George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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aria si al compositore si anco al cantore,' and
s dedicated to Guglielmo Conte Palatino del
Reno, Duca dell' alta e bassa Baniera, etc. The
?irst Part was published at Venice in 1592, and
•eprinted in 1 596. The Second Part, also printed
it Venice, first appeared in 16 19. The contents
if the work are divided into Four Books, wherein
he treatment of Consonant and Dissonant Pro-
rressions, the complications of Mode, Time, and
Prolation, the laws of Cantus Fictus, with many-
ike mysteries, are explained with a degree of
acidity for which we seek in vain in the works
»f other theoretical writers of the Polyphonic
Period — the Dodecachordon of Glareanus, and
he ' Musicae activae Micrologus ' of Ornithopar-
;us, alone excepted. It may, indeed, be con-
idently asserted that we are indebted to these
iwo works, in conjunction with the 'Prattica
ii Musica,' for the most valuable information
we pos.sess on these subjects — information, in the
absence of which Josquin's ' Missa Didadi '
»nd portions even of Palestrina's ' Missa
I'homme arme,' to say nothing of the Enigma-
tical Canons of the earlier Flemish Schools,
would be as undecipherable as were the inscrip-
tions on an Egyptian sarcophagus before the
discovery of the Rosetta Stone. Mediaeval
musicians worked on a method so complicated
that, even in the i6th centui-y, mistakes and
misunderstandings were not uncommon, some
of them so serious, that Zacconi has thought
it necessary to point them out, with a clearness
For which we can never be sufficiently grateful.
While Zarlino dazzles us with learned disserta-
tions, and our own Morley distracts his reader's
attention with the quaint sallies of Philomathes
and Polymathes, Zacconi goes straight to the point,
and, in a few words, aided by a pertinent ex-
ample, explains the facts of the case, beyond all
doubt. And, as his work is of considerably
later date than either the Dodecachordon or the
'Musicae activae Micrologus,' his information
is peculiarly valuable, as showing the methods
in general use at the period at which the
Polyphonic Schools had already attained their
highest degree of perfection.

Lib. I. of the ' Prattica di Musica ' is sub-
divided into eighty chapters, twenty-three of
which are occupied with dissertations on the
origin and history of Music, interspersed with
definitions, and other introductory matter, of no
great practical utility. Cap. xxiv. treats of the
Harmonic Hand; Cap. xxv. of the figures used
in Notation; Cap. xxvi. of the Stave of five
lines ; and Cap. xxvii. of the Clefs, of which
several forms are given. Caps, xxviii.-xxxiii.
treat of Measure, Time, and various forms of
rhythmic division (misiira, tatto, e hattuta).
Caps, xxxiv.-xxxv. describe the Time Table, be-
ginning with the Maxima, and ending with the
Semicroma. Caps, xxxvi.-xxxvii. describe the

1 Tills calls it Pratica di ITunea.
VOL. IV. PT. 4.



ZACCONI.



497



Time-Signatures (Segni del Tatto). Caps,
xxxviii.-xl. treat of Solmisation. Caps, xli.-xlii.
describe the office of Points generally, and es-
pecially that of the Point of Augm entation — equi-
valent to the modern Dot. Caps, xliii.-xlvi.
furnish some very valu able information concerning
the Ligatures in common use towards the close
of the 16th century. Cap. xlvii. treats of Eests ;
xlviii.-xlix. of the B molle and B quadro ; l.-li.
of the Diesis ; and lii. of Syncope. Caps, liii.-
Iv. are devoted to the consideration of certain
difficulties connected with the matters pre-
viously discussed. Caps. Ivi.-lvii. treat of Canon,
and the different ways of singing it. Caps. Iviii.—
Ixvi. contain the rules to be observed by Singers,
illustrated by many examples and exercises, and
throw great light upon the laws oi Cantus fictus,
the management of complicated rhythmic com-
binations, and other mysteries. Caps. Ixvii.-lxxi.
treat of the duties of the Maestro di Cappella
and Singers. Caps. Ixxii.-lxxiii. describe the
Villanella and Canzonetta, while Caps. Ixxiv.—
Ixxx. state the mutual qualifications of Singers
and Composers.

