvesters, whence it may have come to
America. Unfortunately for the credibility of this
account, its inventor has fitted some words to the
tune which are in no known language, conclu-
sively proving ttie story to be a hoax, though the
Duyckincks have thought it worth reproducing in
their Cyclopaedia.



494



YANKEE DOODLE.



4. It is stated that in Burgh's 'Anecdotes of
Music' (1S14), the air of ' Yankee Doodle' is
said to occur in J. C. Smith's ' Ulysses ' — a state-
ment we have been unable to verify, as no copy
of that opera is accessible.

5. A writer in ' All the Year Round ' (Feb.
1870) alleges that T. MonciiefF Lad traced the
air to a fife-major of the Grenadier Guard.s, who
composed it as a march in the last century. It
is most probable that the air was originally a
military quickstep, but this account of its au-
thorship is too vague to be accepted implicitly.

6. In Admiral Preble's 'History of the Flag
of the United States,' it is stated that the tune
occurs in an opera of Arne's to the words ' Did
little Dickey ever trick ye ? ' This is an error :
the song in question is in Arnold's 'Two to One'
(1784), and there the tune is called 'Yankee
Doodle.' As this is probably the earliest in-
stance of its appearance in print, it is given
below, the words of the song being omitted.




=i^;



-t-



7. Passing by the fanciful opinions that ' Yan-
kee Doodle ' is of Spanish or Hungarian origin,
we come to the traditional account of its origin,
which agrees with what may be gathered from
the above accounts, viz. that the tune is of Eng-
lish origin and not older than the middle of the
last century. The Boston ' Journal of the
Times' for September 1768 is said to contain
the earliest mention of it, in the following para-
graph (quoted in the 'Historical Magazine' for
1857): — 'The [British] fleet was brought to
anchor near Castle William ; that night . . .
those passing in boats observed great rejoicings,
and that the Yankee Doodle song was the
capital piece in the band of music' It is only a
few years before this that the traditional account
places the origin of the song. In 1755, during
the French and Indian war, General Amherst
had under his command an army of regular and
provincial troops. Among the former was a
Dr. Schuckburgh (whose commission as surgeon
is dated June 25, 1737), to whom the tune is
traditionally ascribed, though it seems more pro-
bable that he was only the author of the words.
It is said that ' the fantastic appearance of the
colonial contingent, with their variegated, ill-
fitting, and incomplete uniforms,' was a continual
butt for the humour of the regular troops, and



YANKEE DOODLE.

that Dr. Schuckburgh recommended the tune to!
the colonial officers ' as one of the most cele-
brated airs of martial musick. The joke took,
to the no small amusement of the British corps.
Brother Jonathan exclaimed tjiat it was " 'nation
fine," and in a few days nothing was heard in the
provincial camp but the air of Yankee Doodle.'
This account is said to have appeared in the
'Albany Statesman' early in tlie present cen-
tury ; it is also to be found in vol. iii. of the
'New Hampshire Collections, Historical and
Miscellaneous' (1824). The words evidently
date from about the year 1755. The original
name of the song is ' The Yankee's Return from
Camp,* and it begins : —

Father and I went down to camp,

Along with Captain Gooding;
There we see the men and boys
As thick as hasty-pudding.

The author of the account of the song in the
' New Hampshire Collections ' quotes a version
printed about 1 790, and there are several others
extant, though even in 1824 it is said that the
burlesque song was passing into oblivion. It ie
noticeable that in the later versions of the song
the early notices of ' Captain Washington ' are
replaced by the following : —

And there was Captain Washington,
And gentlefolks about him ;
They say he's grown so 'tarnal proud,
He will not ride without 'em.

The tune itself seems also to have suffered several
changes. Mr. A. W. Thayer has kindly favoured
us with the following version as it was sung
sixty years since, and as it has been handed
down by tradition in his family from revolu-
tionary times : —



■ — a — » • F 1 I ^ • »



Chorus or refrain.



=?c^«



=t=:^



^



Tan-kee doodle, keep it up, Yankee doodle dan - dy.



rpzi=»=



f-T-



?c&i



-1— *ti — I-



=»=^



Mind the music and the step, And with the girls be han - dy.

