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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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set many of Goethe's songs to music. These
songs were interpreted in their day by Mara and
other great singers. [For their characteristics
see Song, vol. iii. p. 626 a.] Amongst his
numerous works, now forgotten, was a Cantata
on the death of Frederick the Great, which seems,
by the account of it in a journal of 1786, to have
been thought worthy of the occasion. He also
wrote an oratorio called ' The Ascension,' a
Requiem, a Te Deum, and several other works
which were never published. A list of these is to
be found in 'ASketch of theLife of Caii Friedrich
Zelter, arranged from autobiographical MSS.,'
by Rintel (Janke, Berlin, 1861). [A.D.C.]

ZEMIRE ET AZOR. Fairy comedy in 4
acts ; words by Marmontel, music by Gr^try.
Produced at Fontainebleau Nov. 9, 1771, and
repeated at the Italiens, Paris, Dec. 16. The
score is one of Gretry's best. It was revived,
the libretto reduced by Scribe to 2 acts, and the
score reinforced by Adam, on Feb. 21, 1832.

The story is that of ' Beauty and the Beast,'
and has been set to music under the above title
by Baumgarten (1775), Neefe — Beethoven's
teacher— (1778), Tozzi (1792), Seyfried (1818),
and Spohr (1819). The last, under the name of
'Azor and Zemira, or tiie Magic Rose,' was



brought out at Covent Garden Theatre, April 5,
1831. The song, 'Rose softly blooming,' has
remained a favourite piece to this day. [G.]

ZENOBIA. An opera, worthy of notice because
of the great number of times it has been set,
often to the same libretto. The following list
is collected from Clement's ' Diet. Lyrique ' and
Riemann's ' Opern-Handbuch.'

'Zenobia' : to various texts. G. A. Boretti,
Vienna, 1661 ; N. A. Strungk, Leipzig, 1697;
G. K. Reutter, jun., Vienna, 1732 ; Earl of Mt.
Edgcumbe, London, 1800. To Metastasio's
text; L. A. Predieri, Vienna, 1740; G. Sbacci,
Venice, 1740; B. Micheli, Venice, 1746; D.
Perez, Turin, 1751 ; N. Piccinni, Naples, 1756;
G. Cocchi, London, 1758 ; N. Sala, Naples,
1761 ; J. A. Hasse, Vienna, 1763; J. G. Schwan-
berg, Brunswick, 1767; A. Tozzi, Munich,
1773 ; V. Federici, London, 1795 ; Fr. Bianchi,
London, 1797.

'Zenobia in Palmira.' F. Chelleri, Milan,
1711 ; F. Fio, Naples, 1713 ; L. Leo, Naples,
1725; P. Anfossi, Venice, 1790; G. Paesiello,
Naples, 1790.

' Zenobia regina de' Palmireni.' T. Albinoni,
Venice, 1694.

* Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra.' Pratt, New,
York, 18S3. ' [G.]

ZERETELEW, Elizabeth Andkejewna,
the Princess of, nee Lawrowskaja, well-known
as Mme. Lawrowska, was born Oct. 12, 1845, at
Kaschin, Twer, Russia. She was taught sing-
ing by Fenzi, at the Elizabeth Institute, and by
Mme. Nissen-Saloman at the Conservatorium,
St. Petersburg. In 1867 she made her d^but as
Orft^e at three performances of Gliick's opera,
given by the students of the Conservatorium
under Rubinstein, at the Palace of the Grand
Duchess Helena, thanks to whose kindness she
was enabled to study abroad. From 1S68-72
she was engaged at the Russian Opera-Theatre
Marie, and in the mean time (viz, on July 31,
187 1 ), she married the Prince Zeretelew. In
1868 she was announced to sing at the Italian
Opera, Covent Garden, but did not appear. She
left the opera for a time and sang in concerts
all over Europe, having received further in-
struction from Mme. Viardot- Garcia. She
visited this country in 1873, and made her first
appearance Feb. 24 at the Monday Popular
Concerts, and March I at Crystal Palace.
During her stay she made a great impression
by her grand mezzo soprano voice and fine
declamatory powers of singing in operatic airs
of Handel and Glinka, and in the Lieder of
Schubert, Schumann, etc. In 1881 she re-
appeared in England in concerts, but for a very
short period. In 1878 she returned to the
St. Petersburg Opera, where vre believe she is
still engaged. The principal Russian operas in
which she has performed are ' La Vie pour le
Czar ' and ' Russian and Ludmila' of Glinka,
'Russalka' of Darjoniizsky, and 'Wrazyia Silow'
of Serow. [A.C.]