Lib. II. is divided into fifty-eight chapters, of
which the first five treat of the different species
of Mode, Time, and Prolation. Caps, vi.-vii.
describe the Points of Division, Alteration, and
Perfection. Cap. viii. corrects some prevalent
errors in the matter of Perfect Time. Caps, ix.-
xxxvii. treat of the mutual adaptation of Mode,
Time, and Prolation, and the different kinds of
Proportion, In illustration of this subject. Cap.
xxxviii. gives, as examples, the Kyrie, Christe,
Second Kyrie, the beginning of the Gloria, the
Osanna, and the Agnus Dei, of Palestrina's
'Missa I'Homme arme,' with full directions as
to the mode of their performance. Without
some such directions, no modern musician would
ever have succeeded in deciphering these very
difficult Movements ; while, aided by Zacconi's
explanations, Dr. Burney was able to score them
as easily as he would have scored a Concerto of
Handel from the separate orchestral parts.*
Caps, xxxix.-lviii. bring the Second Book to an
end, with the continuation of the same subject.

Lib. III. consists of seventy-seven chapters,
treating of the different kinds of Proportion.

Lib. IV. is divided into fifty-six chapters, of
which the first thirty-seven treat of the Twelve
Modes. Of these, Zacconi, in common with all the
great theoretical writers of the Polyphonic School,
admits the use of six Authentic and six Plagal
forms, and no more ; and, not content with ex-
punging the names of the Locrian and Hypo-
locrian Modes from his list, he expunges even
their numbers, describing the Ionian Mode as
Tuono XI, and the Hypoionian as Tuono XII.^
Caps, xxxviii.-xl vi. treat of Instrumental Music,
as practised during the latter half of the i6th
century, and are especially valuable as describing
the compass and manner of using the various
Orchestral Instruments as played by Peri, Mon-
teverde, and their immediate successors, in their

2 See Dr. Burney's 'Extracts,' Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 11,581.
> SeuTol. U.p. 342 a.

K k



498



ZACCONL



early essays in Opera and Oratorio.^ Caps,
xlvii.-lv. treat of the tuning of Musical Instru-
ments ; and the concluding chapter, Ivi., furnishes
us with a Table, exhibitiug on a great Stave of
eleven lines, the compass of the Instruments
most commonly used at the time the book was
written. We subjoin the compass of each instru-
ment, on an ordinary Stave, and translated into
modern Notation : —



Cornetti Bianchi
e Negri.



Pifari.




Dolziane.



Corno Torto.



P^^



Comamuti torti. Fagotto chorista. Trombone.



^B^Hi



Flauti.



^=^



Tenore. Basso. I



^^g=^=P - ^-^ P=^^-=8



Doppiani.



P



Canto. Tenore.



m



The foregoing synopsis gives but a slight in-
dication of the value of the ' Prattica di Musica,'
which .supplies information on every important
subject connected with the music of the i6th
century : information in many cases obtainable
from no other source. The work is now ex-
tremely scarce and costly ; complete copies will,
however, be found in the British Museum and
the Eoyal College of Music. [W.S.E.]

ZACHAU,^ Feiedrich Wilhelm, though
now known only as the instructor of Handel,
seems, in reality, notwithstanding the calumnies
circulated after his death, to have been one of
the best and most industrious musicians of his
time. He was born Nov. 19, 1663, at Leipzig,
where his father was Stadtmusikus. Under
his father's direction he learned to play on all the

1 See vol. li. pp. BOO. 562.

2 It will be seen that the TloUn is here treated in the First Position
only.

3 This note is omitted in the Brit. Mus. copy.

* The tuning of the Tenor and Bass Viols differs materially from
the usual form.
5 The Viola clef is wanting in the original.
' Called by Mainwarlng, Zackaw ; and by Schoelcher, Sackau.



ZACHAU.

instruments then in general use, including the
violin, hautboy, harpsichord, and organ, devoting,
however, his chief attention to the two last, on
both of which he attained a degiee of proficiency
far exceeding that which generally prevailed at
this period. While still a youth, he removed,
with his father, to Eilenburg, and continued his
studies there until 16S4, 'when he was elected
organist of the Liebfrauenkirclie at Halle, a large
and important church still standing.''

