George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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S — an anomaly which continued in common
long after Michael Praetorius had recom-
.ed, in his ' Syntagma Musicum,' ^ the use
oks below or above the letters, to indicate
wo forms of Semitone — q, <3, etc. Even as
s 1808 the error was revived in connection
Beethoven's Eroica Symphony, which was

1 Seep.«.

announced in Vienna as 'Symphonic in Dis'


For indicating the length of the notes, the
following forms were adopted, at a very early
period : —


















Grouped IS


c. etc.


Two Crotchets j ^ Four Qu

By means of these Signs
to express passages of con

s Xliaycr's ' Chronologlsche


, it was

! Terzeichn


quite p
e comj

iss,' p. 58,



without the use of a Stave; though, very fre-
quently, the two methods of Notation were com-
bined, especially in Compositions intended for a
Solo Voice, with Instrumental Accompaniment.
For instance, in the following example from
Arnold Schlick's 'Tabulaturen Etlicher lobgeseng
und liedlein uff die orgeln und lauten ' (Mentz,

Maria Zart,


15 1 2), the melodj' is given on the Stave, and tl
Bass in Organ Tablature, the notes in the latt "[?
being twice as long as those in the former-
peculiarity by no means rare, in a method
Notation into which almost every writer of en *^
nence introduced some novelty of his own 6

Though no doubt deriving its origin from this
early form, the method of Tablature used by
Lutenists differed from it altogether in prin-
ciple, being founded, in all its most important
points, upon the peculiar construction of the in-
strument for which it was intended. [See LuTE.]
To the uninitiated, Music written on this system
appears to be noted, either in Arabic numerals,
or small letters, on an unusually broad Six-lined
Stave. The resemblance to a Stave is, however,
merely imaginary. The Lines really represent
the six principal Strings of the Lute ; while the
letters, or numerals, denote the Frets by which
the Strings are stopped, without indicating either
the names of the notes to be sounded, or their
relation to a fixed Clef. And, since the pitch of
the notes produced by the use of the Frets will
naturally depend upon that of the Open Strings,
it is clearly impossible to decypher any given
system of Tablature, without first ascertaining
the method of tuning to which it is adapted,
though the same principle underlies all known
modifications of the general rule. We shall do
well, therefore, to begin by comparing a few of
the methods of tuning most commonly used on
the Continent. [See Scordatuka.]

Adrien le Eoy, in his ' Briefve et facile In-
struction pour aprendre la Tablature,' first printed
at Paris in 1551, tunes the Chanterelle — i. e. the
1st, or highest String, to c, and the lower Strings,
in descending order, to g, d, bb, f, and c; see (a)
in the following example. Vincenzo Galilei, in
the Dialogue called '11 Fronimo' (Venice, 15S3),
tunes his instrument thus, beginning with the
lowest String, G, c, f, a, d, g, as at (J) : and this
system was imitated by Agricola, in his 'Musica
Instrumentalis' (Wittenberg, 1529); and em-
ployed by John Dowland in his ' Bookes of Songes
or Ayres' (London, 1 597-1 603), and by most Eng-
lish Lutenists, who, however, always reckoned
downwards, from the highest sound to the lowest,
as at (c). Thomas ISIace describes the English
method, in ' Musick's Monument ' (London, 1676
fob), chap. ix. Scipione Cerreto, ' Delia prattica

musica vocale et strumentale ' (Napoli, 160
gives a somewhat similar system, with 8 stria ^'
tuned thus, beginning with the lowest, C, D,
c, f, a, d, g, as at (d) in the example. Sebastj
Virdung, in 'Musica getuscht' (1511), givesi
following, reckoning upwards, as at (e) — A, d,
b, e, a ; and this method, which was once vi
common in Italy, is followed in a scarce collect!
of Songs with Lute Accompaniment, published
Venice by Ottaviano Petrucci, in 1509. '

(a) Adrien le Rot



It will be understood that these systems a
only to the six principal Strings of the ]
which, alone, were governed by the Frets,
longer Strings, S3'mpathetically tuned in paid
means of a separate neck, were entirely ign
in nearly all systems of Tablature, and used
after the manner of a Drone, when they
pened to coincide with the Tonic of the
in which the Music was written. Of this n»F IF
are the two lowest Strings at (<:/) in the forego i)c

Of the Lines — generally six in number
used to represent the principal Strings, Ital
Lutenists almost always employed the lowest