ZERLINE, ou LA CoRBEiLLE d'Okanges



(The Basket of Oranges). Grand opera in 3 acts ;
libretto by Scribe, music by Auber. Produced
at the Academie Nationale May 16, 1851. In
London, in Italian (but under the French title),
at Her Majesty's theatre, July 22, 1851. [G.]

ZERR, Anna, bom July 26, 1822, at Baden
Baden; was taught singing by Bordogui, and
first appeared in opera at Carlsrube, in 1839,
where she remained until 1846, and was subs&
quently engaged at Vienna. In 1851 she
obtained leave of absence, and made her first
appearance in England May 19 at Catherine
Hayes' Concert, at the Hanover Square Rooms,
and sang with great success there and at other
concerts, including one given for the benefit of
the Hungarian Refugees. On this account, on
her return to Vienna, she was deprived of her
diploma of Court chamber singer, and was not
permitted to sing again at the opera during the
remainder of her engagement. On July 10 she
made her d^but at the Royal Italian Opera as
Astrafiammente, on the production of the ZaU'
berflote, with great effect. She re-appeared in
1852 in the same part, and in that of Lucia ; on
July 1 5 as Rosa on the revival of Spohr's Faust ; on
Aug. 17 as Catherine on the production of 'PietrO;
il Grande' (Jullien). She afterwards sang at the,
Birmingham Festival, at Jullien's concerts, wentj
to America, and retired from public life in 1857.'
On June 14, 1881, she died, at her residence,
Winterbach, near Oberkirch, Baden. [A.C.]

ZERRAHN, Cael, born at Malchow, Meck-
lenburg-SchwerLa, July 28, 1826. Began the
study of music at Rostock, under F. Weber,
and continued it at Hanover and Berlin. The
revolution of 1848, in Germany, had the effect
of expatriating a number of young musicians,
among whom was Zerrahn, who went to the
United States, and, under the title of the
' Germania Musical Society,' gave concerts of
classical music for orchestra, in many of the
larger cities, with considerable success. In this
orchestra Zerrahn played first flute. He was,
in 1854, appointed conductor of the Handel
and Haydn Society at Boston, succeeding Carl
Bergmann, who had also been director of the
'Germania,' and he stUl retains the position
(1887). For several years the only classical
orchestral concerts in Boston were given by
Zerrahn at his own risk. On the establish-
ment of the Harvard Symphony Concerts, in
1865, Zerrahn received the appointment of
conductor, and remained in charge until the
concerts were given up (1882). The festivals
given by the Handel and Haydn Society in May
1865, and triennially thereafter, until 1S83,
when they were suspended, were all under his
direction. He occupied a prominent position
among the directors at the Peace Jubilees at
Boston, 1869 and 1872, and for several years has
directed the annual autumn festivals at Worces-
ter, Mass. Similar enterprises, generally on a
large scale, at New York, San Francisco, and
elsewhere, have been conducted by him. The
Oratorio Society of Salem, Mass., has been under




iirahn's care ever since its organisation in 1868,
have also been numerous choral and orchestral
cieties and male singing-clubs belonging to
jston or its neighbourhood. [F.H.J.]

