George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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works of the great Polyphonic Composers. He
died, insane, before the j-ear 1878.

The following is a list of his works : —

1. Numerous articles on subjects connected with Ecclesiastical
Music, in tlie 'Gazette musicale tii Milano,' and other periodicals.

2. Excerpta er celebrinribus de musicaviris, J. P. A. Prsenestino,
T. L. Vittoria, et tiregorio Allegri Romano. (Boma, 1S40.)

3. Inno e Kitmo ' Stabat Mater ' ; e Motetto ' Fratres ego,' di G. P.
1> da Palestrina. (Eoma, 1S40 fol.)

4. An edition of the Sisfiiie Miserere, published under the pseu-
donym of Alessandro Geminiani. (Lugano, 1840, fol.)

5. Italian translation of Oatel's ' Traits d'harmonie." (Roma, 1S40.)

6. Eaccolta di Moietti di G. P. L. da Palestrina, di L. da Vittoria,
di Avia e di Felice Anerio Romano. (Roma, 1841. fol.)

7. Eistabilmente del Canto e della Musica ecclesiastica. (Roma.
1843. Svo.) ^

S. Notirie biograflche di Nicolo Jommelli. (Roma, 184.'!. Svo.)
9. Saggio storico teoretico-pratico del Canto Uregoriano. Roma,


10. Prodromo sul'a restaurazione de' libri dl Canto ecclesiast i
detto Gregoriano. (Rome, 1857.)

11. Eaccolta di Musica Sacra, etc., of which the contents are hij

Antiphonaa6. Kesponsum acil

Messe scelte di G. P. Ii. da

Messa di Papa Marcello.

Do. per I Defonti. a cinque voci.

Do. Oanonica, a 4.

Do. O regem coeli, a 4.

Do. AeternaChrisli munera, a4.

Do. Dies sanctificatus, a 4.

Do. de Feria, a 4.

Do. Breve, a 4.

Do. Ego enim accepi, a 8.
Mottetti a cinque voci di. G. P. L

da Palestrina.
Adjuro vos.

Ave Trinitatis sacrarium.
Beatus Laurentius.
Canite tuba in Sion.
Caput ejus.
Caro mea.
Coenantibus illis.
Crucem sanctam subiit.
Derelinquat impius.
Descendit in hortum meura.
Dilectus meus mihi.
Dilectus meus descendit.
Domine secundum actum meum.
Duo ubera tua.
Ecce tu pulcher es.
Exi cito in plateas.
Exultate Deo adjutori nostro.
Fasciculus myrrhae.
Guttur tuum.
Introduxit me Rex.
Lapidabant Stephanum.
Leva ejus.

Manus tuae Domine.
Nigra sum, sed formosa.
admirabile commercium.
sacrum convivium.
Osculetur me osculo.
O Beata, et benedicta, et gloriosa

vera summa sempiterna Tri-
Farce mihi Domine.
Paucitas dierum meorum.
Peccavi quid faciam tibi.
Peccavimus cum patribus nostris.
Pater noster.
Peccantem me quotidie.
Pulcra es amica mea.
Pulcrae sunt genuae tuae.
Quam pulcra es.
Quam pulcri sunt gressus tul.
Quae est ista quae progreditur.
Borate coeli.
Salve regina.
Si ignoras te.
Sicut lilium inter spinas.
Surge propera.
Surge amica mea.
Surgam, et circuibo civltatem,
Trahe me post te.
Tota pulcra es.
Tribulatiimes civitntum.
Veni veni dilecte mi.
Vineam meam.
Vox dilecti mei.
Vulnerasti cor meum.


Hymni totius Anni Romae. 1589

Lamentazioni di G. P. da Pale-
strina. Libri tre.


Offertoril a cinque voci dl G. P. da

Palestrina. (Offertoria totius

Anni . . , quinque vocibu

Concinenda . . . Romae, 1693.)


Motet a 6. Jerusalem cito veniet.

2da pars. Ego enim.
Do. a 6. Veni domine.

2da pars. E.\cita domine.
Do. a 6. magnum m.v.sterium.
2da oars. Quem vidistis pas-
Antlphona a 6, Cum ortus fuerit
sol. 1

pit Simeon.
Do. a 6. Cum inducerent.
Motet a 6. Sancta et immacula'

2da pars. Benedicta tu.
Do. a 6. Haec dies.
Do. a 6. Viri Galilaet.