Chanterelle and the highest, for the gravest
ig. In France, England, Flanders, and Spain,
highest line was used for the Chanterelle, and
whole system reversed. The French system,
sver, was afterwards universally adopted, both
Italy and Germany — a circumstance which
t be carefully borne in mind with regard
lusic printed in those countries in the 1 7th

le Frets by which the six principal Strings

! shortened, were represented, in Italy, by

numerals 1, 2, 31, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9^ to which

1 afterwards added the numbers ip, 11, 12,

ten X, X, X. In France and England the

) of these numerals was supplied by the

M a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, etc. : and, after a

, these letters came into general use on the

inent also. Of course, one plan was just as

as the other ; but there was this important

■,ical difference between them : in England

France a represented the Open String, and

1; first Fret ; in Italy, the Open String was

jsented by a cypher, and the first Fret by

[number i. The letter b, therefore, corre-

ied to the figure i; and c to 2. The letters,

merals, were written either on the linest or

he spaces between them, each letter or

ral representing a Semitone in correspond-

with the action of the Frets. Thus, when

owest String was tuned to G, the actual

G was represented by a (or o) ; Gjf, or

)y b (or i) ; A, by c (or 2_) ; AJ, or Bb,

(or 3). But when the lowest String was

to A, b (or i) represented Bb; c (or 2)

rented BQ; and d (or 3) represented c.

following example shows both the French

the Italian Methods, the letters being

;n in the spaces— rthe usual plan in England

[ the lowest place being reserved for an

onal Open Bass String.

French and j^nglish Tahlature.







a b c d 6

i b c d e

■Oft String



g> "*" — ' — ' ' "

Italian Tahlature.

tea string V. GALILEI.







In order to indicate the duration of the notes,
the Semibreve, Minim, Crotchet, Quaver, and
Dot — or Point of Augmentation — were repre-
sented by the following signs, written over the
highest line ; each sign remaining in force until
it was contradicted by another — at least, during
the continuance of the bar. At the beginning
of a new bar, the sign was usually repeated.



In order to. afford the reader an opportunity of
practically testing the rules, we give a few short
examples selected from the works already men-
tioned; showing, in each case, the method of
tuning employed — an indulgence very unusual
in the old Lute-Books. Ordinary notation was
of course used for the voice part.


W^-T r-^=f=f -


Awake, sweet love, thou art re - turned.









d d a



d d



a d




d f





e f




d c

^ ^^ M

aba a

)L. IV. PT. I.


Italian method.


spir- ti




h >





N ^^ ^ ^



u ^




^ h ^ h

^ N

-3 a 3 2 3-





These examples will enable the student to solve
any ordinary forms of Tablature. Those who wish
to study the supplementary Positions of Galilei,
and the complicated methods of Gerle,^ Besardus,^
and other German writers, will find no difficulty
in understanding the rules laid down in their re-
spective treatises, after having once mastered the
general features of this system.

It remains only to speak of Tablature as
applied to other intruments than that for which
it was originally designed.

During the reign of King James I, Coperario,
then resident in England, adapted the Lute
Tablature to Music written for the Bass Viol.

> In most modem editions, thts note Is erroneously printed Q.

2 Musica Teutscli (NQrnberg, 1642).

3 Ibesaurus barmODlcus (Colon. Agr. 1G03).


This method of Notation was used for beginne I?
only, and not for playing in concert. John Pla
ford, in his ' Introduction to the Skill of Musi
(loth edit., London, 1683), describes thismeth
of Notation as the 'Lyra- way'; and calls
instrument the Lero, or Lyra- Viol. The
strings of the Bass Viol are tuned thus,
ginning with the 6th, or lowest String, a
reckoning upwards — D, G (r), c, e, a, d .
the method proposed is exactly the same as t]
used for the Lute, adapted to this system
tuning. Thus, on the 6th String, a denoter
(the Open String) ; b denotes Djf ; c denotes
etc. A player, therefore, who can read Li
Music, will find no difficulty in reading this.
John Playford, enlarging upon Coperario's i<
recommended the same method for beginners
the Violin, adapting it to the four Open String
that instrument— G, D, A, E. The following,
arranged on this system, for the Violin, is ta
from a tune called ' Parthenia.'

J J J J J J.J. j..n







This adaptation to the Violin is one of the!
developments of the system of TablatuT
record : but Mendel,* not without show of re
thinks the term applicable to the Basso Cont
or Figured-Bass ; and we should not be ver
wrong were we to apply it to the Tonic-S
system of our own day. [W.


