George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

. (page 134 of 194)
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Stem Singing Society in Berlin, succeeding Stock-
hausen. In 1880 he was offered the direction
of the Liverpool Philharmonic Societj', and for
three years England became his home. At the
end of that time he undertook the direction
of the Orchesterverein at Breslau. To the list
of bis more important works should be added
three choral works ' Arminius,' ' Lied von der
Glocke,' ' Achilleus,' as well as a third symphony,
in E b, op. 61. His ' Kol Nidrei,' for violoncello,
op. 48, has become a favourite at the Popular
Concerts and elsewhere, and his most important
work, ' Odysseus,' has been given by the Bach
Choir, under his own direction. [M.]

BRUCKNER, Anton, organist and com-
poser, born Sept. 4, 1824 at Ausfelden (Upper
Austria), and received his earliest musical in-
struction from his father, a village schoolmaster,
&t whose death he was received as a chorister
into the institute (Stift) of St. Florian, where
he afterwards became organist. In 1855 he
obtained by competition the post of organist
of Linz cathedral. From here he made frequent
journeys to Vienna to prosecute his studies under
Sechter, and from 1861 to 1863 he was a pupil
of Otto Kitzler. At Sechter's death in 1867 he
was chosen to succeed him as organist of the
Hofkapelle, and at the same time became a
professor in the Conservatorium. To these
functions he added a lectureship at the Uni-
versity, to which he was appointed in 1875. In
1869 he took part in an organ competition at
Nancy with such success that he was invited
to play in Paris and elsewhere ; in 1S71 he
gave six recitals at the Albert Hall. Three
grand masses, besides several comiDositions for
male chorus, are among his vocal compositions,
but his fame rests chiefly upon his seven sym-
phonies, the last of which (published in 18S5)
■was played at the Richter concert of May 23,
1887. His style is distinguished by great
earnestness and considerable originality, though
it may be reproached with a certain lack of
contrast, and an inordinate leaning towards the
manner of Wagner, upon whose death the slow
movement of the symphony already referred
to was written as a kind of elegy, [M.]

BRUCKLER, Hugo, bom' at Dresden Feb.
^8> 1S45, received his first musical instruction I



^

B



BRULL.

from his schoolmaster, C. Sahr. When ab(
ten years old he entered the Evangelical Choi
ters' Institution at Dresden, where he receiv
instruction in singing and the pianoforte fn
the court organist. Dr. Johann Schneider. Up
leaving the institution he devoted himself entirt
to music, and after taking violin lessons frc jrj
Herr Haase of Dessau, who was then living
Dresden, in his sixteenth year entered the Dresd
Conservatorium of Music, where he diligent
pursued his violin studies under HeiT Era
Schubert. Brxickler'sgrowinginclinationfor sIl
ing and pianoforte caused him, about eighte
months later, to give up the violin, in order
devote himself entirely to the study of plan
forte-playing, singing, and composition. Aft
receiving instruction from Carl Krebs (pian
forte), Julius Rietz (composition), and othei
as well as making experiments in differe
branches of music, and diligently studying ft h
scores and literature, Brtickler left the Conse|il'!
vatorium and began to compose industriously,
the same time giving private music lessons,
the latter years of his life he still studied singir
with great success under the well-known mast
Herr Thiele, but continually increasing ill-healt
compelled him to abandon this passionate!
loved studj'. Rapid consumption brought tl
amiable and modest artist severe suflFering, an
ended his life at the age of 26, Oct. 7, 187
The only compositions of Briickler's which ha's
been published are songs; they are as follows
op. I, five songs from Scheffel's Trompeter vo
Siikkingen (Leipzig, Kahnt), op. 2, nine song
from the same poem, and seven songs from hi
posthumous works, selected and edited by Ado:
Jensen (Dresden, Hoff'arth). [W.B.S.