Here it was that, if Mainwaring's account is
to be trusted, the little Handel was first taken
to Zachau for instruction in music, 'while he was
yet under seven years of age' — that is to say,
some time before the end of tlie year 1692.
Chrysander places the event a little later, but
upon no trustworthy evidence. The circum-
stances which led to it have already been nar-
rated in detail, and are too well known to need
repetition here. [See vol. i. p. 648 a.] There
can be no doubt that Zachau took great interest
in his pupil, who — Mainwai'ing tells us —
' pleased him so much that he never thought he
could do enough for him.'* That the child was
placed under an excellent and thoroughly con-
scientious teacher is indeed conclusively proved,
both by Mainwaring and Coxe.* The former
says, ' Zachau had a laige collection of Italian
as well as German music. He showed his pupil
the different styles of different nations ; the
excellencies and defects of each particular author ;
and, that he might equally advance in the prac-
tical part, he frequently gave him subjects to
work, and made him copy, and play, and com'
pose in his stead. And Zachau was glad of
an assistant, who, by his uncommon talents,
was capable of supplying his place whenever
he was inclined to be absent. It may seem
strange to talk of an assistant at seven years of
age. But it will appear much stranger that by
the time he was nine he began to compose the
Church Service for voices and instruments, and
from that time actually did compose a service
every week for three years successively.' '" And
in confirmation of this account, Coxe"^"^ describes
a volume, formerly in the possession of Lady
Rivers, dated 1698, signed G. F. H., and filled
with transcripts, in Handel's handwriting, of
airs, fugues, choruses, and other works, by
Zachau, Frohberger, Krieger, Kerl, Heinrich
Albert, Ebner, Adam Strunck, and other com-
po.sers of the 1 7th century. After Lady Rivera's
death, this volume disappeared. But its existence
has never been doubted, and its testimony to
Zachau's method of teaching is invaluable.

Handel always spoke of his old master with
the deepest respect ; visited him at Halle for
the last time in 1710 ; and after his death, which
took place August 14, 1721, sent 'frequent
remittances ' to his widow. These tokens of

7 Known also as the Marienkirche, the Hauptkirche, and tba
Oberpfarrkirche zu UnserLieben Frauen am Markplatz.

8 'Memoirs of the Life of the late George Frederic Handel ' (Lon-
don, 1760), p. U.

9 'Anecdotes of George Frederick Handel and John Cbristopber
Smith,' by the Eev, W. Com (London, 1799).

10 • Memoirs,' pp. 14, 15. " ' Anecdotes,' p. 6.



ZACHATJ.

■esteem did not, however, preserve the memory
of Zachau from a cruel aspersion, which origin-
ated in this wise. A certain Johann Christoph
Leporin, organist of the Dom Kirche zur Moritz-
burg at Halle, was dismissed from his ofiBce
in 1702 on account of his dissolute life and
neglect of duty ; and Handel, then seventeen
years of age, was chosen to supply his place.
After Handel's death, his biographers attri-
buted Leporin's misdeeds to Zachau, accusing
him of irregularities of which he was wholly
innocent. Mainwaring^ speaks of his frequent
neglect of duty ' from his love of company, and
a chearful glass.' Mattheson^ feebly protested
against the cruelty of resuscitating a scandal
so grave forty years after its victim's death;
but did not attempt to disprove it. Schoelcher ^
reproduced it with inconsiderate levity ; while
Dr. Chrysander* traces the libel to its source,
and proves it to be utterly unfounded.

The Berlin Library possesses a large collection
of Zachau's compositions, consisting principally
of MS. Church Cantatas, and pieces for the
organ : and some fragments have been printed
by Dr. Chrysander and von Winterfeld. They
are not works of genius, but their style is
thoroughly musicianlike, and is marked both by
good taste and earnestness of purpose. [W.S.E..]

