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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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1859-60 she sang with great applause at the
Philharmonic and at other concerts. In 1863
she sang at her Majesty's as Maria (' La Figlia')
in which she made her debut May I9tb, as La
Traviata, and as Adalgisa to the Norma of
Titiens. In 1864 and 1866 she sang at the Royal
Italian Opera in the first two parts, in * Faust,'
' Figaro,' and the ' Barbiere,' but in spite of the
great impression she invariably made, being an
admirable and very complete artist, slie never
reappeared in England. On Sept." 15, 1869,
she married at Sfevres the Spanish baritone
Padilla-y-Ramos,^ and with him has sung in
Italian opera in Germany, Austria, Russia, and
elsewhere, until her retirement. Among other
parts she has played in German with great
success the heroines in ' Domino Noir' and * Les
Diamants.' On March 22, 1887, she appeared
with her husband in a scene from ' Don Juan,*
performed for the Emperor's birthday at the
Schloss at Berlin, in which city she has settled
as a teacher of singing. [A.C.]

ASANTSCHEWSKY. Line 2,/ori839 (2nd
time) read 1863. (Corrected in late editions.)
See also ii. 735 6.

ASCHER, Joseph. Add day of death, June
20. [W.B.S.]

ASHDOWN & PARRY. See Wessel.

ASHLEY, John (p. 98 a). It seems cer-
tain that the performer on the bassoon was not
the same as the assistant conductor of the com-
memoration of Handel. The 'Mr. Ashley of
the Guards ' who played the double bassoon on
that occasion was most probably a brother of
John Ashley's, named Jane, who was born in
1740 and died Apr. 5, 1809. John Ashley died
March 2, 1805. [See vol. ii. 402 a, note 3.] His
son. General Charles, took part with two of
his brothers in the Handel Commemoration, and
got into trouble by nailing the coat of some
Italian violinist to his seat, and filling his violin
with halfpence. (Diet, of Nat. Biog.) Add to
the notice of John James Ashley that he was
born in 1772, and died Jan. 5, 1815. Also that
Richard Ashley was born ini775 and died in
1836. (The late editions of this work give
dates for these two members of the family, but
they are only partially correct). [M.]

ASIOLI. Line 2. of article, for April read
August. Line 11 from end of article, ybr May 26
read May 18. See also vol. ii. p. 329 a.

ASPULL, George. Add that he was bom
June 1 813 at Manchester, and that he first

a Padilla-t-Kamos, born 1842 at Murcia, studied under Uobellini
of Florence, and has sung in Italian opera ever since. On Oct. 1,
1881, he first appeared with success in England as Hoel in ' Dinorah,*
at a winter season at the Lyceum. He played in 18S6 in the short but
disastrous season at Her Majesty's, and iu the autumn with Hapleson
in the provinces, and was eugaged for last season (l&i7; at COTeat
Garden Theatre. ' ]



\



!



t



ASPULL.

appeared at a concert in Jan. 1822. In the fol-
lowing year he played to Clementi in London,
and on Feb. 20, 1824, before George IV. at
Windsor. He played Weber's Concertstiick for
the first time in England at a concert at Brigh-
ton. After a visit to Paris in April 1825 he
undertook a number of concert tours through-
out Great Britain and Ireland. It was at
Clementi's funeral that A.spull caught the cold
which eventually ended in his death on Aug.
19. (Diet, of Nat. Biog.) [M.]

ASTORGA. P. 100 a, 1. 26, for Society
read Academy.

ATTACCO (Verbal substantive, from atta-
care, to unite, to bind together). A short
phrase, treated as a Point of Imitation ; and em-
ployed, either as the Subject of a Fugue, as a
subordinate element introduced for the purpose
of increasing the interest of its development, as
a leading feature in a Motet, Madrigal, Full
Anthem, or other Choral Composition, or as a
means of relieving the monotony of an otherwise
too homogeneous Part-Song.

A striking instance of its employment as the
Subject of a Fugue will be found in No. xxvii. of
Das WoAltemperirte Clavier.

When used merely as an accessory, it almost
always represents a fragment of the true Sub-
ject ; as in ' Ye House of Gilead,' from Handel's
' Jephthah.'