2da pars. Ascendit Deu9.
Do. a 6. Dum complerentur.
Do. a 6. Tu es Petrus.

2da pars. Quodcumque lifi
Do. a 6. Solve jubente Deo.
2da pars. (Juodcumque 11a
Do. a 6. Deus qui Ecclesia


Do. a 6. Vidi turbam magnai

2da pars. Et omnes Angeli

Do. a 6. Columna es immobil

Do. a 6. Cantabo Domi

2dapar3. Deficiant peccaton
Antiphona a 6. Regina mater n

Motet a 7. Tu es Petrus.
Do. Virgo prudentissima.

(Do. 2da pars) Mai ia Virgo,
Motet a 8. Surge illuminare.

2da pars. Et ambulabunt.
Do. Caro mea vere est ctbus.

2da pars. Hie est panis.
Do. Laudate dominum.
Do. a 4. 2 Choirs. Alma redemi

toris mater.
Antiphona a 8. Ave regina coi

Psalmi a 8. Jubilate Deo.
Laudate pueri.
2da pars. Quis sicut DomInU!
Sequentiae a 8. Victimae paschal
Veni spiritus.
Stabat mater.

Hymnus a 12. gloriosa Virgi


Sequentia a 12. Stabat mater.
Absolutio in Messa defunct, a i

Libera me, Kyrie etc.

Motet in Messa def. a 4. Xe re


Domine secundum actun


Motet a 4. Innocentes pro Christo

Do. a 4. Valde honorandus.

Do. a 4. Deus qui animae fam

uli Gregorii.
Do. a 4. Ascendens Christus.
Do. a 4. Princeps gloriosissim<
Hymnus a 4. Gaude Barbara.
Psalmus a 5. Venite.
Motet a 5. Cantautibus organ'u
2da pars. Biduanis.
Do. a 6. Assumpta est Maria.

2da pars. Quae est ista.
Do. a 6. Cum autem esset Ste-
2da pars. Positis autem.
Do. a 6. Hie est beatissimus
2da pars. Hie est discipulus.
Do. a 8. Fratres ego enim.
Do. a 8. Jesus junxit se.

2da pars. Et increpavit eo^
Do. Spiritus sanctus.
Magnificat a 8. Imi toni. •

Do. Imi toni a 6 and 6.
Do. 2di toni a 5 and 6.
Do. 3tl toni a 6.
Do. 8vi toni a 6.
Do. octo tonorum a 4.
Pars 1.— 1. 2, 8, 4, 5, 6. 7. 8.
Altera pars— 1. 2, 3, 4. 5. 6, 7. 8.
Catalogo di tutte le Opere del

Elziarii Genet.

Lamentatio a 4.
Claudii GoudimeL
Motet a 4.
Const. Festa. Te Deum a 4.
Christ. Morales. Motet a 6.



I ALKAJN". See also ii. 731 a.
i ALLEGRANTI. At end of article, for
I Conway read Cosway, (Corrected in late edi-
I tions.)

I ALLEGEI. P. 54 S, 1, 19, for 1562 of
priginal, and 1652 of late edition, read 1662.
j See also ii. 336 a. [M-]

I ALLEN, Hexrt Robinson, was bom in 1809
i at Cork, and received his musical education at
f 'he Royal Academy of Music. His d^but took
[place on Jan. 11, 1831, as BasiUo in a per-
f formance of ' Figaro ' by the students of the
I Academy at the King's Theatre. He first attracted
public attention by his performance on Feb. 5,
1842, of Damon on the production of 'Acis and
i Galatea' under Macready at Drury Lane, 'He
was the only person worth listening to, in spite
of the limited powers of his organ.'^ In 1843,
under the same management, he played AciS,
and Phaon in Pacini's ' Saffo,' when the heroine
on each occasion was Clara NoveUo, and later in
the autumn he played at the Princess's as Ed-
ward III in the English version of ' Les Puits
d'Amour.' From that time until the close of
the Maddox management in 1850 he was con-
tinually engaged at the latter theatre, where,
owing to its small size, he was heard to advan-
tage. He played in 'Don Giovanni' ' Othello,'
' Anna Bolena,' Harold's ' Marie,' ' La Barca-
role,' 'Les Diamants,' Auber's 'La Sirfene,' etc. ;
Halevy's * Val d'Andorre ' ; Balfe's ' Castle of
Aymon ' ; Loder's ' Night Dancers.' In the early
part of 1846 he was engaged at Drury Lane,
where he played, Feb. 3, Basilius on production
of Macfarren's ' Don Quixote.' A propos of this
part, Chorley, in the 'Athenseum,' considered
him, both as singer and actor, as the most
complete artist on the English operatic stage.

