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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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Romeo, Napoleon, much affected, sent him from
his own breast the star of the order of the Iron
Crown. He also ordered Zingarelli to compose
for his Imperial Chapel a Mass that should not
last more than twenty minutes, had it rehearsed
in his presence, and was so pleased with it as to
give the composer 6000 francs. During his stay
in Paris, Zingarelli was replaced at Rome by



Fioravanti. In July 1810 he left Paris for
Naples, where in February 1813 he was ap-
pointed Director of the Royal College of Music.
In t8i6 he succeeded Paisiello as Maestro di
cappella of the Neapolitan Cathedral ; and
held both these places until his death, May 5,
1837, at Torre del Greco, in his 86th year.

For the Birmingham Festival of 1829 Zinga-
relli wrote a Cantata on the 12th Chapter of
Isaiah. As he could not take it to England
himself he entrusted his pupil, Costa, with the
mission, and this was the occasion of Costa's
introduction to the English public. [See vol. i.
p. 406.] Zingarelli's next conposition was a
Hymn to commemorate the inauguration of the
Philharmonic Society of Naples in Jan. 1835.
His oratorio, ' The Flight into Egypt,' was
written and performed only a few weeks before
his death in 1837, thus proving how, even at that
advanced age, Zingarelli still continued working.

Of his very numerous Masses, without reckon-
ing the 28 in the 'Annuale in volume that it is unworthy of
consideration, especially as it is now almost en-
tirely superseded by the Philomfele and Viola-
zither, which have very rapidly grown into
favour in London of late, especially in aristocratic

The Viola-zither is shaped like a Viola. The
Philomfele is represented in the above drawing.
These two instruments are, as regards the method
of playing, precisely similar, the difference exists
only in shape. They may be considered as close
rivals of the violin, wliich they much resemble in
tone. The finger-board is the same as that of the
zither. Beneath the head is a little foot to
steady the instrument, which is placed on the
edge of a table, while the body rests on the lap
of the seated pla^-er. This position, togetlier
with the fretted finger-board, gives it a consider-
able advantage over the violin as regards ease in
acquiring proficiency, and difiicult violin music
can be mastered in a comparatively short time.
The tuning is like that of the violin, viz E, A,
D, G. The E and A are of steel, the D of brass,
and the G the same as on the violin. Gut strings
may be used if preferred, but they somewhat rob
the Philomfele of its individuality.

There are numerous manufacturers of the zither
aU over Germany, who make thousands of instru-
ments annually. The largest and oldest firms
are those of Kiend'l in Vienna, and Tiefenbrun-
ner in Munich. Both are of world-wide renown.
An immense amount of music is published for
the zither. The best-known composers and
publishers are Umlauf in Vienna, Grassmann in
Frankfort, Hoenes in Trier, Heckel in ilann-
VOL. IV. FT. 4.

heim, Stomps in Luxemburg, Schulz, and Hart
& Son, London.

The cithern-player of Giorgione at Venice is
well known. Mendelssohn mentions it among
the pictures for his sister to see (Letter, Sept. 14,
1839). [CSCH.]

ZOO, THE. 'An original musical folly';
words by B. Eowe, music by Arthur Sullivan.
Produced at St. James's theatre June 5, 1875.
The piece is still in MS. [G.]

ZOPF, i.e. ' pigtail.' The German tenn for
the old-fiishioned obsolete style in music. Men-
delssohn, when at the Engelberg monastery,
accompanied a Mass by Emmerich ; ' every note,'
he says, ' had its pigt;iil (Zopf) and its powder.'
(Letter, Aug. 24, 1831.) The French word
perruque is sometimes used for the same thing.
After writing some contrapuntal pieces, ' me
voila perruque^ s&js he to Hiller. [See Devin
DU TILLAGE, vol. i. p. 442 a.] Boftthoven used
to speak of his old-fashioned contemporaries as
' Eeichscomponisten,' which perhaps might be
rendered ' Act-of- Parliament musicians.' [G.]