BRULL, Ignaz, pianist and composer, bonf-
Nov. 7, 1846, at Prossnitz in Moravia, receive*'-'
instruction from Epstein, Rufinatscha and Dee
soff. The first of these played a concerto by hi
young pupU. in i86r, which brought the com
poser into notice. In tlie following year Br
wrote an orchestral serenade which was
formed at Stuttgart in 1864. He appeared
pianist in Vienna (where his parents had U'
since 1 849) and undertook several concert tou:
performing, among other things, his own com ■
positions with the greatest success. From 1875 .
to 1878 he was engaged in teaching at one 0! ,.
the smaller institutions at Vienna. In the lattei '
year he came to London, and played at no less
than twenty concerts. By this time his opera
'Das goldene Kreuz ' (produced Dec. 22, 1875, (^
at Berlin) had obtained such success in diflferent .
parts of Germany that Mr. Rosa was warranted .
in producing it in London during the composer's ■
stay. It failed to produce any remarkable efifect. ^
His other operas are ' Die Bettler von Samar- ,_
kand' (1S64), 'Der Landfriede' (1877), 'Bianca%
(1S79), and ' Konigin Mariette' (1S83), besides |
which he has written a symphony op. 31, an j
overture ' Macbeth ' op. 46, two pianoforte con-
certos, a violin concerto op. 41, a sonata for two
pianos, a trio, and other works for piano and
strings, besides pianoforte pieces and songs. [M.]



BRUNETTES.

BRUNETTES. See vol. i. 335 5 and iii.
'63 b note 4.

( BRUNI, A. B. Line 2 of article, /or in read
I'eb. 2.

BRUSSELS CONSERVATOIRE. See
EVAEKT, and vol. ii. 426 a.

BRYCESON, BROTHERS, organ-builders,
■omlon. [See Electeic Action, vol. i. p. 485.]
'he organ mentioned in the note, built for Mr.
Eolmes, is now in the Albert Palace, Battersea
'ark. [See Oegax, vol. ii. p. 607 b.] [V. de P.]

BRYNE, Albebtus, organist, born about
621, received his musical education from John
'omkins, organist of St. Paul's. It was prob-
bly on the death of his master that Bryne
btained the same post, which he held untU. the
iommonwealth. At the Restoration he was
3-appointed, a petition having been presented
) the King on his behalf. After the great fire
e became organist of Westminster, a post which
e probably retained until the appointment of
>low in 1669. He is said to have died in that
ear, but there is evidence to prove that he
'as organist and fourth fellow of Dulwich
lollege from 1 671 to 1677. A 'Mr. Bryan' who
'as appointed organist of AHhallows' Barking
1 1676, with a salary of £18 per annum, may
ery possibly have been the same person. In
The Virgin's Pattern ' (Life of Susanna Per-
'ick), 1661, among the famous musicians of the
me, mention is made of ' Albertus Bryne, that
imous velvet-fingered organist.' A Morning and
'ivening Service by him are in many collections,
nd he wrote besides many sets of words for an-
hems, as well as dances, 'grounds,' etc. His
ame is variously spelt Bryan, Brian, and as
bove. (Diet, of Nat. Biog., etc.) [W.B.S.]

•BUCK, Dudley, born at Hartford, Connecti-
nt, U.S., March 10, 1839, the son of a merchant,
'ho intended him for a mercantile life. But
le son, showing at an early age a taste for
iu.sic, having in fact acquired by self-instruc-
on a knowledge of the rudiments of the ai-t
ith sufficient practical attainments to be able
) play the accompaniments for the masses of
[aydn and Mozart, the father, realising the ex-
mt of Dudley's gifts, spared nothing to cultivate
ad ripen them. Dudley's first lessons on the
iano were given him by Mr, W. J. Babcock of
[artford, at the age of sixteen. Being employed
i a substitute for the regular organist at St.
ohn's Church, Hartford, he gave such satisfac-
on that he retained the position until his de-
arture for Europe in 1858. Before leaving
ome he entered Trinity CoUege, Hartford,
•here he remained three years. Four years
ere passed in Europe, eighteen months of
hich were spent at Leipzig, where he studied
leory and composition under Hauptmann and
;ichter, orchestration and musical form under
ietz, and the piano under Plaidy and Mo-
:heles. Among his fellow pupils at the con-
irvatory were Arthur Sullivan, J. F. Barnett,
Salter Bache, and Carl Eosa. In order to in-



BUCK.