Allen retired early from public life, and de-
voted himself to teaching and the composition of
ballads, two of which became popular, viz. ' The
Maid of Athens ' and ' When we two parted.' He
died at Shepherd's Bush, Nov. 27, 1876. [A.C.]

UNG. For MusiKALiscHE Zeitung read the
above, vol. ii. 115 a, 4296, and 430 a.

ALSAGER. See also iii. 182 5, and 534.

ALTERNATIVO. A term of frequent oc-
currence in suites and other compositions of the
17th and 1 8th centuries, having precisely the
same meaning as the more modem word Trio,
when that is used of the middle movement of a
minuet or scherzo. The name as well as the
form evidently had its origin in the common
use, for dancing purposes, of two more or less
contrasting measures, which were played alter-
nately as long as the dancers desired. [See
Gbossvateetakz, Csakdas, Magyar Music,
etc.; andiv. 1726.] The word seems generally
to carry with it the direction ' Da capo,' since
that sign is seldom found in conjunction with
it, although the idea of going back to the first
strain or measure is never absent from the
Alternativo. The latest instance of its use is

1 Cox, Rev. J. £., Musical Recollections.



in Schumann's six ' Intermezzi,' op. 4, in four
of which it occurs as the title of the middle sec-
tion. [M.]

ALTES, Ernest Eugene, violinist and con-
ductor, younger brother of the flute-player Henri
Altfes, was born in Paris, March 28, 1830. Sons
of a soldier and brought up in the regiment, the
boys were taught by their father to play the
violin and fife from their earliest years. In his
12th year Altfes wrote an air with variations for
violin and piano, which was shown to Habeneck,
and procured his entrance into the Conservatoire.
In 1843 he entered Habeneck's violin class; two
years later he gained a second accessit for violin,
in 1847 the second prize, and in the following
year the first prize. In 1849 he obtained a
second prize for harmony under Bazin, after
which he spent some time in studying advanced
composition with Carafa. From 1845 onwards
he played in the Opera band, and in 1846 was
admitted to the orchestra of the ' Concerts du
Conservatoire.' In 1871 Altfes was appointed
deputy conductor at the Opera in place of Del-
devez, who had just given up his post after
twelve years' work. G. Hainl was at this time
conductor of the Opera, but at his death in 1873
Deldevez, who in the preceding year replaced
Hainl as conductor at the Conservatoire, was
recalled. In 1877 Deldevez was succeeded at
the opera by Lamoureux, who being unable to
agree with the new director, M. Vaucorbeil,
retired at the end of 1879. Altfes, who was still
deputy conductor, was now appointed conductor,
and almost immediately gave up his post at the
Society des Concerts, which he had held since
1877. In 1881 he was decorated with the Legion
d'Honneur. His chief compositions are a sonata
for piano and violin, a trio for piano and strings,
a string quartet, a symphony, and a divertisse-
ment on ballet airs by Auber, written for the
Auber centenary in 1882, besides operatic fan-
tasias, melodies caract^ristiques, etc. On July i,
1887, M. Altfes, having, against his wish, been
placed on the retired Hst, was rather roughly
discharged by the directors of the Opera, and

p. \i6a.

59 h, 1. 18 from end,
(Corrected in late

eplaced by M. Vianesi.

ALTNIKOL. See vol.


for is now read was the,

ANALYSIS, It should be added that the
first suggestion as to the desirability of explain-
ing the structure of compositions to the audience
was in a letter written to the 'Musical World '
of Dec. 2, 1826, by the late C. H. Purday, Esq.

ANAP^ST. A metrical foot, consisting of
two short syllables, followed by
a long one.

A remarkable instance of Ana-
paestic rhythm will be found
in Weber's Rondo in Eb, op, 62. [See vol. ii.
p. 318 a.] [W.S.R.]



ANCIENT CONCERTS. P. 64 a, 1. 1 7 from
hottom, for till tlie time of his death in 1779
read till 1 763 ; and add that Bates died in 1799,
not 1779. i". 646, 1. 6, for J. D. Loder read
J. F. Loder ; line 16, after 'At the close of the
concerts,' add 'in 1848.' P. 65a, 1. 8, /or two
read three ; and refer to iii. 710 b. The last con-
cert took place June 7, 1848. The Library was
presented to the Royal College of Music. [M.]