« ne

performance consisting generally of a mixt
narration and singing delivered by a single-i , 1
dividual seated behind a table facing the audi* . ^
When or by whom it was originated seems 6m'^
ful. George Alexander Steevens gave, aB| i^ J^
1765, entertainments in which he was the < '
performer, but such were probably rather 1'
tures than table entertainments. In May 11 |^.
R. Baddeley, the comedian (the original MoBei ^ .^^
'The School for Scandal'), gave an enterts^j^^
ment at Marylebone Gardens, described as ' 1
attempt at a sketch of the times in a variet]

« Musikallsches Conversations Lexicon (Berlin, 1E69).



atures, accompanied with a whimsical and
ical dissertation on each character ' ; and in
Fuue following George Saville Carey gave at
iame place 'A Lecture on Mimicry,' in which
itroduced imitations of the principal theatri-
lerformers and vocalists of the period. John
ins, an actor, in 1 775 gave in London a table-
rtainment, written by himself, called 'The
lents of Modern Oratory,' in which he intro-
d imitations of Garrick and Foote. After
ig it for 42 times in London he repeated
I Oxford, Cambridge, Belfast, Dublin, and
lingham. He subsequently gave, with great
2ss, an entertainment, also written by him-
called 'The Evening Brush,' containing seve-
songs which became very popular; among
1 the once well-known 'Chapter of Kings'
?he Eomans in England once held sway,
* Charles Dibdin commenced in 1789 a
s of table entertainments in which song was
prominent feature, and which he continued
great success until 1801. Dibdin's posi-
as a table entertainer was unique. He
id in himself the functions of author, com-
i', narrator, singer, and accompanyist. ■ [See
|»IN, Chaeles, in which article it was by
|ike stated that Dibdin was the originator
iis class of entertainment.] On April 3, 1816,
Ider Charles Mathews gave, at the Lyceum
tre, his 'Mail Coach Adventures,' the first
jeries of table-entertainments which he con-
d to give for many years, and with which
hieved an unprecedented success. Into these
onderful power of personation enabled him
troduce a new feature. After stooping be-
his table he quickly reappeared with his
and shoulders in costume, representing to
fe some singular character. The old Scotch-
n, the Thames waterman, and the Milton-
ironmonger were a few only of such per-
ons. Mathews's success led to similar
mances by others. Foremost among these
the comedians John Reeve and Frederick
whose forte was imitation of the principal
of the day, W. S. Woodin gave for seve-
asons, with very great success, table-enter-
tjnts at the Lowther Rooms, King William
Strand ; a place now known as Toole's
re. — Henry Phillips, the bass singer, and
VVilson, the Scotch tenor, gave similar enter-
ents, of a more closely musical kind : and
, the Frasers, and others, have followed in
?ake. [See Phillips, Henkt ; and Wilson,
] [W.H.H.]

BOR. A small drum used to accompany

both being played by the same man. [See

and Tabor.] Tabret is a diminutive of


BOUROT. [See Aebbau, vol. i. p. 80.]

XHINARDI, N10COL6, a distinguished
linger, born at Florence in September 1776.
.s intended for an ecclesiastical career, but
istic bias was so strong that he abandoned

« a copy of the words in ' Notes and Queries ' for 1866.



the study of literature for that of painting and
modelling. From the age of eleven he also re-
ceived instruction in vocal and instrumental
music. When 17 he joined the orchestra at the
Florence theatre as violin-player, but after five
years of this work, his voice having meanwhile
developed into a beautiful tenor, he began to sing
in public. In 1804 he appeared on the operatic
stages of Leghorn and Pisa ; afterwards on those
of Venice, Florence, and Milan, where he took a
distinguished part in the gala performances at
Napoleon's coronation as king of Italy.

At Rome, where his success was as permanent
as it was brilliant, his old passion for sculpture
was revived by the acquaintance which he made
with Canova, in whose studio he worked for a
time. Canova executed his bust in marble, thus
paying homage to him in his worst aspect, for
he was one of the ugliest of men, and almost a
hunchback. When he appeared atParis in 1811,
his looks created a mingled sensation of horror
and amusement ; but such was the beauty of his
voice and the consummate mastery of his style,
that he had only to begin to sing for these per-
sonal drawbacks to be all forgotten. He is said
to have taken Babini for his model, but it is
doubtful if he had any rival in execution and
artistic resource. The fact of so ugly a man sus-
taining the part (transposed for tenor) of Don
Giovanni, with success, shows what a spell he
could cast over his audience.