ZEUGHEER, Jakob (known also as J. Z.
ebbmann), bom at Zurich in 1805, learned
6 violin first from Wassermann in his native
wn, and in 181 8 was placed at Munich under
3rdinand Franzel, for the violin, and Gratz
r composition and musical science. A visit

Vienna in 1823 confirmed his enthusiasm for
Amber-music and Beethoven, who remained
rough life the object of his highest veneration.
tie example of Schuppauzigh, and of the four
•others Moralt, suggested to Zeugheer the
ea of attempting the same with his friends

Munich, as 'das Quartett Gebriider Herr-
ann.' Zeugheer was leader; Joseph Wex
Immenstadt, second violin ; Carl Baader,
ola ; and Joseph Lidel (grandson of Andreas
idl, the eminent performer on the baryton,
e Baeyton), violoncello. They started Aug.
[, 1824, for the south, and gave perform-
ices at the towns of south Germany and
iritzerland, and along the Rhine to Holland
id Belgium. In the spring of 1826 they
layed in Paris, before Cherubini and Baillot,
id gave a public performance assisted by MUe.
jntag and M. Boucher. They first performed
I Paris Spohr's double quartet in D minor, the
!Cond quartet being played by Boucher and
is three sons. From Boulogne they crossed
le Channel ; in England they seem to have
sen successful, at Dover, Ramsgate, and es-
jcially at Brighton, where they resided for
ve months. They gave concerts throughout
le South and "West of England, and in Ireland
•cm Cork to Dublin, where they arrived in
Tovember 1827. Early in 1828 they proceeded
y Belfast to Glasgow, Edinburgh and London.
a London they had only a few engagements
1 private houses ; Wex retired ill, and the
usurtet was broken up till a new violinist
ras found in Anton Popp of Wiirtzburg. The
3ncerts began again with a series of six at
iverpool in the summer of 1829, and were con-
Inued through the northern counties. But in
le spring of 1830 the 'brothers' had had
nough of a roving life. Zeugheer and Baader
jttled at Liverpool, Lidel and Popp at Dublin,
leugheer resided in Liverpool till his death,
Jaader till his retirement in 1869.

The importance of the work achieved by the
irothers Herrmann will be appreciated if it be
emembered that, in England at least, except
he Moralts they were the earliest four vio-
inists who constantly played together. The
lerrmanns were the second party of the kind
ver seen here, and were the first to play in
Sngland any but the first six of Beethoven's
[uartets. In many towns they found that no
■ne knew what a quartet was.

In 183 1 he took the conductorship of the
Jentlemen's Concerts at Manchester, which
le retained till 1838. The Liverpool Phil-
tarmonic Society, originally a private society,



began in Jan. 1840 to give public concerts with
an orchestra, and in 1843 appointed Zeugheer
director. He conducted their concerts from
that date to March 28, 1865, shortly before his
death, which took place suddenly June 15,
1865. But the great work of his life at
Liverpool was tuition. Although not a pianist,
he fully understood the art of training the
hand. Mr. Chorley, the musical critic of the
' Athenseum,' never had any musical teacher but •
Zeugheer, whose genius he estimated highly and
proclaimed in print.

Zeugheer's playing was very pure in tone and
refined in expression, though his position was
not favourable to original composition. He wrote
two Symphonies, two Overtures, a Cantata, two
sets of Entr'actes, a Violin Concerto op. 28, a
Potpourri for violin and orchestra op. 6, an
instrumental Quartet, an Andante and Rondo
for piano and violin op. 21, and a Polacca for
four voices, few of them published. In Liver-
pool he wrote an opera ' Angela of Venice ' to
Chorley's words, but it was neither produced
nor published, owing to the badness of the
libretto. He published two sets of waltzes, a
vocal duet ' Come, lovely May,' and other songs
and glees. [R.M.]

ZEUNER, Charles. A German musician,
bom in 1797; resided for many years in the
United States, conducting, composing, and teach-
ing. He died at Philadelphia, Nov. 1857. [G.]

ZIMMERMANN, Agnes, pianist and com-
poser, though bom at Cologne, July 5, 1847,
came to England very early, and at 9 became a
student at the Royal Academy of Music, under
Cipriani Potter and Steggall. Later she learnt
from Pauer and Sir George Macfarren, Though
occasionally playing outside the Academy, Miss
Zimmermann did not relax her studies, and her
works were often heard at the Royal Academy
Students' concerts. In i860 and 62 she obtained
the King's Scholarship, and on Dec. 5, 1863,
made her first public appearance at the Crystal
Palace in two movements of Beethoven's El?
Concerto. In 1864 she followed this up by
playing at the Gewandhaus, Leipzig, and else-
whei e in Germany. Though occasionally travel-
ling abroad (as in 1879-80 and 1882 3), and
always with success, she has made England her
home, where her name is now a household word,
and where its appearance in a concert-bill
always betokens great execution and still greater
taste and musicianship.