567



crease his knowledge of Bach he then went to
Schneider of Dresden, Rietz being called
tliither at the same time to direct the Royal
Opera, Buck was enabled to continue his studies
under him. A year was also spent at Paris.
Returning to Hartford in 1S62, he was appointed
organist at the Park Church. His plans for
seeking employment in a larger field were frus-
trated by the death of his mother in 1862. His
father dying in 1867, Buck went to Chicago in
1868, where he held the position of organist at
St. James's Church for three years, his reputa-
tion as a performer and composer steadily
growing during this period. The great fire at
Chicago, Oct. 9, 1 871, destroyed his house, with
a large library, including several important
compositions in manuscript. Buck then re-
moved to Boston, where he was appointed
organist at St. Paul's Church and for the Music
Hall, and subsequently at the Shawmut (Con-
gregational) Church. In 1874 he went to New
York, where he held the position of assistant
conductor in Theodore Thomas's orchestra for
one season. He also had charge of the music at
St. Ann's Church, Brooklyn, until 1877, when
he was appointed organist at the church of the
Holy Trinity, Brooklyn; and this position he
still holds (1887).

Buck's compositions embrace nearly every
variety of music. They have been received
with great favour by musicians of every grade,
and are extensively played and sung throughout
the Union. He is one of the first American
composers, with high aims, who has met with any-
thing like a proper recognition of his labours.
At the time of his first publications — during his
residence at Hartford, in 1S62 — the proverb
concerning the lack of honour which a prophet
receives in his own country applied with
full force to aspiring musicians in the United
States. The wide popularity which Buck's
music enjoys is due to the fact that the strict-
ness and thoroughness of his early training have
not interfered with the play of his fancy or the
freedom of his invention. His orchestral scores
show him to be a master of the aj't of colouring
as well as of form, and in all his compositions,
vocal or instrumental, there is displayed a tech-
nical knowledge of the colour and resources of
the natural or artificial means employed, com-
bined with an artistic treatment, which has
earned the warmest praise from the most critical
judges.

The following is a list of Buck's published
works : —

Bolos, Chorus, and Orchettra .»—

Psalm xlvi. (op. 20).

Easter Morning, Cantata (op. 21).

Festival Hymn, 'O Peace, oa thine upsoaring pinions' (original
words), for the Peace Jubilee. Boston. June lhT2 (op. 57).

' Legend of Don Munio.' Dramatic Cantata (original words) (op. 62).

' Centennial Meditation of Columbia,' by appointment of U. S. Com-
mission, Cantata, written for the opening of the Centennial Industrial
Exhibition. Philadelphia, May 10, 1S76 ; words by Sidney Lanier.

•The Golden Legend' Symphonic Cantata, extracts from Long-
fellow's poem, prize composition at the Cincinnati Festival, June 18S0.

■ The Light of .\sia,' Cantata, on a text trom Edwin Arnold's poem.
(Xovellu, Ewer 4 Co., 18-6.)

• Columbus,' Cantata for male voice (original words, German and
English).

Pp 2



* Copyright 1889 by F. H. Jexks.



568



BUCK.



BULL.



Church jWumc .— Two collections of motets, anthems, etc ; fuU ser-
vices for the Protestant Episcopal Church.

Vocal Music :Songs ; part-sonps for male and mixed voices ; arias,
sacred and secular, with piano, organ, and orchestral accompaniment.

Piano and Cliamber Music .—Compositions for PF. solo aad in con-
junction with stringed and wind Instruments.

Organ Music .—Sonatas, concert-pieces, variations, marches, tran-
scriptions of overtures.

Educational .—Studies on pedal phrasing (op. 28) ; illustrations in
choir accompaniment, with hints in registration.