ZAIDE, Operetta in two acts ; text by
Schachtner, probably from the French ; music
by Mozart, 1779 or 1780. It does not appear
to have been ever produced. Mendelssohn pro-
duced a Quartet from it in a Historical Concert,
March i, 1838.

The autograph contains fifteen numbers, but
lacks the title, the overture, and the concluding
chorus, which were all supplied by Andre. The
words of the dialogue (not given by Mozart
beyond the cues) were added by GoUmick, who
has also altered the composed text here and
there. It was published in full and vocal scores
by Andr^ of Ofi'enbach in 1838, and in Breit-
kopf's edition, Ser. 5, No. 11. [G.]

ZAIRE. Opera in 3 acts ; words by Romani,
music by Bellini. Produced at Parma, May 16,
1829. [G.]

ZAMBONA [Stephano ?], apparently an
Italian, resident in Bonn at the latter part of
the last century, who, according to the narrative
of B. J. Maurer, cellist in the Bonn court
orchestra, gave Beethoven lessons in Latin,
French, Italian, and Logic for about a year.
It is said that the lessons began in 1 780, and that
the boy advanced so rapidly as to read Cicero's
letters in six weeks ! Zambona was evidently a
shifty, vague personage — now an innl^eeper,
now a book-keeper, and then again applying
for the post of Jcammerportier about the Court ;
but the service which he rendered Beethoven
was so far a real one, and without his lessons we
should probably not have those delightful poly-



• ' Memoirs,' p. 15.

2 ■ G. F. Hfindel's Lebensbeschreibung ' (Hamburg, 1761), p. 10.

» • Life of Handel,' p. 6. « ' 6. F. Hfindel,' vol. i. p. 61.



ZANETTA.



499



glott dedications and remarks which are so
amusing in Beethoven's works.* [G.]

ZAMPA, ou La Fiancee de Maebee (The
marble Bride). Op^ra comique in 3 acts ;
libretto by Melesville, music by Herold. Pro-
duced at the Opera Comique, Paris, May 3, 1831.
In London, in Italian, at the King's theatre
(with a new finale to the 3rd act, by Hummel),®
April 19, 1833, and at Coven t Garden Aug. 5,
1858 ; in French at St. James's, Jan. 16, 1850;
in English, Covent Garden, April 19, 1833, and
again at Gaiety theatre, Oct. 8, 1870. [G.]

ZANDT, VAN, Makie, born Oct 8, 1861, at
New York, of American parents of Dutch ex-
traction on the father's side. Her mother, Mrs.
Jeanie van Zandt, was a singer, and formerly a
member of the Royal Italian and Carl Rosa
Companies. Marie was taught singing by
Lamperti at Milan, and in 1879 made her dehut
at Turin as Zeiiina in ' Don Giovanni.' On May 3
of the same year, and in the same part, she made
her first appearance at Her Majesty's. In that
part, and in those of Cherubino and Amina, she
was favourably received on account of the fresh-
ness of her voice and her unaffected style. On
March 20, 1880, she appeared in Paris as Mignon,
with such success that she was engaged by the
Opdra Comique for a term of years, and be-
came a great favourite. She also played there
Cherubino, Dinorah, and Lakme on the successful
production of Delibes's opera of that name April
14, 1883. On Nov. 8, 1884, on the revival of
Rossini's 'Barbiere,' Miss van Zandt was seized
with a total extinction of voice arising from
nervousness and physical prostration, in con-
sequence of which calamity she was subjected
to the most gross treatment and calumny by
portions of the Parisian press and public. On
leave of absence from Paris she played in the
provinces, and at Copenhagen, Monte Carlo, and
St. Petersburg, where she appeared Dec. 17, 1884,
and during the season with great success. On
her return to Paris in 1885 her position was
rendered intolerable by hostile attacks, and
she threw up her eng.agement. On June 6,
1885, she re-appeared in England at the Gaiety
on the production of ' Lakm^,' and created a highly
favourable impression in that and * Mignon ' and
also in scenes from ' Dinorah * and ' II Barbiere.'
She has a soprano voice of more than two octaves
in compass, from A below the line to F in alt.,
very sweet in quality, albeit of no power or
volume, with considerable powers of execution.
She is a pleasant actress, with great charm of
manner, and should ultimately achieve a lasting
success. [A.C.]