ZOPFF, Hermann^, born June i, 1826, at
Glogau, in Silesia. Though he had received a
complete imiversity education, his father wished
him to be a farmer; but his own predilections
constantly incMned him to music. At length the
successful performance of an overture composed by
him removed his father's opposition, and from the
age of twenty-four he devoted himself exclusively
to music. He placed himself under the tuition of
A. B. Marx and Kullak, and was soon engaged
to fill an important post on the teaching staff of
their new Conservatorium at Berlin. He had
also other appointments in the musical circles of
that city ; but his ambition drew him towards
Leipzig, and he gl.idly accepted an offer from
Brendel to edit the ' Neue Zeitschrift fiir Musik,'
which necessitated his removal thither. There
he toiled until within a short time of his death,
as editor, critic, conductor, composer, and pro-
fessor of singing and composition. The character
and tone which had been imparted to the ' Neue
Zeitschrift ' by Brendel were continued by ZopfF,
for both editors were strenuous advocates of the
New German School. But Zopff was no narrow
partisan ; he was ready to do full justice not only
to Schumann and Wagner and their followers,
but to every musician of high aims.

Zopff's compositions cover a wide range of
form, from the simplest PF. pieces or songs, to
the largest polyphonic or dramatic w-orks, and all
bear the mark of a thorough, scientific musician.
But for a certain want of spontaneity and grace,
they would probably have been much better
known and oftener performed. Among his numer-
ous choral works with orchestral or PF. accom-
paniment, we may mention his ' Brauthymne,'
' Friihlingshymne,' and 'Triumph der Liebe.'
Of his larger works, approaching the oratorio-
form, we may cite ' Anbetung Gottes,' ' Evan-
gelium der That,' and ' Alexandera.' It is clear
from his operas, 'Carloman,' ' Muhammed,'
'Judas Makkabeus,' and 'Constantin,' that his




strength was especially concentrated on dramatic
forms ; but as regards popularity his symphonic
poem 'Tell,' the ' Idyllen fiir kleines Orchester,'
and the 'Traum am Ehein' have been most
fortunate. ' Zopff was a careful and prolific
writer of critical, theoretical and didactic essays ;
Ins ' Theorie der Oper ' is a good illustration of
the industry with which he collected and utilised
valuable information. He wrote several treatises
on the cultivation of the voice, and paid special
attention to the cure of defects caused by faulty
training. He united lucidity, accuracy, and
conscientiousness in liis work, with kindness,
generosity and hospitality in his social life. For
foreigners and strangers he had always a friendly
welcome ; and the weekly musical parties at his
house afforded constant opportunities for the in-
troduction of new artists and new compositions,
while a special corner of the ' Neue Zeitschrift
ixir Musik ' was always reserved for notices of
rising talent.

Zopff died of heart-disease at Leipzig, July 2,
1883. [A.H.W.]

ZOPPA, ALL A., i.e. halting, or limping. A
term applied to a rhytlim in which the second
quaver in a bar of 2-4 time is accentuated, as
in certain Hungarian pieces. [See Magtak,
vol. ii. p. 197 6.] [Gr-]

ZORA. One of the many aliases of llossini's
'Mose in Egitto,' in which the Bactrians are sub-
stituted for the Jews. It was produced at the
Royal Italian Opera, Covent Garden, April 20,
1850. [G.]

ZUKUNFTSMUSIK, la musique de Vavemr,
the Music of the Future. A journal for ' music
to come ' is still wanting, writes Schumann ^ as
early as 1833, ' Eine Zeitschrift fiir zuktinftige
Musik fehlt noch ' — and 'of course,' he continues
in his humorous way, 'only men like the old
blind Cantor at the Thomas schule (Bach) or
the deaf Capellmeister who rests at Vienna
(Beethoven) would be fit editors.' Schumann
himself became such an editor in 1834, and
during the next ten years his paper, the
'Neue Zeitschrift fiir Musik,' was mainly instru-
mental in bringing about a new state of things.
Indeed the rapid success of Chopin, Gade,
Sterndale-Bennett, Henselt, Heller, etc., with
the better part of the contemporary public in
Germany, was to a considerable extent due to
Schum;inn's sympathetic and discriminating
advocacy. In the hands of his successor, Brendel,
the ' Zeitschrift ' became the organ of Wagner
and Liszt, and particularly of a group of younger
men, such as von Billow, von Bronsart, Draeseke,
Cornelius, Tausig, who, i'rom 1850 to 60, gathered
round Liszt, at Weimar — the headquarters of
the so-called ' musicians of the futui-e.'