AUGENEE.



525



P



In the Madrigal, and Motet, a new Attacco is
usually introduced with each new paragraph of
the verbal text ; in the Glee, properly so called,
the part jilayed by the Attacco is less important ;
while in the Part-Songs, its appearance as a pro-
minent feature is still less frequent. Exception
to the rule will, however, be found in Dr. Call-
cott's * Go, plaintive Breeze,' in Mendelssohn's
* Turkisches Schenkenlied,' ' Setze mir nicht, du
Grobian,' and in other well-known modern com-
postions. [See AifDAiiENTO and Soggetto in
Appendix.] [W.S.R.],

ATTERBURY, Luffman. Add that he
sang in the Handel Commemoration of 1784,
and that his death took place in the middle of
one of his concerts. (Diet, of Nat. Biog.)

ATTEY. Add ' He died at Ross about 1640.'
(Inserted in late editions.)

ATTWOOD. P. loi a. 1. 2 of article, for in
1767 read in London, Nov. 23, 1765. Line 15,
for i. 225 read i. 2 28, and add reference to
MoZABT, ii. 396 a. Line 16, for February read
March ; and add that he accompanied the
Storaces to England. Line 21, for the latter year
read 1796. Line 4 from bottom,/or 28 read 24.

ATJBER. The weight of testimony con-
cerning the year of the composer's birth sup-
ports Fetis and substantiates the date 1782.
In the supplement to Mendel's Lexicon, the
date 1784 is corrected to correspond with Fe-



tis, on the authority of Paloschi. The list of
his operas is to be completed as follows : —
'Emma,' 1821; 'La Neige,' 1823; ' Le Con-
cert k la Cour,' 1824; ' Leocadie,' 1824; ' Le
Timide' and ' Fiorilla,' 1826; * La Fiancee,'
1829; ' Le Dieu et la Bayadere,' 1830; ' Le
Philtre,' 1831 ; ' Le Serraent,' 1832; ' Gustave
III,' 1833 ; ' Action,' 1836; ' Le Lac des Fees,'
1839; ' Zanetta,' 1840; 'Le Due d'Olonne,'
1842 ; 'La Part du Diable,' 1843 ; 'La Sirfene,'
1844; 'La Barcarolle,' 1845; 'Marco Spada,'
1852; 'Jenny Bell,' 1855; and 'La Circas-
sienne,' 1861. Correct date given for ' Lestocq'
to 1834. P. 103, 1. 8, for May 13 read May 12.
In Forster's life of Dickens, ch. xlix., it is related
that Dickens described Auber as ' a stolid little
elderly man, rather petulant in manner.' [M.]
AUDRAN, Edmond, was born April 11,
1842, at Lyons, and received his musical
education at the ifecole Niedermeyer, Paris,
where he obtained in 1859 the prize for compo-
sition. In 1 86 1 he became organist of the
church of St. Joseph, Marseilles. His compo-
sitions include a Funeral March on the death of
Meyerbeer, played at the Grand Theatre, Mar-
seilles; a Mass produced in 1873 at the above
church, and later at St. Eustache, Paris ; a
motet, 'Adoro te,' Paris (1882); ' Cour d' Amour,'
song in Proven9al dialect, and other songs. He
is best known however as an ' opera boufiFe '
composer, and among such works may be named
' L'Ours et le Pacha,' Marseilles (1862), his first
work, founded on Scribe's well-known vaude-
ville of that name ; ' La Chercheuse d'Esprit,'
Marseilles (1864), revived at Paris Bouffes, 1882,
a new setting of an opera of Favart (1741), ' Le
GrandMogol,' Marseilles (i876),at Gaite, Paris,
Sept. 19 — in English, at the Comedy Theatre,
London, Nov. 17, 1884 ; ' Les Noces d'Olivette,'
Bouffes, Nov. 13, 1879 — i" English at the
Strand Theatre as ' Olivette,' Sept. i'8, 1880 ; ' La
Mascotte,' Bouffes, Dec. 29, 1880 — in English,
Sept. 19, at Brighton, and Oct. 15, 1S81, at the
Comedy Theatre ; ' Gillette de Narbonne,'
Bouffes, Nov. il, 1882, plot founded on Boc-
caccio's story, used by Shakespeare for ' All's
Well that Ends Well ' ; and ' La Cigale et le
Fourmi,' Gait^, Oct. 30, 1886. The five last
named have all obtained great popularity in
France, while ' Olivette,' and particularly ' La
Mascotte,' are popular all over the world. [A.C.]
ATJGARTEN. Line 23, /or 1800 read 1799.
AUGENER. The music-publishing business
of Augener & Co. was founded at 86 Newgate
Street, London, in 1855. Later on branch ware-
houses were established at i Foubert Place, 22
Golden Square, and 81 The Quadrant, Regent
Street. By a recent change of partnership (26
February, 1887) the warehouse in the Quadrant
has been transferred to Mr. Wesley S. B. Wool-
house, the general business with this exception
remaining Mr. George Augener's.