ZANETTA, ou II ne faut pas joueb avec
LE FEU (never play with fire). Op^ra comique
in 3 acts ; libretto by Scribe and St. Georges,
music by Auber. Produced at the Opera
Comique, Paris, May 18, 1840. The title origin-
ally stood as above, and the opera was given,
in French, under that title in London at St.
James's theatre, Feb. 12, 1849. [G-.]



s See Thayer's ' Beethoven,' i. 115.



6 Harmonicon, 18S3, p. 115.

K k 2



500



ZAPFENSTREICH.



ZARLINO.



Z APFENSTREICH. The German word Zap-
fenstreich is said to owe its origin to General
Wallenstein, who during the Thirty Years War
in Germany found his unruly troopers so fond of
nightly revels and drinking, that to prevent it he
introduced the tattoo, or 'last call,' after which
every soldier had to retire to rest. To insure
obedience to this call, he ordered that when it
was sounded the provost of the camp should go
to all the sutlers' booths, and see that the barrels
of drink were closed and a chalk-line drawn
over the bung, as a precaution against serving
di-ink during the night. Heavy penalties were
enforced against the sutlers, if on the morning's
inspection the chalk line was found to have
been meddled -^vith overnight. This act- "of
'sealing the bungs '.appeSed" more forcibly' to
the senses of the revellers than the tattoo which
accomjianied it, and led to the signal being
called Zapfenstreich — literally ' bung-Une,' which
it has retained in that country ever since. [See
Tattoo, vol. iv. p. 63.]

The 'Grosse Zapfenstreich' (grand tattoo) of
modern times, is in reality a monster serenade,
which usually terminates the grand annual
manoeuvres of the German army. On the last
evening before the troops are dismissed to their
homes, the bands of all the regiments who have
taken part in the mimic war, combine, forming a
monster mass of from 1000 to 1400 instrumen-
talists, who perform by torchlight, in presence
of the Emperor and numerous high officials
assembled, a suitable programme, immediately
followed by the proper Zapfenstreich, in which,
besides the band, all buglers, trumpeters and
drummers of the army take part. After an in-
troductory eight bars for fifes and drums, a few
drummers commence a roll very piano, gradually
increasing in power ; this crescendo is aug-
mented by all the drummers to the number of
over 300 rapidly joining in until a thunderous
forte is reached, when they break into four bars
of simple beats in march-tempo, followed by the
combined bands playing the proper Zapfenstreich
(an ancient Quickstep).

/-^ Quick March. Band.



P
Drum.



^#



I I



I 1



'^fT'T



it=



When this is finished, the 'Retraite' of the
combined cavalry bands is plaj-ed, consisting of
the old trumpet calls, interspersed with rolls of
kettledrums and full chords of brass instruments.
A short ' call ' by fifes and drums is then fol-
lowed by the ' Prayer,' a slow movement executed
by all the combined bands —



?^



Adagio.



^ —



=sc:S=^



o jp etc.

Then a roll for the drums, — the trumpet signal
' Gewehr ein ! ' — and finally two bars of long
chords bring the whole to a conclusion : —




Sucb a mere description as the above, even with
the assistance of the published full score of the
Grosse Zapfenstreich (Berlin, Schlesinger), can-
not convey an idea of the purely traditional
manner of the performance, which must be wit-
nessed, with all the brilliant surroundings accom-
panying it, to get an idea of the stirring effect it
produces. [J.A.K.]