After three successful years in Paris, Tacchi-
nardi returned in 1814 to Italy, where he was ap-
pointed chief singer to the Grand Duke of Tuscany,
with liberty to travel. He accordingly sang at
Vienna, and afterwards in Spain, distinguishing
himself especially at Barcelona, although then 50
years old. After 1831 he left the stage, and lived
at his country house near Florence. He retained
his appointment from the Grand Duke, but de-
voted himself chiefly to teaching, for which he
became celebrated. He b uilt a little private theatre
in which to exercise his pupils, of whom the most
notable were Mme. Frezzolini, and his daughter
Fanny, Mme. Persiani, perhaps the most striking
instance on record of what extreme training and
hard work may effect, in the absence of any su-
perlative natural gifts. His other daughter, Elisa,
was an eminent pianiste. Tacchinardi was the
author of a number of solfeggi and vocal exercises,
and of a little work called ' Dell' opera in musica
sul teatro italiano, e de' suoi difetti.' He died in
i860. [F.A.M.]

TACET. i.e. 'is silent.' An indication often
found in old scores, meaning that the instrument
to which it refers is to leave off playing. [G.]

TADOLINI, Giovanni, born at Bologna in
1793, learned composition from Mattel, and sing-
ing from Babini, and at the age of 1 8 was appointed
by Spontini accompanyist and chorus-master at
the 'Theatre des Italiens, Paris. He kept this post
till the fall of Paris in 1814, when he returned to
Italy. There he remained, writing operas and
occupied in music till 1830, when he went back
to the Theatre Italien, with his wife, Eugenia

E 2



Savorini (born at Forli, 1809), whom he had mar-
ried shortly before, and resumed his old functions
till 1839, when he once more returned to Italy,
and died at Bologna Nov. 29, 1873. His operas
are 'La Fata Alcipa ' (Venice, 1814) ; 'La Princi-
pessa di Navarra ' (Bologna, 18 16?) ; 'II Credulo
deluso' (Rome. 1820?); 'Tamerlano' (Bologna,
1822?) 'Moctar' (Milan, 1824?); 'Mitridate'
(Venice, 1826?); 'Almanzor' (Trieste, 1828?).
One of his canzonets, ' Eco di Scozia,' with horn
obligate, was much sung by Rubini. Tadolini
was at one time credited with having written
the concluding fugue in Rossini's Stabat (see
Berlioz, 'Soirees de I'orchestre' 2feme Epilogue),
The above is chiefly compiled from F^tis. [G.]

TAGLICHSBECK, Thomas, born of a musical
family at Ansbach, in Bavaria, Deo. 31, 1799,
studied at Munich under Rovelli and Gfatz, and
by degrees became known. Lindpaintner in 1 820
gave him his first opportunity by appointing him
his deputy in the direction of the Munich theatre,
and about this time he produced his first opera,
' Weber's Bild.' After this he forsook Munich
and wandered over Germany, Holland, and Den-
mark, as a violinist, in which he acquired great
reputation. He then settled in Paris, and on
Jan. 24, 1836, a symphony of his (op. jo) was
admitted to the unwonted honour of perform-
ance at the Conservatoire. It must have had
at least the merit of clearness and eSect, or it
would not have been followed by a second per-
formance on April 2, 1837 — a rare honour for any
German composer but a first-rate one.

In 1827 he was appointed Kapellmeister of the
Prince of Hohenzollem Hechingen, a post which
he retained till its dissolution in 1848. The rest
of his life was passed between Lowenberg in
Silesia, Dresden, and Baden Raden, where he died
Oct. 5, 1867. His works extend to op. 33, and
embrace, besides the symphony already men-
tioned, three others — a mass, op. 35 ; a psalm,
op. 30 ; a trio for PF. and strings ; a great
quantity of concertos, variations, and other pieces
for the violin ; part-songs, etc., etc. [G.]

TAGLIAFICO, Joskph Disudonne, born
Jan. I, 1821, of Italian parents, at Toulon, and
educated at the College Henri IV, Paris,
He received instruction in singing from Pier-
marini, in acting fipom Lablache, and made his
debut in 1844 at the Italiens, Paris. He first
appeared in England April 6, 1847, at Covent
Garden Theatre, as Oroe in ' Semiramide,' on the
occasion of the opening of the Royal Italian
Opera. From that year until 1876 he appeared at
Covent Garden season by season, almost opera
by opera. His parts were small, but they were
tlioroughly studied and given, and invariably
showed the intelligent and conscientious artist.
In the intervals of the London seasons he had
engagements in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Paris,
and America ; was stage manager at the Th^S,tre
des Italiens, Monte Carlo, etc., and for many
years corresponded with the 'Menestrel' under
the signature of ' De Retz.' In 1877, on the death
of M. Desplaces, he was appointed stage manager
of the Italian Opera in London, which post he



resigned in 1882 on account of iU health. Mm
Tagliafico, formerly Cotti, was for many years
valuable ' comprimaria ' both at Covent Gard*
and Her Majesty's. [A;(