In good faith, or with derisive intent, the
ambiguous term 'Zukunftsmusik' and the nick-
name ' Zukunftsmusiker ' have been in use since
about 1850, when Wagner published 'Das
Kunstwerk der Zukunft' (the Art-work of the
Future).^ According to Wa'^-ner it was Dr. L.

1 Schumann. Oes. Pchriften. i. 49, 1st. ed. 18.')4.

2 Bee the article Waonek, vol. iy. p. 367 el seq.


F. C. Bischoff,' editor of the Rheinische and the

Nieder-rheinische Musik-zeitungen (the now de^
funct rivals of the Neue Zeitschrift) who first
perverted Wagner's idea of the ' art-work of the'
future ' into that of tlie ' music of the future,'
i.e. inartistic music, cacophonous to contemporary,
ears, but intended by its perpetrators to please s
coming generation. Liszt, together with his
disciples at Weimar,al of his compositions were performed at
the concerts of the school, and in 1852, having
attracted the attention of Lindpaintner, then
capellmeister at Stuttgart, he received the post
of contrabassist in the theatre orchestra of that
town. Shortly after this, two symphonies were
written. These were followed by a S3rmphonic
poem, 'Columbus' (Crystal Palace, Mar. 4, 1865),
and by four operas, 'Anna von Landskron,'
' Konig Enzio,' ' Astorga,' and 'Ekkehard,'
besides many works of smaller calibre. On the
retirement of Eckert in 1867, Abert suc-
ceeded him as Capellmeister, a post he still
(1887) retains. — (Mendel's and Eiemann's
Lexicons.) [M.]

VOL. rv. PT. ;;.

ABRAMS, The Misses (vol. i. 6 a). For
Henrietta read Harriet, throughout the article.
(Corrected in late editions.) [W.H.H.l

ABT. Add that he died at Wiesbaden, Mar,
31, 1885.

ABU HASSAN, a comic singspiel or operetta
in one act, the words by Hiemer, the music by
Weber, composed between Aug. 11, 1810, and
Jan 12, iSii. It seems to have been produced
on the of the following June at Munich,
under Winter. In London it was produced in
English at Drury Lane in 1835, and in Italian, at
Drury Lane on May 12, 1870 (at the same time
with Mozart's ' Oca del Cairo '), the translation
being made by Marches!, and the dialogue set to
recitative by Arditi. There appear to have been
only two performances. [See Weber, vol. iv.
PP- 396. 7.] [G.]

ii. 172 i. On p. 8 6, line 18 from bottom, /or
1845 read 1843. Add to last paragraph but
one of the article, that MM. Ritt and Gailhard
are at present entrepreneurs (1887).

p. 10 J, line g,for 1828 read 1728. (Corrected in
late editions.)

RoTAL Academy, vol. iii. p. 185.

ACCADEMIA, p. 11 &, 1. 6, /or six read five,
and cf. p. 259 a. From the list of references
given near the bottom of the same column, omit
LoMBAKDT, Salerno, Siena, Verona, and Vi-


ACCENT. P. 16 a, musical example 29, bars
2 and 3, the first group of notes in each should
be quavers, not semi-quavers. In examples 32
and 34, for 2-4 of the time-signature, read 3-4.
(Corrected in late editions.)

ACCIDENTALS. See also Cis, Dis, Hexa-
CHORDS, and Notation.

ACCOMPANIMENT. P. 22 a, 1. 29, for
1697 reacZ 1698.

hymn, the words of which are a paraphrase
by Martin Luther on Psalm xi. (Vulgate
version), made its first appearance in 1524,
when it was printed in at least four different