In spite of various attempts to dislodge it,
' Yankee Doodle ' remains the national air of
the United States. As a melody it has little
beyond simplicity in its favour, but there is a
quaint direct and incisive character about it
which redeems it from vulgarity, beside which
the historical associations of the tune, connected
as it is with the establishment of American I
Independence, should have saved it from some of j
the criticisms to which it has been subjected. ^
In the words of the Hon. Stephen Salisbury,
' Yankee Doodle is national property, but it is
not a treasure of the highest value. It has
some antiquarian claims for which its friends do
not care. It cannot be disowned, and it will not
be disused. In its own words.

It suits for feasts, it suits for fun,

And just as well for fighting.



YANKEE DOODLE.

t exists now as an instrumental and not as a
ocal performance. Its words are never heard,
,nd, I think, would not be acceptable in Ame-
ica for public or private entertainments. And
ts music must be silent when serious purposes
re entertained and men's hearts are moved to
igh efforts and great sacrifices.' ^ [W.B.S.]

YONGE, or YOUNG, Nicholas, the com-
iler of MusiCA Teansalpina [see vol. ii.,
. 416], is probably identical with a Nicholas
roung who was a singing-man at St. Paul's
lathedral in the time of Elizabeth. Bumey,
lisled by a passage in the Dedication to the
st Book of Musica Transalpina, says that he
■as an Italian merchant, whereas all that Yonge
lys is 'Since I first began to keepe house in
lis citie, a great number of Gentlemen and
lerchants of good accompt (as well of this
Jaime as of forreine nations) have taken in
ood part such entertainment of pleasure, as
ly poore abilitie was able to afFoord them, both
y the exercise of Musicke daily used in my
ouse, and by furnishing them with Bookes of
lat kind yeerely sent me out of Italy and other
laces.' Young was born at Lewes, Sussex. His
lother's maiden name was Bray. During the
reater part of his life he lived in the parish of
t.Michael's, Cornhill : he had nine children,most
'. whom survived him and settled in the same
a.rish, where his descendants remained until the
3th century, when some of them are found in that
'St. James, ClerkenweU. His wife's name was
ane, and he was probably married about 1584.
he title-page of the first Book of Musica Trans-
pina has been already given (vol. ii, p. 416 a) ;
lat of the second Book runs as follows —
Vlusica Transalpina. The Second Booke of
[adrigalles, to 5 & 6 Voices : translated out of
mdrie Italian Authors, and newly published by
icholas Yonge. At London Piinted by Thomas
ste. 1597.' Lists of the contents of both volumes
■e printed (with many mistakes) in Eimhault's
Bibliotheca Madrigaliana ' (1847). Both books
opies of which are in the British Museum,
oyal College of Music, and Huth Collections)
em to have been very successful. Bodenham
inted the words of three of the madrigals in
Ongland's Helicon' (1600), and Dr. Heather,

his portrait in the Music School, Oxford, is
presented holding a volume lettered ' Musica
•ansalpina.' Yonge died in October 1619.
is will (which was proved by his wife on Nov.
;) is dated 19 October, 1619, ^"d he was buried

St. Michael's, Cornhill, on the 23rd of the
me month.^ [W.B.S.]

YORK MUSICAL FESTIVAL. The first
stival was in 1791, and they were continued
nually till 1 803. [See Festivals, York ; vol.
J. 516&.] After that no other festival took place
til 1823, when the performance was revived

Address delivered before the American Antiquarian Society,
. 21, 1872. The writer of the above article is greatly indebted
assistance kindly rendered by the Hon. Robert 0. Winthrop,
Clement K. Fay, and Mr. A. W. Thayer.

The information contained in this article is chiefly derived from
Registers of St. Michael's, Cornhill, and the Visitation of London,
1 published by the Harlelan Society.