TALEXY, Adkien. A pianist and volumino
composer, bom about 1820; produced betwe
1872 and 1878 six one-act operettas at t!
Bouffes^Parisiens and other Paris theatres, no
of which met with any special favour. He
the author of a ' Methode de piano ' ; 20 ' Etu<J
expressives,' op. 80 (with Colombier) ; and
a large number of salon and dance pieces
piano solo, some of which enjoyed great pop
larity in their day. In i860 M. Talexy (x
ducted a series of French operas at the St. Jame
Theatre, London, for Mr, F. B. Chatterton, beg
ning with La Tentation, May 28, which howe^
did not prove a good speculation. He died
Paris in 1 88 1. [(

TAILLE, Originally the French name
the tenor voice, Basse-taille being applied to (
baritone ; but most frequently employed to
signate the tenor viol and violin. It props
denominates the large tenor, as distinguisl
from the smaller contralto or haute-contre : 1
zMlzz ^s often applied to both instruments.
i^M= tenor violoncello clef was originally

'~ propriated to the Taille. [See Tes
Violin.] [E.J.

TALISMANO, Hi. Grand opera in 3 ac
music by Balfe. Produced at Her Majesty's Ope
June II, 1874. The book, founded on Wal
Scott's 'Talisman,' was written by A. Matthe
in English, and so composed ; but was transla
into Italian by Sig. ZaflBra for the purpose
production at the Italian Opera. The work 1
left unfinished by Balfe, and completed by
G. A. Macfarren. [

TALLYS (as he himself wrote his nan
TALYS, or TALLIS (as it is usually spelli
Thomas, the father of English cathedral mu
is supposed to have been bom in the seo
decade of the i6th century. It has been (
jectured that he received his early mus
education in the choir of St. Paul's Cath«
under Thomas MuUiner, and was remo
thence to the choir of the Chapel Royal;
there is no evidence to support either sfe
ment. The words 'Child there' which occtu
the end of the entry in the Cheque-book of
Chapel Royal recording his death and the appo
ment of his successor, and which have been re
upon as proving the latter statement, are
biguous, as they are applicable equally to
successor, Henry Eveseed, and to him. It is h
ever highly probable that he was a chori
in one or other of the metropolitan choirs,
became organist of Waltham Abbey, wl
appointment he retained until the dissolu
of the abbey in 1540, when he was dismii
with 2c*. for wages and 20*, for reward.* 1
probable that he soon after that event obtai
the place of a Gentleman of the Chapel Re
His celebrated Preces, Responses and Litany,

I This fact was discovered by Mr. W. H. Cummings.





s Service in the Dorian mode, were most prob-
ly composed soon after the second Prayer Book
Edward VI. was issued in 1552. In 1560 he
itributed eight tunes to Day's Psalter (one of
lich, a canon 2 in i, was subsequently adapted
i is still used to Ken's Evening Hymn), and
ir anthems to Day's Morning, Communion,
i Evening Prayer. On January 21, 1575-6 he
i William Byrd obtained Letters Patent giving
!m the exclusive right of printing music and
ed music paper for twenty-one years ; the first
the kind. The first work printed under the
ent was the patentees' own ' Cantiones quae ab
(Umento Sacrae vocantur, quinque et sex .par-
ol,' containing 34 motets, 16 by Tallis, and 18

Byrd, and dated 1575. In the patent the
ntees are called ' Gent, of our Chappell ' only,
■ on the title-page of the ' Cantiones ' they
cribe themselves as ' Serenissimae Reginese
iiestati a priuato Sacello generosis, et Organis-
The work is a beautiful specimen of early
jflish musical typography. It contains not
Y three laudatory poems, one ' De Anglorum
sica' (unsigned), and two others by ' Richardus
Icasterus' and 'Ferdinandus Richardsonus,'

also at the end a short poem by Tallis and
d themselves : —


Bafi tibi primitias sic commendamus, amice
Lector, ut infaiitem depositura suum
Nutricijidei vix firma piierpera credit^

Quels pro laete tuce gratea frontis erit
Hac etenimfretce, magnam promittere messem

Audebunt, cassce, falcis honore cadent.

ch has been thus happily Englished : — ^

IE Feamees of the Musicke to the Readee.
Kb one, that scarce recouer'd from her Throes
With trustie Nurse her feehle Babe beatowes ;
These fii-stlings, Reader, in thy Hands we place.
Whose Milk must be the Fauour of thy Face ;
By that sustayn'd, large Increase shal they shew,

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