collections : (a) ' Etlich cristlicli lider Lobgesang,
vnd Psalm, etc' printed at Wittenberg (Wacker-
nagel No. cxxix.) ; (fi) the Erfuidt Enchi-
ridion (Wackernagel, No. clvii.) ; (c) the
'Teiitsch Kirchen Ampt mit lobegesengen,'
printed by Wolf Koppel at Strasburg (Wacker-
nagel, No. clxii.) ; and (d) Walther's Wit-
tenberg 'Geystliche gesangli Buchleyn' (Wacker-
nagel, No. clxiii.). In (a) it is directed to
be sung to the melody of ' Es ist das Heil * ;
in {b) it appears with the tune in the Hypo-
phrygian mode to which it is usually sung —
especially in North Germany ; in (c) it is set to
a tune in the Hyposeolian mode, to which it is
sometimes still sung in South Germany ; and in
(d) it appears with a tune in the Dorian mode.
In Joseph Klug's Hymnbook (1535), besides
the well-known Hypophrygian tune, it is set to
another tune in the Phrygian mode, which was
afterwards adapted to Andreas Knopken's
Psalm ' Hilf Gott, wie geht das immer zu.'
The melody in the Erfurdt Enchiridion is as
follows :

The use which Mozart has made of this
Chorale in the Finale to Act II. of the * Zauber-
flcite ' is very interesting. It is now well known
that this opera refers under a slight disguise
to the suppression of Freemasonry by Maria
Theresa. To masons both book and music are
said to be full of allusions to the mysteries of
the craft, and it seems probable that one of
these is the introduction of the two men in
armour who sing at the moment of Tamino's
most solemn trial the motto inscribed on a
pyramid set to the well-known chorale ' Ach
Gott vom Himmel.' Jahn (' W. A. Mozart '
iv. 617) surmises that Mozart's attention was
drawn to the chorale by Kirnberger's ' Kunst
des reinen Satzes,' in which it is twice used
as a Canto Fermo for contiapuntal treatment.
A sketch is preserved in the Imperial Library
at Vienna of another four-part arrangement of
the chorale, which still more closely resembles
the passages in Kirnberger's work. The auto-
graph score of the ' Zauberflote ' shows that the
beginning of the scene between Tamino and the
two men in armour has been carefully sketched.
The chorale itself is sung in octaves by the two
voices, accompanied by flutes, oboes, bassoons
and trombones, whilst the strings have an in-
dependent contrapuntal figure. [W.B.S.]

ADAM, A. C. P. 28 a. 1. 14 from bottom, /or
1835 read 1836. Add day of death, May 3.


ADAM, Louis. Add dates of birth an(|
death, Dec. 3 and April 11, 1849.

ADAMBERGER. P. 29 a, 1. 20 of article ,
for Anna Maria read Maria Anna; and, tw<
lines below, for Antoine read Antonie; 1.
from bottom, for sixty-four read sixty-one|
(Corrected in late editions.)

AEVIA (Aeuia or .^via). A technical
word formed from the vowels of Allelma, ; ancl
used, in Mediaeval Office Books, as an abbrevial
tion, in the same manner as EvovAE — which seel

In Venetian and other Italian Office-Books o >i
the 1 6th century, we sometimes find Hal'a, o; j
Hal'ah, substituted for Aevia. [W.S.R. '

AFRICAINE, L'. Grand opera in 5 acts
words by Scribe, music by Meyerbeer. Thd'
composer received the book in 1838, bull
did not bring the work into its final shape untiiJl
shortly before his death. Produced at th(U
Academic, Paris, April 28, 1865 ; in Italianij
under the French title, at Covent Garden or
July 22 of the same year, with Madlle. Lucct
in the part of Selika, and in English (translatior
by Kenney with same title) at Royal Englisl
Opera, Covent Garden, Oct. 21. [See ii. 323

324-] [M-;

AGITATO, 1. 7. Tlie direction 'Pianc
agitato' is probably a mere misprint for th(
' Poco agitato ' found in German editions.

AGNESI, Louis Ferdinand Leopold, th(
famous bass, whose real name was Agniez, was
born July 17, 1833, at Erpent, Naniur. Hf
studied at the Brussels Conservatoire, under Bos
selet and Fetis, and in 1853-55 gained thf
concours de Rome. He brought out an opera,
' Harold le Normand,' with indifferent success,
and subsequently abandoned composition ioi
singing. For the latter purpose in 1S61 he re
ceived instruction from Diiprez, and became n
member of Merelli's Italian Opera Company,
under the name Luigi Agnesi, during a tour
through Germany, Holland, and Belgium. On
Feb. 10, 1S64, he first appeared at the Italiens,
Paris, as Assur in * Semiramide,' with the
sisters Marchisio, and was engaged there for
several seasons. In 1865 he was engaged at
Her Majesty's theatre, where he first appeared
with Murska May 22, as the Prefect in ' landa
di Chamouni,' and during the season he playeil
Assur and Figaro (Le Nozze), and also sang at.
the Philharmonic, on each occasion with fair