Augener & Co.'s Catalogue contains upwards
of 6000 works, of which nearly 1000 are cheap
volumes; among these is a comprehensive



526



AUGENER.



collection of pianoforte classics edited by Pro-
fessor Ernst Pauer, as well as an important
series of educational works edited by him,
by ^Ir. John Farmer, and other well-known
musicians.

In the last ten years Angener & Co. have in-
troduced the works of some of the most important
composers of the Neo-German School, including
Xaver Scharwenka, Jean L. Nicod^, and Mosz-
kowski. They have a large and varied stock of
music, and the sole agency for this country of
the famoiis Peters Edition published at Leipzig.
The ' Monthly Musical Record ' is published
by this firm, and has among its contributors
prominent names in English musical literature.
Its circulation is about 6000. [See Musical
Periodicals, vol. ii. 42S b.] [A.J.H.]

AVISON. P. 106, 1. 13 from end of article,
Jhr two sets read three volumes.

AYLWARD, Theodoke. Add that firom
1768 to 17S1 he was organist of St. Michael's,
Cornhill. (Diet, of Nat. Piog.) His kinsman
mentioned at the end of the article was for some
time organist of Chichester Cathedral, and since
January, 1SS7, has held a post of some im-
portance at Cardiff. [M-]

AYTOX, Fanny, born 1806 at Macclesfield,
was taught singing by Manielli at Florence,
and first appeared in Italy, so successfully that
Ebers engaged her for the season of 1827 at



BACH.

the King's Theatre, at a salary of £500. She
made her appearances there as Ninetta in ' La
Gazza' (Feb. 3), and as Fiorilla in ' II Turco in
Italia.' In the same year she sang at Drury
Lane in an English version of ' II Turco ' and as
Rosetta in ' Love in a Village.' She also played
in the provinces, and sang in concerts with fair
success. In 1829 she sang at the Birmingham
Festival in opera with Malibran and Michael
Costa. In 1831 she sang again at the King's
Theatre for the season, as Creusa, in 'Medea'
(Simon Mayr), and she played Isabel in a muti-
lated version of ' Robert ' (' The Daemon, or the
Mystic Branch,' Feb. 21, 1832), after which she
disappears from view. She had considerable exe-
cution, a piquancy and taste of her own, a certain
ease on the stage, and a great fluency in Italian.
But she had the misfortune to compete with some
of the greatest Italian singers, and her intonation
gave way after her first season. (Chorley.) A
portrait of her, drawn and engraved by B. Holl,
was published in July, 1828. [A.C.]

AZZOPARDI, Fkancesco. A learned Ita-
lian theorist of the latter half of the last cen-
tury, from whose work, ' 11 musico prattico,'
published in the form of a French translation
only (Paris, 17S6), Cherubini quotes some in-
teresting examples, in his * Course of Counter-
point and Fugue.'

Azzopardi held the appointment of Maestro di
Capella, in Malta. [W.S.R.]



B.



BABBINI. Add day of birth, Feb. 19.
BABELL, See vol. i. 287.

BACH. The following corrections are to be
made in the article which treats of the Bach
family (vol. i. pp. 108-114).

P. 109 a, 1. 7. Tlie genealogy was not written,
but added to, by Emanuel Bach. In the genealo-
gical table several errors occur. No. 13 died in
1682, not 1732 ; No. 16 was born 1642, not 1643.
The date of death of No. 14 is doubtful. No. 24
lived from 1759 to 1S45. To No. 8 add dates
1645-1693. No. 6 was not named Johann, but
only Christoph.