ANDACHT, MIT. 'With devotion'; a
direction found at the beginning of Beethoven's
Mass in D, and in a few other passages.
Schumann uses • Reuig, andiichtig,' for the super-
scription of No. 6 of the ' Bilder aus Osten.' [M.]

ANDAMENTO (Italian verbal substantive,
from andare, to go, to move). A form of Fugal
Subject, more highly developed, and of greater
length, than the ordinary Soggetto, and gene-
rally, though not by any means invariably, con-
sisting of two distinct members, more or less
strongly contrasted with each other, and con-
sequently calculated to add materially to the
interest of a long and exhaustively-developed

It is in these respects that the Andamento
most strikingly differs from the more usual
Soggetto; which, as Cherubini naively remarks,
'should neither be too long nor too short, but
of a convenient length ' ; and which is gener-
ally, though not always, of a more homogeneous
character : while the Attacco, shorter still, and
frequently consisting of no more than three or
four notes, culled from the Subject, or one of
its Counter-Subjects, is a mere Point of Imitation,
introduced for the purpose of adding interest to
the composition, binding it more closely together,
or establishing a more intimate correspondence
of style between its various sections.

A Fugue developed from a well-considered
Andamento must, of necessity, be a lengthy one.
A fine instance of an Andamento consisting of
two distinct sections will be found in the last
Movement of the Chorus, ' When his loud voice,'
in Handel's ' Jephthah.'at the words 'They now




They now contract their boistrous Pride, and lash with, etc.

The 'Amen Chorus,' in the ' Messiah,' affords
another equally fine example, in which the two
sections, though distinctly separated, are not so
strongly contrasted with each other.




On the other hand, in the Chorus, ' Righteous
Heaven.' in ' Susanna,' the subject introduced at
the words, 'Tremble guilt,' though phrased in
three divisions which admit of distinct breathing-
places between them, is very nearly homogeneous
in its general character.

Nearly all the Fugues in Sebastian Bach's


' Wohltemperirte Klavier' are formed upon Sog-
getti; while nearly all his finest Organ Fugues,
with Pedal Obbligato, are developed from long
and well-sustained Andamenti. A curious in-
stance, in two sections, will be found in the
Fugue in E major, the Subject of which is
given in vol. iv. 136 a.

In the well-known Fugue in G minor, the
construction of the Andamento is a miracle of
melodic skill : — ■

One of the finest Andamenti to be found
among Fugues of later date is that which forms
the Subject of the ' Zauberflote ' Overture.
Another forms the Theme of the first of Men-
delssohn's Six Fugues for the Pianoforte (op. 35).

Andamenti may be found both in Real and
Tonal Fugue ; the examples are, however, much
more frequent in the former than in the latter.
The Andamento is frequently used in combina-
tion, both with the Soggetto and the Attacco ;
and either, or both of them, may occasionally
be found in combination with a Canto fermo.
The ' Hallelujah Chorus ' is developed from a
Canto fermo adapted to the words, 'For the
Lord God Omnipotent reigneth,' a Soggetto,
' And He shall reign, for ever and ever,' and a
constantly-varying Attacco, ' Hallelujah,' which,
under a multitude of changing forms, serves to
bind the powerfully-contrasted elements of the
composition into a consistent whole.

Sebastian Bach's Choral Vorspiel, * Wir glau-
ben air an einen Gott,' is based upon a Canto
fermo, an Andamento, and a Soggetto.

The Soggetto.

ri'-^ Tf-f- .tb^-

In this case, the Canto fermo, were it not for
the fact that it is an old Ecclesiastical Melodj',
and not an original Theme, might be technically
described as the true Soggetto, and the Soggetto
as a Counter-Subject, the office of which it per-
forms throughout the entire composition. See
Attacco, and Soggetto, in Appendix. [W.S.R.]

ANDANTINO. See Beethoven's opinion as
to the meaning of the term, in Thayer, iii. 241.

ANDERSON, Mes. Luct. P. 65, correct date
of birth to Dec. 1790. L. 4 from bottom of page,
for for many years read from 1848 to 1870;
and insert at end 'She died Dec. 24, 1878.' (Cor-
rected in late editions.) [W.H.H.]