In 1S71, on his return to England, where he
remained until his death, Feb. 2, 1875, he en-
joyed a greater reputation, not only in opera at
Drury Lane (1S71-74), but as an oratorio and
concert singer at the Handel and provincial
Festivals, a,t the Sacreil Harmonic, at the Phil-
harmonic, etc. In addition to the parts above
named, he played with success Pizarro (Fidelio),


Kkheli in the solitary Italian performance of
Les deux Joum^es,' June 20, 1872, the Duke
1 ' Lucrezia,' etc., and showed himself in all an
ccomplished actor and musician, devoted to
is art. Special mention may be made of his
Lssur, which he sang in true Italian style, with
itiens and Trebelli as Semiramide and Arsace,
cast of which opera has never since been
jualled ; also of his delivery of the bass part
[ Crotch's ' Palestine,' in a style of music wholly
nfamiliar to him. [A.C.]

AGOSTINI. End of note i, for i860 read.
680. (Corrected in late editions).

AGEICOLA, Alexandee. Line 1 2 of article,
■>r Castaliae read, Castiliae. Line 1 of epitaph,
w aura read, cura; ib. 1. 5, for hunc read
nc ; ib. 1. 8, for capite read in capite. After
le epitaph reatf 'The question "Who brought
le Belgian hither?" is decisive as to his
lationality. He was certainly educated in the
^^etherlands, and passed great part of his life
here. At an early age he was distinguished
loth as a singer and performer, A letter of
/harles VIII. of France, in Mr. Julian Mar-
hall's collection, proves that he was in that
ing's service, and left it, without leave, for
hat of Lorenzo de' Medici, whence Charles re-
laimed him. Charles died 1498. Petrucci
lublished some of Agricola's works at Venice in
503.' (The above appears correctly in late
ditions, with the exception of the date of
!!harles's death, there given as 1598.)

AGUILAR, Emanuel. See ii. 733 5.

AlDA. Grand opera in 3 acts ; libretto by
Lntonio Ghislanzoni, music by Verdi. Commis-
ioned by the Viceroy of Egypt for the opening
if the opera-house at Cairo, and produced there
Dec. 24, 1871. The first European performance
00k placeat Milan, Feb. 8,1872 ; and on June 22,
876, it was given at Covent Garden. [M.]

ALBANI. Add the following to the notice
inder Lajeunesse, vol. ii. p. 85.

Albani, Mme., bom 1850, not '51, whose full
hristian names are Marie Louise Cecilia Emma,
ince 1879 ^*s appeared each year in Italian
ipera at Covent Garden, excepting that year and
885. Her new parts have been: — June 26,
880, Isabella (production of ' Pre aux Clercs ') ;
fune 21, 1881, Tamara, on production of 'II
)emonio' (Rubinstein); July 11, 1882, Mar-
garet and Helen of Troy, on production at above
heatre of ' Mefistofele ' ; and July 15, 1SS4,
Brunhild (production of Keyer's 'Sigurd'). In
he German season there of 1884, under Richter,
he played her favourite parts of Senta and Elsa.
n the season of 1887 she added to her already
arge repertory (wherein we remark that no
?ork of Rossini or Meyerbeer is included) the
eading part in 'La Vie pour le Czar' (July 12)
■nd was announced to appear in ' II Matrimonio
egreto,' but that opera was not given.