ZARLINO, GioSEFFE, one of the most learned
and enlightened musical theorists of the i6th
century, was born in 1517^ at Chioggia — the
Clodia of the Romans — whence he was generally
known as Zarlinus Clodiensis. By the wish of
his father, Giovanni Zarlino, he spent his youth
in studying for the Church ; was admitted to the
Minor Orders in 1539, and ordained Deacon in
1541. In that year he came to reside in Venice,
where his proficiency as a theologian, aided by
his intimate acquaintance with the Greek and
Hebrew languages, and his attainments in Philo-
sophy, ]\Iathematics, Astronomy, and Chemistry,
soon gained him an honourable position. But ]
his love for Music, for which, as he himself tells
us, in the Dedication prefixed to his ' Istitutioni
armoniche,' ' he had felt a natural inclination ,
from his tenderest years,' tempted him to forsake
all other studies, for his favourite pursuit ; and he
was at once accepted as a pupil by Adriano
Willaert, the founder of the Venetian Polyphonic
School, under whom he studied, in company with
Cipriano di Rore and other promising neophytes.

On th j removal of Cipriano di Rore to Parma,
Zarlino was elected, in 1565, first Maestro di
Cappella at S. ]Mark's, with every demonstration
of honour and respect. The duties connected
with this appointment were not confined to the
Offices sung in the Cathedral. The Maestro
was in the service of the Republic, and his
talent was called into requisition, to add to the
interest of all its most brilliant festivals. After
the Battle of Lepanto, Oct. 7, 1571, Zarlino was
commissioned to celebrate the greatest victory
that Venice had ever won, with music worthy of
the occasion. When Henri III. visited Venice,

1 Not. as Burney and Hawkins pretend. In 15W ; for he himself tells
us CSoppl. SIus. Tiii. 131) that he came to resiiie In Venice In 1541.
In which year he was ordained Deacon. Burney's mistake is rectified
by Caffi (Storia della musica sacra, i. 129;.



ZAELINO.

cm his return to France, from Poland, in 1574,
he was greeted, on board the Bucentaur, by a
composition, the Latin verses for which were fur-
nished by Eocco Benedetti and Cornelio Frangi-
pani, and the music by Zarlino, who also com-
posed the music sung in the Cathedral, and a
dramatic piece, called 'Orfeo,'^ wbich was per-
formed, with great splendour, in the Sala del
Maggior Consiglio. Again, in 1577, when the
Chvurch of S. Maria della Salute was founded in
memory of the terrible plague, to which the
venerable Titian fell a victizn, Zarlino was com-
missioned to compose a Mass for the solemn
occasion. None of these works have been pre-
served, and we can only judge of their merits
by the immense reputation the Composer enjoyed.

But Zarlino did not entirely neglect the duties
of his ecclesiastical status. On the contrary, in
1582, he was elected a Canon of Chioggia ; and,
on the death of Marco de' Medici, Bishop of
Chioggia, in 1583, he was chosen to fill the
vacant See. This proceeding was, however,
so strongly opposed by the Doge, Niccolo da
Ponte, and the Senate, that Zarlino consented
to retain his appointment at S. Mark's in pre-
ference to the proffered Mitre ; and he con-
tinued to perform the duties of Maestro di Cap-
pella until his death, Feb. 4, 1590.^ He was
buried in the church of San Lorenzo. No in-
scription now marks the spot ; but his bust has
been placed in the Corridor of the Doge's Palace ;
and during his lifetime a medal was struck in his
honour, bearing his effigy, and, on the reverse, an
Organ, with the legend, Laudate eum in chordis.

The only compositions by Zarlino that have
been preserved to us, besides the examples given
in his theoretical works, are a MS. Mass for four
voices, in the library of the Liceo filarmonico at
Bologna, and a printed volume of ' Modulationes
sex vocum ' (Venice, 1566). His chief fame,
however, rests upon three treatises, entitled:
'Istitutioni armoniche ' (Venice, 1558,^ re-
printed 1562, and again, 1573); ' Dimostrationi
armoniche' (Venice, 1571,* reprinted, 1573);
and ' Sopplimenti musical! ' (Venice, 1588). The
best edition is the complete one, entitled ' Tutte
I'Opere del P.M. Gioseffo Zarlino da Chioggia '
("Venice, 1589).

The 'Istitutioni' comprise 448 pp. fol. ; and
are divided into four sections.

Lib. I. contains sixty-nine Chapters, chiefly
devoted to a dissertation on the excellence of
Music ; a mystical elucidation of the transcen-
dental properties of the mnnber six ; and a de-
scription of the different forms of Arithmetical,



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