YORK MUSICAL FESTIVAL. 495

for the benefit of the York County Hospital,
and the Infirmaries at Leeds, Sheffield and
Hull. The scheme consisted of four sacred
concerts, including the Messiah in its entirety,
held in the Cathedral on the mornings of
Sept. 23 to 25, three secular evening concerts,
and two balls given in the Assembly Rooms.
The vocalists were Mme. Catalani (who usurped
' Comfort ye,' ' Every valley,' and ' Non piil
andrai'), Mrs. Salmon, Misses Stephens, D.
Travis, and Goodall, sopranos ; Knyvett and
Buggins, altos; Bellamy, Sherwood, and Placci,
bass. The band and chorus contained 180 in-
strumentalists and 285 vocalists ; in the former
were Cramer and Mori, leaders ; Griesbach,
Ella, Lindley, Dragonetti, Piizzi, Harper, etc.,
Greatorex was conductor, Matthew Camidge
(who had officiated in 1791) and his son John,
Knapton, and White, organists. The festival was
rendered noteworthy from the receipts being
larger than those at any previous meeting, viz.
£16,174 ^65. 8d. The sum of £7200 was
divided between the charities. A long and
voluminous account is given of the above in a
4to. volume by Mr. John Crosse, F.S.A. York,
1825, to which we are indebted for the above
infoi'mation."- One of the evening concerts was
rendered memorable by the performance of
Beethoven's C minor Symphony under unusual
circumstances. A parcel with duplicate or-
chestral parts did not arrive, and in consequence
it was proposed to omit the Symphony. No
sooner, however, did Miss Travis begin with
the ballad, ' Charlie is my darling,' than a general
murmur arose, and one of the stewards (F.
Maude, Esq., Recorder of Doncaster), with a
stentorian voice, to his honour, called out ' Sym-
phony, Symphony, I insist on the Symphony
being played 1 ' Apology was in vain, and at
last the Symphony was played with six or eight
fiddles to a part. ' Tiie reader might naturally
suppose' says Crosse (p, 353), 'that the per-
formance failed in giving satisfaction : the con-
trary, however, was the case ; every movement
was listened to with attention and hailed with
prolonged applause.' ^

A second festival was held in Sept. 1825, on
a similar plan and for the same charities. The
band and chorus were increased to 600, and
among the vocalists who appeared for the first
time were Madame Caradori-Allan, Madame
Malibran (then Miss Garcia), Braham, Phillips,
and De Begnis. The receipts were still larger,
viz. £20,876 10*. ; but owing to the cost of a
concert-hall for the evening concerts, the profits
were not in proportion, £1900 only being divided
among the charities.

A third festival was held in Sept. 1828. Cata-
lani reappeared, and Miss Paton, Madame
Stockhausen, and Mr. Edward Taylor sang for
the first time. Beethoven's Symphony in F was
a novelty to the audience, and not so successful
as the C minor in 1823. It was described in the

I A satire on his somewhat bombastic style was published in Lou-
don the same year, by an anonymous writer 'Outis.*
3 See Ella's ' Musical Sketches,' p. 143.



496 YORK MUSICAL FESTIVAL.

'Harmonicon' as 'eccentric and very difficult,' and
consequently was coldly received. The receipts
diminished to £16,769 lis. 6d., and £1400 only
was obtained for the charities. Since then no
other festival has been held at York. [A.C.]

YORKSHIRE EEAST SONG, THE. An
ode for solos, chorus, and orchestra, in four-
teen numbers, composed by H. Purcell in 1689,
for ' the Assembly of the Nobility and Oentry of
the City and County of York, at the Anniver-
sary Feast, March the 27th, 1690.' The feast
was held in Merchant Taylors' Hall, London,
and the anniversary was that of the proclama-
tion of William and Mary (Feb. 13, 1689), the
day originally fixed for the festivity having
been Feb. 1 4. All this and much information will
be found in Mr. Cummings's Preface to the
edition of the Song by the Purcell Society, 1878.
It had previously been published by Goodison
in 1790. The title of the poem mentioned that
the piece ' cost £100 the performing' — a sum
quite equal to £200 of our present money. [G.]
YOUNG, Thomas, born at Canterbury, 1809,
received his musical education there, and from
1 83 1 to 36 was first principal alto singer at
the cathedral. In 1836 he became deputy and
afterwards lay vicar at Westminster Abbey,
and March 3, 1848, first alto at the Temple.
This last post he held until his death, with the
exception of a year's interval, when he married
the widow of a Canterbury alderman and went
into business without success. Young was an
excellent solo singer, and was successor in public
favour to Knyvett and Machin, being the last
male alto soloist of eminence. As such he was
frequently heard at the Autient and Sacred
Harmonic Concerts. With the latter Society he
sang for a jieriod of ten years : he first appeared
Nov. 14, 1837, in the 'Dettingen te Deum' and
Mozart's ' Twelfth Mass,' etc. He took the parts
of Hamor and Joad on the respective revivals of
' Jephthah' and ' Athaliah.' He also sang in the
revival of Purcell's Jubilate and in various
anthems and services. He died at Walworth,
Aug. 12, 1872. [A.C]