In playing she has always devoted herself to
the classical school, once or twice in a very in-
teresting manner. Thus it was she who per-
formed (for the first and only time in England)
Beethoven's transcription of his Violin Concerto
for the Pianoforte at the Crystal Palace, Dec. 7,
1872. Her compositions are also chiefly in the
classical form and style, and include three
sonatas for piano and violin (ops. 16, 21, and 23),
a sonata for piano, violin, and cello (op. 19), a
sonata for piano solo (op. 22), a mazurka (op.
II), and Presto alia Tarantella (op. 15), also
several songs, duets, and 4 -part songs, and



various arrangements of instrumental works,

** She has also edited the sonatas of Mozart
and Beethoven for Messrs. Novello, and has an
edition of Schumann's works m the press for ^le
same firm. L -J

ZIMMERMANN, Pieeee Joseph Gdil-
LAUME, distinguished pianist and teacher, born m
Paris, March 1 7, 1 785- The son of a pianoforte-
maker, he entered the Conservatoire m 179S,
studied the piano with Boieldieu and harmony
with Eey and Catel. In 1800 he carried off
first prize for piano, Kalkbrenner taking the
second His musical education was completed
by a course of advanced composition under
Cherubini. In 181 1 he was appointed repe-
titeur,' or under-master of the pianoforte at the
Conservatoire, became joint-professor m I»i7,
and professor in chief in 1820. _ This post he
held till 1848, when he retired with the title of
honorary inspector of pianoforte classes. _ Uurmg
this loner period he fulfilled his duties with
indefatiglible Zealand entire devotion, so much
so indeed that for the sake of his constantly in-
creasing pupils he entirely gave up appearmg m
nublic, and found little time for composition, -tie
did however produce at the Opera Comique in
18^0 ' L'Enlfevement,' in three acts, libretto by
Sahit -Victor, Scribe, and d'Epagny, wholly
forgotten, and composed 'Nausica, a grand
opera, which was never performed. He also
wrote a number of pianoforte pieces of various
kinds, but his most important work is the
'Encyclopedie du Pianiste,' which comprises a
complete method of pianoforte-playing, and a
treatise on harmony and counterpoint, thus
enabling a pupil to carry on his studies m play-
inor and composition simultaneously. In ibil
Zimmermann won the post of Professor of Fugue
and Counterpoint thrown open to competition on
the death of Eler, but satisfied with the honour
of victory decided to retain his favourite piano
class This excellent and devoted professor, a
worthy recipient of the Legion of Honour, died
in Paris Oct. 29, 1853- ^ daughter of his
became Mme. Charles Gounod. lA.. J .J

ZINGAUA, LA. An Italian version of
Balfes Bohemian Girl. Produced at Her
Majesty's theatre, London, Feb. 6, 1858. [G.J
ZINGAEELLT, NiccoLb Antonio, born in
Naples, April 4, 1752, eldest son of Riccardo Tota
Zino-arelli, a tenor singer and teacher of singing.
In I7S9 his father died, leaving his mother with
four children and very poor. The eldest boy
was chief clerk in the Musical College ot b.
Maria di Loreto, and Niccolb was at once ad-
mitted there as a resident pupil.^ Here he and
Cimarosa learnt composition under Fedele Fena-
roli, whose ' Partimenti ' are still studied in the
Neapolitan Conservatorio. Fenaroli was learned
and religicus, and his pupils loved him as a
father. Although no great composer, he loved
music, and as a teacher well deserves the grati-
titude of posterity. Zingarelli pursued his studies

1 See Naples, vol. U. p. 444.


( mi



with such devotion as often tasked the patienc
of his master. When Fenaroli went for hi
autumn holidays to Ottaiano, his pupil would plo
the eleven miles from Naples on foot, in order t ^ ^^
submit to his master a fugue or motet, the retur ^
journey seeming but light if his compositio ^
were satisfactory. By the rules of his Colleg ,,
he was bound to study an instrument, and h
selected the violin, on which he soon becam
very proficient. In Latin he made great pre
gross, and in old age was fond of airing hj
classical knowledge by frequent quotations
Amoncf his teachers was Speranza, a learne
contrapuntist, and the best pupil of Durante
Before leaving his College, Zing^i-eUi Produce ^^
his first opera, or rather intermezzo— I C^uattr
Pazzi'— which was performed by the pupils i|^'
the Conservatorio. .