In the concert-room, Mme. Albani has main-
lined her position, especially at the festivals,
rhere she has created, in important new works.



the soprano parts mostly written for her, viz. at
Birmingham, 1882, in the 'Redemption'; 1885
'Mors et Vita 'and 'Spectre's Bride'; 1881 at
Norwich in 'St. Ursula' (Cowen) ; and at Leeds,
1880, Margarita in 'The Martyr of Antioch';
1886, Elsie in 'The Golden Legend,' St. Ludmila
(Dvorak), and Ilmas (Story of Sayid), ISIackenzie.
At Worcester also, in 1881, she sang in Cheru-
bini's Mass in D minor, ^ on its production
in this country; in 1882 (at Birmingham) in
the same composer's Mass in C; and in 1884
in Bach's cantata 'God so loved the world,'
in which is the well-known air ' My heart
ever faithful.' In London and at Sydenham
she has sung in the greater part of these
works, also in ' The Rose of Sharon,' Dvorak's
Stabat Mater, and in 1886 in Liszt's ' St. Eliza-
beth' on the occasion of the composer's fare-
well visit. Mme. Albani has sung in opera
abroad with her usual success; also in Gounod's
oratorios at the Trocad^ro, Paris. Her most
recent engagements have been at Berlin, where
in 1887, in a three weeks' visit, she sang both
in German and Italian in ' Lucia,' ' Traviata,'
'Faust,' ' Fliegende Hollander' and 'Lohengrin,'
and was appointed by the Emperor a court
chamber singer. At the request of Sir Arthur
Sullivan she returned to Berlin on April 2, 1887,
and sang her original part of Elsie on the second
performance there of 'The Golden Legend,' under
his direction, having travelled from Brussels for
that express purpose. [A.C.]

ALBERTI BASS. A familiar formula of ac-
companiment which first came prominently into
fashion early in the 18th century, and has since
been the frequent resource of hundreds of com-
posers from the greatest to the meanest. It
derives its distinctive name from Domenico
Alberti, a musician who is supposed to have
been born during the second decade of the
iSth century at Venice, where he became
a pupil of Lotli. He won fame both as a singer
and as a player on the harpsichord, and wrote
some operas and a considerable number of
sonatas, some of which were very popular with
musical amateurs. It is not very probable that
he actually invented the formula, but he cer-
tainly brought it into undue prominence in his
sonatas, and therefore did his best to deserve a
notoriety which is not altogether enviable. A
set of eight sonatas of his, which was published
by Walsh in London, affords good illustrations
of his love of it. He uses it plentifully in
every sonata of the set, sometimes in both
movements, and occasionally almost throughout
a whole movement. For instance, in the first
movement of the second sonata it persists
through thirty-seven bars out of a total of forty-
sis; and in the first movement of the sixth sonata
it continues through thirty-six whole bars and
four half bars out of a total of forty-four. The
following quotation from the beginning of the
sixth sonata illustrates his style, and his manner
of using the formula.

1 First produced in concert room In England, April 21, 1880, at
St. James's Hall, b; the Bach Choir.

M m 2



Allegro moderate,


The fact of his having been a singer at a time
when Italian opera was passing into an empty
and meretricious phase, may account for his ex-
cessive use of the so-called ' bass.' [See also
Arpeggio, i. 87 a; Horn, i. 7486; Lotti, ii.
168 a.] He has been injudiciously credited with
the invention of the 2nd subject in the binary
form, and is said to have been the first to asso-
ciate contrast of subjects with contrast of keys ;
a theory which is equally ill-founded. He died
comparatively young in 1740. [C.H.H.P.]

ALBINONI. Add reference to English trans-
lation of Spitta's Bach, vol. i. 42 5-8.

ALBONI, Marietta. For date of birth read
Mar. 10, 1823. See also Covent Garden
Theatre, Mr. Louis Engel states that Alboni
first knew Kossini in 1844, and that she sang a
duet with Madame Patti at that master's funeral.

ALCOCK, John. Line 8 of article, /on 735
in original edition and 1738 in late editions,
read 1737. Add that he held the post of
organist of Sutton Coldfield church (i 761-1786),
and of the parish church of Tamworth (1766-
1790. P. 51,1. 5,/oj- March reaci February. [M.]

ALDRICH. P. 52 a, 1. 13, /or Dec. 14 read
Jan. 19.

ALFIEEI, the Abbate Pietro, born at
Rome, about the year 1805, was admitted in
early life to Holy Orders ; became a Camal-
dulian monk ; and, for many years, held the ap-
pointment of Professor of Gregorian Music at
the English College in Rome. He was an earnest
student both of Plain Song and Polyphonic Mu-
sic ; and published some useful treatises on these
subjects, and some valuable collections of the

Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 122 of 194)