P. 110 a, last line but 3,^or i'/6i,read 1671.

P. 1 1 1 a. The list of J. Christoph Bach's mo-
tets is as follows : — (Printed) 'Lieber HerrGott'
(Naue, Neun Motette, etc., book ii. 4) ; ' Der
Gerechte, ob er gleich zu zeitig stirbt' (Naue, i.
i); 'Unsers Herzens Freude hat ein Ende'
(Musica Sacra, Berlin, Bote & Bock, vol. xvi.
18); and the doubtful 'Ich lasse dich nicht '
(Naue, iii. 9, and elsewhere). The following are
in manuscript : — ' Der Mensch, vom Weibe ge-
boren ' ; ' Sei getreu bis in den Tod ' ; ' Herr,
nun liissest du deinen Diener*; and 'Fiirchte
dich nicht, denn ich habe dich erlost.'

P. Ill b, line 15 from bottom, the expres-
sion ' Starke Sonaten ' is to be taken as equivalent



to ' stark besetzte Sonaten,' and refers, not to
the character of the compositions, but to the em-
ployment of several instruments in them. In
Adlung's copy of Walther's Lexicon, now in
the Royal Library at Berlin, is the following note
in Adlung's hand : — ' 2 choric (chorichte) sona-
tas by Joh. Mich. Bach were engraved on cop-
per.' These are evidently the works referred to.
P. Ii2<z, 1. 21, for in his own handwriting
read in manuscript. It is not the composer's
autograph. Line 3 from bottom, for in read
Jan. I.

P. 112 5, 1. jg, for in read June 29.
P. 113 a, add days of birth and death of Wil-
helm Friedrich Ernst Bach, May 27 and Dec. 25
respectively.

P. 113 6. first fourteen lines to be corrected as
follows : — Emanuel Bach entered the service of
the Crown Prince of Prussia (afterwards Frede-
rick II.) in 1738, and remained in it uninter-
ruptedly until 1767, when he went to Hamburg
as Telemann's successor. He died there Dec. I4,
1788. [P.S.]

BACH, Johann Sebastian (voL i. pp. 114-
118).

P. 114 b, 1. 18, for as read at. Lines 47 etc.
to be corrected thus : — His appointment to the
' new church ' at Ai-nstadt took place on Aug. 14,
1 703, and at Easter of the same year he had gone



I



on

[Se



BACH.

to Weimar as Hofinusikus:, so that his residence
1 iat the latter place can only have lasted a few
:. months. His journey to Ltibeck took place at
I the end of Oct. 1705. This detail is worthy of
! mention, since it proves that he went in order to
J hear the ' Abendmusiken ' there, whicli were
jheld on the two last Sundays after Trinity, and
on the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Sundays in Advent,
'see BuxTEHUDE, vol. i. 286.]
P. 115 a, paragraph 2 : — As Kapellmeister at
Cothen, Bach received the comparatively high
salary of 400 thalers (i 200 marks, or £60) a year.
It is now certain that he went with the Prince
to Carlsbad, not only in 1720, but in 1718. The
journey to Hamburg, where he saw Reinken for
the last time, took place not in I72i,but in 1720,
soon after the death of his first wife. In 1 7 19 he
was at Halle, where he tried to make the ac-
quaintance of Handel, who was at that time on
a visit to his family. This, and a second attempt
in 1729, fell through, so that the two composers
never met.