Soon after leaving the Conservatorio
find him teaching the violin in the Gargan
family at Torre Annunziata, near Naple
Later on he gave lessons to the Duchess
Castelpagano, under whose patronage he pre
duced his first work at the San Carlo m 177^^
the cantata ' Pigmalione,' which met witi
some success. On Aug. 13, 1781, his first open M
' Montezuma,' was represented at the sam F
house. It shows a style of the greatest sm I
plicity and purity; and when afterwards pel m
formed in Vienna, Haydn praised itgreatl]
and foretold a career of success to its con
poser. Strongly recommended to the Arc!
duchess Beatrice of Austria, he went to Milai
and was well received at the vice-regal cour
Milan was to be henceforth the scene of Zmg£
relli's many triumphs, and for La Scala b
wrote most of his serious and aU his comi
operas. He began there with ' Alsmda m 1 781
which greatly pleased the Milanese publu
though composed in seven days and_ in i
health, if we are to believe Carpani, wh
wrote most of Zingarelli's librettos, and asser^
that he was an ocular witness, not only ot tb
above feat, but also of the composition of tb
whole of ' Giulietta e Romeo ' in forty hours es
than ten days. This really astounding facilit
was the result of Speranza's method of obligm
his pupils to write the same composition man
times over, with change of time and signature
but without any change in its fundaments
poetical ideas. 'Alsinda' was soon followed b
•Armida,' 'Annibale,' 'Ifigenia m Aulide, an
'Ricimero,' all given at La Scala durmg tb
two following years with enormous success.

Whilst thus satisfying the theatrical publi*
Zincrarellidid not neglect his more congenial wor
of vvriting sacred music, and in 1787 he com
posed an oratorio of ' The Passion given at th
church of S. Celso in Milan. Ji-^f ,786 t
1 7 88 he wrote nine cantatas, ' Alceste, Hero
'Sappho,' 'Nice d'Elpino,' 'LAmor fihale
' Alcide al bivio,' ' Telemaco,' ' Oreste, an
' II Trionfo di David' ; all m Milan except th
last, which was given at San Carlo, Naples.

In 1789 Zingarelli was called to Pans t
compose an opera for the Acad^mie Royals d


usique. He arrived in the thick of the fight

tween the Piccinnists and Gluckists. Mar-

jntel wrote for him the book of ' L'Anti-

ne,' which was represented on April 30,

90. This opera was performed in Paris only

ree times consecutively, the Kevolution having

ore attractions than music for the Parisian

blic. Zingarelli, as both a conservative and a

ligious man, soon fled from Paris, and returned

Milan through Switzerland at the beginning

1 79 1. There he produced at La Scala, 'La

orte di Cesare,' and in the following year

j'Oracolo sannita ' and ' Pirro.'

In 1792 there was an open competition in

ilan for the place of Maestro di cappella of

e Duomo, the subject being a canon for eight

lices, and Zingarelli was appointed. The inde-

sndence and leisure of his new position did not

•event him from working as hard as ever, and

i continued giving lessons and writing for the

eatre. Among his many pupils of this time

e may mention F. Pollini, to whom he dedi-

,ted his 'Partimenti' and his 'Solfeggi,' which

on became recognised text-books.