ANDRfi. P. 66 a, 1. 43, for 12 rmd 16.
nsert that Job. Baptist Andre died Dec. 9,
882, and that his brother Julius died Apr. 17,
880. [M.]

eath, Mar. 13.

ANDROT, Albert Acguste, was bom at
'aris in 1781, and admitted into the Conser-
atoire in his fifteenth year. In 1799 he ob-
iined a prize for his exercises in harmony,
nd four years afterwards, having gained the
'lix de Rome for his 'Alcyone,' he was sent to
bat city to study under Guglielmi. During the
rst year of his residence in Rome he made such
rogress that his master commissioned him to
rrite a requiem and another sacred composition,
'he latter,* performed during Passion Week, ex-
ited so much admiration, that he was engaged
a compose an opera for the autumn. He had
carcely completed the last scene when nature
ank under the arduous labour, and the composer
ied on August 19, 1804. In the following
)ctober a De Profundis of his composition was
erformed in his memory at the church of San
iorenzo in Lucinia.

A short notice of this composer is to be found
a the 'Diet, of Musicians ' (1827). The above
3 taken from ' The British Minstrel.' [C.H.P.]

ANFOSSI. For date of birth read 1736,
nd add date of death, Feb. 1797. See also
;uBioso Indiscketo.

ANIMATO. Add a reference to Mendels-
ohn's letters to Mrs. Voigt, published in Mac-
ttillan's Magazine for June 1871, p. 129.

AXNA BOLENA. Line 2, for 1822 read
)ec. 26, 1830. Line i,for Sept. read July 8.

ANTEGNATI of Brescia. This family
7ere amongst the earliest famous organ-builders
a Italy in the 15th and i6th centuries. At
he latter period they had already built more
ban 400 instruments. [V. DE P.]

ANTHEM. See also Cathedeal Mcsic;
nd in p. 71 J, 1. 22 from bottom, for 1663
ead 1662 ; pp. 72 and 73, omit the names of
Vesley and Goss from the list of living com-

APPLICATIO. See Spitta's Bach, i, 600
English translation ii. 39 and iii. 385).

APPOGGIATURA. In example 37, for
-4 as the time-signature, read 3—4.

APRILE, Giuseppe. Paloschi calls him a
ontralto singer, and gives the date of his birth
s Oct. 29, 1732, and that of his death as 1814.

ARCADELT. See also ii, 188, where the
leginning of 'II bianco e dolce cigno' is given.

ARCHER, Frederick, bom June 16, 1838, at
)xford ; in early life was chorister at All Saints,
ilargaret Street, London ; his musical education
ras received in London and Leipzig. He next
lecame organist of Merton College, Oxford, and



in 1873 was appointed to the Alexandra Palace.
During the last engagement, on March 4, 1876,
he played the pianoforte part of Gade's ' Spring
Fantasia ' on its first performance in Eng-
land. On the resignation of Mr. Weist Hill
he became conductor of that establisliment,
which post he held until 1880. He was also
Conductor (1878-80) of the Glasgow select choir,
and director of a provincial opera company. In
1 88 1 he became organist at the Rev. Henry
Ward Beecher's church at Brooklyn, U.S.A.,
which post he still holds, or held until quite
recently. Mr. Archer is an excellent organist,
and has composed several works for that instru-
ment, pianoforte pieces, songs, etc., besides two
works, ' The Organ,' a theoretical and practical
treatise (Novello & Co.), and ' The College Or-
ganist ' (Weekes & Co.). He was for some time
the editor of the ' Key Note.' [A.C.]

ARDITI, LuiGi. Paloschi gives July 22,
1822, as the date of his birth.

ARETINO, GuiDO. See Guroo in Ap-

ARNE, Michael. P. 84 a, 1. 3 from end of
article, for 1712 read 1782. (Corrected in
later editions.) Correct the date of his death to
Jan. 14, 1786. [W.H.H.]

ARNE, T. A. P. 84 a, 1. 3, omit the words ' or
May 28 (the precise date cannot be ascertained).'
For the opera of ' Rosamond ' see Clayton. P.
846, 1. I, /or In 1734 rtad On Dec. 19, 1733;
1. 20, for Aug. 14 read Aug. i. Add to list of
works, 'The Trip to Portsmouth,' ' Reffley
Spring' (1772), and music to Mason's tragedy of
'Elfrida.' [W.H.H.]