P. 115 a, 1. 6 from bottom, for second read,
first. The ' Trauermusik,' written by Bach at
Cbtheu in 1729, was not on the death of the
Duchess, but on that of the Duke himself which
took place Nov. 19, 1728. The Trauer-Ode here
referred to as written in 1727, was occasioned by
the death of Christiane Eberhardine, Electress of
Saxony, and was performed on Oct. 17, 1727.
Besides the Trauermusik, Bach wrote for the
court of Cothen a whole series of occasional
cantatas, proving his intimate connection with
the Ducal family : for Dec. 10 (the Duke's
birthday), in 1717, 1718, and 1720; for New
Year's Day, 1719 and 1720 (Gratulationscan-
taten) ; for Nov. 30 (the birthday of the Duke's
second wife), 1726. Only three of these compo-
sitions are preserved ; most of the poems to
which they were set were written by C. F,
Hunold. Bach took up his residence in Leipzig
in May 1723. He was appointed Cantor of the
Thomasschule, and director of the music in the
churches, but not organist ; he never occupied an
organist's post after leaving Weimar in 1717.
As Cantor he had to teach singing, and, at first,
to give a certain amount of scientific instruction ;
as director of music he had to superintend the
choral music in the churches of St. Thomas and
St. Nicholas. The choirs were composed of the
scholars of the Thomasschule, with the addition
of students and amateurs, the so-called 'Adju-
vanten.' The size of the chorus, according to our
present ideas, was very small; the average num-
ber for a four-part chorus was about 12 voices.
These were supplemented by a body of instru-
mentalists averaging 18 in number, and com-
posed of the town musicians with the assistance
cf students, scholars, and amateurs. Part of the
duties of University Music-director were fulfilled
by Bach, and from 1729 to 1736 he conducted a
student-s' musical society, in which secular cham-
ber music was practised, and which held for some
time an important place in the musical life of the
town. Several public concerts were also given
by the society under Bach's direction.



BACH.



527



Bach's official duties were not very pressing,
and he had time enough for composition. The
musical materials with which he had to deal
were however far from satisfying his require-
ments, especially as compared with the state
of music at the court. Besides this, his
governing authorities, the town council of Leip-
zig, showed themselves entirely incapable of un-
derstanding the exceptional greatness of this
musician. They did everything to impede his
freedom of action, and pestered him with petty
accusations. In the summer of 1730 Bach's
irritation was so great that he nearly resolved to
leave Leipzig altogether. His intercourse with
the rector and colleagues of the Thomasschule
was at first not unpleasant, and during the
rectorate (i 730-1 734) of the celebrated philo-
logist, Johann Mathias Gesner, it was very
agreeable. Bach could not get on with the nest
rector, however, Johann August Ernesti, a man
still very young and without any tact. Certain
difierences as to the appointment of one of the
choir-prefects, who had to direct the choir in the
absence of the cantor, led to a breach which in the
course of the year became quite irreconcileable.
Bach, with all his great and noble qualities, was
easily irritated, and possessed unyielding obsti-
nacy. The protracted conflict had very bad
results on the discipline and working of the
school, and even ten years after Bach's death the
rector and cantor were accustomed to regard
each other as natural enemies.

Bach's position in Leipzig was a highly re-
spected one, and he soon became a celebrity in
the town. Few musicians went there without
paying him a visit, and even the ' stars ' of the
Italian Opera in Dresden did not fail to pay him
respect. He kept up a friendly intercourse with
the musicians of the Saxon capital. Pupils came
to him from far and near ; his house was a centre
of refined and earnest musical culture ; with his
wife, an excellent singer and an accomplished
musician, his talented sons and daughters, and
his numerous pupils, he could organise, in his
spacious house, performances of vocal and instru-
mental works, even of those which required a
large number of executants. That he mixed in
the literary and University society of the town
is proved by his relations with the poetess
Mariano von Ziegler and Professor Gottsched.
In later life he seems to have withdrawn more
and more from society. In the new impulse
which was given to music about the middle of
tlie century by the influence of the rich mercan-
tile element, and which resulted in the found-
ation of the 'Gewandhaus Concerts,' Bach, so
far as we can learn, took no part.

Bach made frequent journeys from Leipzig.
As he was still Kapellmeister at Cothen (_'von
Haus aus' as the phrase was), he had to appear
there occasionally and to place his services at
the disposal of the reigning family. At the
same time he kept up his connection with the
court of Weissenfels, to which he had been
appointed Kapellmeister in 1723 (not 1736). He
often went to Dresden, where, since his passage



528



BACH.



of arms with Marchand in 171 7) te had been in
high favour. In 1727 he was — as far as we know,
for the last time — in Hamburg, and his native
Thuringia had been visited occasionally. His
most noteworthy journey was that of 1 747 to
the court of Frederick the Great at Potsdam
and Berlin. The reception here accorded to him
was extraordinarily complimentary.