With 'La Secchia rapita,' in 1793, Zingarelli

jgan a series of comic operas, which, although

)t to be compared for real worth with his

rious operas, made his name popular, not

ily in Italy, but throughout Germany, where

[ley were widely performed. 'II Mercato di

|[onfregoso ' soon followed, and is reputed his

j3st opera buffa. In 1794 he composed ' Arta-

jirse' for Milan, the ' Orazi e Curiazi' for the

leatro Eeale of Turin, and 'Apelle e Cam-

ispe ' for the theatre La Fenice of Venice, in

hich opera Crescentini made his debfit. The

3onte di Saldagna ' was unsuccessfully pro-

uced in 1795 at the same theatre in Venice;

ut this failure was grandly retrieved the fol-

■wing year by the performance of his greatest

ork, ' Komeo e Giulietta ' at La Scala. Its

eauty and popularity are shown by the fact

lat it has been played all over the continent

)r the greater part of a century.

Zingarelli was appointed in 1 794 Maestro di

•appella at Loreto, which place he held for ten

ears. Here he wrote many operas, of which we

lay mention ' Clitennestra,' written expressly

)r Catalani, and 'Inez de Castro,' for Silva.

lis principal work, however, during these ten

ears was sacred music, to which he was inclined

y his nature and by the duties of his office. In

he archives of the Santa Casa of Loreto is

ccumulated an immense quantity of manuscript

ausic, known by the name of "Annuale di Loreto.'

?o this great collection Zingarelli contributed the

stounding number of 541 works, inclusive of 28

dasses, which are still sung in that church. As it

s forbidden to copy the music of the 'Annuale,'

he outside world must remain ignorant of its

Qerits. Zingarelli's masses, to those who heard

hem, have a spontaneity of expression, an easy

aciUty of style, a simplicity, and, above all, a

aost entrancing melody. In the style called

li cappella, in the music a pieno, no one has

iver surpassed him. The writer of this notice



has obtained a complete list of them, the only
one ever made, which, duly certified and attested
by the present Maestro di cappella of Loreto, is
now deposited in the Library of the Royal
College of Music.

When Napoleon was at Loreto, in 1796, he
admired Zingarelli's music and befriended him,
a fact which subsequently became very useful ta
the musician.

In 1804 Zingarelli succeeded Guglielmi as
Maestro di cappella of the Sixtine Chapel in
Rome. Here he set to music passages from the
great Italian poets. Tancredi's Lamento, from
the twelfth Canto of Tasso's 'Gerusalemme
Liberata,' was performed in Naples in 1805, in
the palace of the Prince di Pantelleria, where
Zingarelli met Mme. de Stael, whom he had pre-
viously known in Paris as Mile. Necker. The
same year he gave in Rome ' La Distruzione di
Gerusalemme ' at the Theatre Valle, where it
kept the boards for five consecutive years. He
produced, seven years after, in Florence, * La
Riedificazione di Gerusalemme,' one of his very
few failures. His opera ' Baldovino ' was given
in 1 8 10 at the Theatre Argentina, and the fol-
lowing year 'Berenice' at the Theatre Valle,
both in Rome. ' Berenice ' was Zingarelli's
last opera, and had a run of over a hundred
consecutive representations ; a thing unheard
of in the thinly populated towns of Italy. But it
was not his last work, as he continued writing
to the last day of his life. ' Berenice ' was com-
posed after leaving Rome for Civita Vecchia on
his forced journey to Paris; and one of its finest
numbers, the finale of the first act, ' Gik sparir
vedo la sponda ' was written on board ship.

We have now arrived at a memorable epoch
of Zingarelli's life, when his already well-known
name became illustrious among those of Italian
patriots. When Napoleon, in the zenith of his
imperial power, gave his son the pompous title
of ' King of Rome,' he ordered rejoicings through-
out all his dominions. ATe Deum was therefore
arranged to be sung at St. Peter's in Rome;
but when the authorities, both French and
Italian, were assembled for the performance of
this servile work, it was found to their conster-
nation that the Maestro di cappeUa refused to
have anything to do with it, and that nothing
could induce him to acknowledge the rule of the
Corsican usurper. He was arrested and, by
Napoleon's orders, taken to Paris, where he was
immediately set free and granted a pension.
This he owed to the fact that Napoleon was
fond, above all other, of Zingarelli's music,
which he had heard in Italy in 1796, in Vienna
in 1805, and in Paris in 1809. On the last
occasion, when Crescentini sang the part of

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