ARNOLD, Samuel. P. 86 a, 1. 12, /or pur-
chased read took a lease of. L. 19 from bottom,
for about this time read in 1787. L. 4 from
bottom , after ' decline ' insert ' he retained the post
until the termination of the Academy's existence
in 1792.' L. 2 from bottom,/or three read four.
To list of works add ' The Gipsies,' 'The Agree-
able Surprise,' 'Cambro Britons' (1798), and
the oratorio 'The Widow of Shunam,' 1801 ; and
compare p. 444 a. [^I-]

ARRANGEMENT. P. 89, 1. 35, for there
is only one read there are six ; and add to note i
a reference to Eng. trans, i. 412.

ARTARI A. Line 4 of article,/or Commersee
read Lake of Como. (Corrected in late edi-

ARTAXERXES. Line 3, omit ' probably.'

ARTOT, Alexandre Joseph, bom Jan. 25,
181 5, at Brussels, was the son of Maurice Artdt^
(1772-1829) first horn-player at the theatre there,
by his wife Theresa Eva, daughter of Adam and
cousin of Ferdinand Ries. He received instruc-
tion in music and on the violin from the former,
and at the age of seven played at the theatre a
concerto ofViotti. He received further instruc-

1 His real surname was Montagny or Montagney, but he adopted
professionally the name Art6t instead, which name was retained by
all his family.





tion from Snel, principal first violin at the
theatre, and afterwards at the Paris Conserva-
toire from Kodolphe and August Kreutzer, and
in 1S27 and 182S he obtained the second and
first violin prizes respectively. According to
Ftltis, Artot then played in concerts in Brussels
and London with the greatest success, and
became for a time player in the various Parisian
orchestras. He became famous as a soloist, and
made tours through Belgium, Holland, Italy,
Germany,etc. OnJune 3, 1839, on the same occa-
sion that Mario first appeared in England, Artot
played at the Philharmonic a fantasia of his own
for violin and orchestra, and vras well received,
rather on account of the delicacy and feeling of
his playing and his remarkable execution, than
from his tone, which was very small.-'- We do not
find that he played at any other public concert, and
this is borne out by a letter of August 6 of the
same year from Berlioz to Liszt, wherein details are
given concerning musical taste in London at the
time, received from Batta, who had just returned
from there, and whose mutual conversation he
reports at length : ' I arrived too late, and it is
the same with Art6t, who, despite his success at
the Philharmonic, despite the incontestable
beauty of his talent, has a tedious time of it.' ^
In 1843 he went to America, Cuba, etc., on a
concert tour with Mme. Cinti-Damoreau, and
while there he received the first symptoms of
a lung disease. He never recovered, but died
July 20, 1845, at Ville d'Avray near Paris.

Artot's compositions for the violin include a
concerto in A minor, various fantasias and airs
with variations with piano or orchestral accom-
paniment, and, in MS. string quartets, and a
quintet for piano and strings. ' He was, perhaps,
the most finished and the most elegant of all the
Eubini school of players; one of the handsomest
men in our recoDection ; and much beloved, we
are told, among his comrades for his gentle-
ness and amiability.' (Athenaeum, Aug. 2,
18450 [A.C.]

ARTOT, Marguerite Josephine Desiree
MoNTAGNEr, born July 21, 1835, at Paris,
daughter of Jean Desire Montagney Artdt, horn
professor at the Brussels Conservatoire, niece both
of the above and of Baugniet the Belgian por-
trait-painter. She was taught singing by Mme.
Viardot-Garcia, and first appeared in concerts
in Belgium, Holland, and England, viz. at a
state concert June 19, 1857. ^^ 1858 she was
engaged at the Paris Opera, through Meyerbeer,
where on Feb. 5 she made her debut with great
success as Fides, and subsequently played the
heroine in a condensed version of Gounod's
Sappho. In spite of praise lavished on her by
many critics, among others by Berlioz in tlie
Debats, Feb. 17, she abandoned the French
in favour of the Italian stage. In 1859 she
sang in opera in Italy, and at the end of the year
at Berlin, on the opening of the Victoria
Theatre, as a member of Lorini's Italian com-

' Athenseum, June 8, 1839.

2 ' Berliuz, Correspondence In^dite ' (1S79), p. 124.

pany. In that city she made a furore in the
Barbiere and Cenerentola, in Trovatore, and even
in the small part of Maddalena in ' Rigoletto,'
from which time the greater part of her career
has been passed in Germany both in Italian and
German opera, she having in the meantime
abandoned the mezzo for soprano parts. In

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