YRIARTE, Don Tomas de, author of a
Spanish poem on music published in 1779. The
work, which is in irregular metre, la divided



ZACCONI.

into five cantos. The first two deal wit];

elements such as the notes, scales and ornaments

and with musical expression in its varioui

branches. In the third, which treats of Churcl

music, the writer distinguishes three principa

species — (i) the Gregorian, having no measur

of time in its five varieties; (2) the Mixed

Florid, measured by common or triple time

admitting of various cadences and ornaments

and (3) the Organic, to some extent a combin

ation of the two former, in which both voice

and instruments were employed. Here the write

takes occasion to praise the Spanish composer

Patino, Roldan, Garcia, Viana, Guerrero, Vit

toria, Ruiz, Morales, Duron, Literes, San Juan

and Nebra. The canto closes with a descriptioi

of the examinations for admission to the Roya

Chapelle, from which it appears that candidate!

were required to show proficiency on the orgar

violin, flute and hautboy, and to play sonatas a

sight. The fourth canto treats of theatrics

music : the shade of Jomelli appears, and afte

assigning to Spain the palm for pure vocal musi(

to Germany and Bohemia for instrumental, t

France for science, and to Italy for the open

gives a lengthened description of the OrchestK

of Recitative, 'greater than declamation, les

than song,' which he limits to the compass (

an octave, and of the Aria with its variou

graces, the Rondeau, Cavatina, Duos, Trioi

Quartets, etc. Among dramatic authors th

palm is assigned to Gluck, whose rivalry wit

Sacchini and Piccini was distracting the musics

world. The fifth and last canto, which treats <

chamber music, contains a long eulogy of Haydi

who is said to have enjoyed special appreciatio

in Madrid, where prizes were given for the bei

rendering of his compositions. The poem coi

eludes with a wish for the establishment of

Royal Academy of Music. Not the least ii

teresting portion of Yriarte's book is the Notes

altogether it presents an amusing picture

music a century ago, which may be compart

with Salvator Rosa's Satire ' La Musica '

century earlier. It was translated into Freiic

German and Italian ; and an English version 1

John Belfour, who acknowledges the assistani

of Dr. Burney, Dr. Callcott, and S. Wesley, w^

published in 1807. [E.J.P



Z.



ZACCONI, LuDOVico, one of the most learned
musical theorists of the early Italian School,
was bom, about the middle of the 1 6th cen-
tury, at Pesaro, but spent the greater part of bis
life at Venice, where he was admitted to the
priesthood, received the tonsure as a monk of the
Order of S. Augustine, and officiated, for many
years, as Maestro di Cappella in the great church



belonging to the Order. In 1593 he was inviti
to Vienna by the Archduke Charles, who ma«
him his KapeUmeister, and in 1595 he receivi
a similar appointment at the Court of the Pfal
graf Wilhelm, Duke of Bavaria, at whose i
vitation he removed to Munich. In 1619 1 '
returned to Venice, and devoted himself to tl
completion of his great theoretical work, the fii



ZACCONI.

)ortion of which was published before his depar-
lUre to Vienna. The year of his death is unknown.
The work on which Zacconi's fame is based,
8 entitled 'Prattica^ di Musica utile et neces-



Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 118 of 194)