Concerning Bach's last illness, it is to be
noticed that as early as* 1749 it made him at
times so incapable of work that the town council
thought seriously of appointing his successor.
The statement that he engraved his own works
on copper, and so injured his sight, is absolutely
without proof. He had been accustomed from
earliest youth to strain his naturally weak sight,
and this brought on his blindness. The oculist
to whom he ultimately had recourse was the
English Taylor, who travelled through Germany
in 1750 and 1751. An operation was performed,
but was unsuccessful. By a curious coincidence
the same oculist operated, a few years later,
upon Handel, and also without success.

Bach's musical development proceeded from
the sphere of organ music, and it is to this
branch of art that the greatest and most impor-
tant part of his compositions, up to the year
1717, belongs. It was in the time of his residence
at Weimar that he reached his full greatness as
an organ-player. At Cothen he did not write
much for the organ ; the Orgelbiichlein, com-
piled there, consists for the most part of composi-
tions of the Weimar, or even of an earlier, period.
In all probability the celebrated G minor Fugue
with the Prelude (Bachgesellschaft edition, vol.
XV. p. 177) was composed in 1720 at the time of
his journey to Hamburg. Of the great Preludes
and Fugues only four can with certainty be as-
cribed to the Leipzig period : — C major, B minor,
E minor, and Eb major (Bachgesellschaft, xv.
pp. 22S, T99, 236; vol. iii. pp. 173 and 254):
and of the chorale arrangements, probably not
more are to be referred to this time than those
twenty-one which constitute the chief part of
the ' Clavieriibung,' and the canonic variations
on the Christmas hynm 'Vom Hinimel hoch.'
The six organ sonatas received their final cor-
rections at Leipzig, but most of them date from
Cothen or earlier, and were not originally written
for the organ, but for a pedal harpischord with
two manuals.

The Cothen period was principally devoted to
instrumental chamber music. Here the great
'Brandenburg' concertos were completed in
1721; the first part of the ' Wohltemperirte
Clavier ' written in 1722 (the second part was
finished about 1742); and in 1723 the Inven-
tions and Symphonies for clavier were produced.
Besides these, to this period are to be assigned
the six 'French' and perhaps also the six
' English ' suites, to which Bach added the six
'Partitas' (written in Leipzig between 1726 and
1731) : very probably the sonatas and suites for
violin and violoncello, as well as the sonatas for
violin and clavier, are also to be ascribed to this
time.



BACH CHOIR.

Lastly, in the Leipzig period, the composer
laid most stress upon church music for voices
with instrumental accompaniment. He wrote
some 300 so-called church cantatas, of which
more than 200 are extant. Only a small num-
ber of these, about 30, belong to the earlier
periods ; the earliest is probably the Easter
cantata, ' Denn du wu'st meine Seele ' (Bach-
gesellschaft, ii. No. 15) ; it seems to have been
written at Arnstadt in 1 704. A good number
of cantatas can be assigned to the Weimar period,
but to the Cothen period belong only one or two.
But to the Leipzig period are to be referred not
only the great majority of cantatas, but also
almost all the great church compositions. Of
the five Passion settings only that according to
St. Luke belongs to an early time ; the ' John '
Passion was performed for the first time in 1724,
the 'Matthew' in 1729, while two are lost. The
Christmas Oratorio was written in 1734, the
Magnificat, apparently for Christmas, 1723, and
the Mass in B minor between 1732 and 1738.
The German sacred poems set by Bach are the
work of Erdmann Neumeister, Salomo Franck,
Chr. Fr. Henrici (Picander),Mariane von Zeigler,
and others. Many of them were compiled by
Bach himself. [P.S.]

BACH CHOIR, THE. In 1875 a body of
amateurs was got together by Mr. A. D. Cole-
ridge for the purpose of studying Bach's Mass
in B minor, a work concerning which musicians
in England were then in almost total ignorance.
The nmsic was studied under the direction of
Mr. Otto Goldschmidt [see vol. i. p. 608], who
had devoted much preparatory care to the Mass ;
and the work was performed at St. James's Hall
on April 26, 1 876, and again in May of the same



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