His most important unpublished works are : —

■ Deseret,' Operetta, three acts, words hy \V. A. Croffut ; produced
at the Lyceum Theatre, New York, October. 18.S0: 'Marmion,' Sym-
phonic overture: Symphony, Eh (op. 70): Concertino for four horns
and orchestra (op. 71): string (3uiutets(op.6l)and68). [F. H.J.I

BUCK, Zechaeiah, Mus. D., born at Nor-
wich, Sept. Q, 179S, became in 1807 a chorister
of Norwich Cathedral under Dr. Beckwith, and
continued such xmder his son and successor, John
Charles Beckwith. On the breaking of his voice
he became an articled pupil of the latter, and,
on the expiration of his articles, his partner as a
teacher. On the death of J. C. Beckwith in 1S28
Buck was appointed his successor as organi.st
and master of the choristers of the cathedral.
The degree of Mus. D. was conferred upon
him in 1853 by Dr. Sumner, Archbishop of
Canterbury. He composed some church music,
not remarkable for either quantity or quality ;
but although an indifferent player, and still more
indifferent composer, he possessed an extra-
ordinary faculty for training choir boys, and
was also an able teacher of the organ. Many
of his pupils obtained appointments as cathedral
and college organists. He resigned his appoint-
ments in 1877, and died at Newport, Essex,
Aug. 5, 1879. [W.H.H.]

BULOW, VON. Add that he remained two
yeai's at Hanover, and was then appointed
Hofmusikintendant to the Duke of Meiningen.
During the five years of his tenure of this post he
did wonders with the orchestra, forming it into
an unrivalled body of players. Since his resig-
nation of this aj^pointment, in Oct. 1S85, he
has directed various sets of concerts in Berlin,
St. Petersburg, etc., and has employed his ex-
ceptional talents as a teacher in the Raff Con-
servatorium at Frankfort, and in Klindworth's
establishment in Berlin. He also conducted
a Musical Festival at Glasgow in 1878. He has
recently taken up his residence in Hamburg. [M.]

BURDE-NEY, Jennt, whose maiden name
was Ney (said by Pougin to be a relative of Mar-
shal Ney), was born Dec. 21, 1826, at Gratz.
She was taught singing by her mother, herself a
singer, and first appeared in opera at Olmiitz
(1847), afterwards at Prague, Lemberg, and
"Vienna (1850-53), and finally at Dresden. In
the last-named city, where she first appeared
Dec. 1853, as Valentine, she attained a great
reputation as the successor of Schroeder-Devrient,
and was engaged there until her retirement from
the stage about 1868, having in the meanwhile
married, Jan. 31, 1855, Paul Biirde, an actor at
the same theatre. In 1855-56 she was engaged
at the Royal Italian Opera, Covent Garden, and
Lyceum. She first appeared April 19, '55, as
Leonora (Fidelio), on the occasion of the state



!n



a



visit of Her Majesty and the Emperor ;
Empress of the French, on whose account
attention was paid to the singer. She repeat
this part twice, but was very coolly receive
Professor Morley remarked her performance wi
favour in his ' Journal of a London Playgoe
On May 10, 1S55, she was better received
Leonora on the production in England of ' Tr i
vatore,' the only other part she played during h iij
engagement. She also sang with some succe
at the Philharmonic. ' It would be hard
to name a soprano voice more rich, more swee it
more even thau hers. It was a voice bett k
taught, too, than the generality of German voic
— a voice delivered without force and inequality,
with due regard to beauty of tone and gra
in ornament. But the new language and acce;
hampered Madame Ney ; and her powers as i
actress here seemed to be only limited.' (Chorley
She died May 17, 1886. [A.CJbiI

BULL, John. Line 2 of article, for aboi
1563 read in 1562. (This date is proved I
a portrait in the possession of Mr. Julian Ma
shall.) Line i8,/or In read On Nov. 30. P. 28
1. ^2, for In the same month 7-ead Two days b'
fore. Concerning Bull's residence abroad,
should be added that he went to Brussels and b
came one of the organists of the Chapel Roy:
under GerydeGhersem. (Dict.of Nat.Biog.) H
name occurs in a list of persons to whom James
ordered 'Gold chains, plates or medals' to I
given, Dec. 31, 1606. (Devon's 'Issues of tl
Exchequer,' 1836, p. 301.) [M

BULL, OLE BoRNEMAN, a remarkable violi
virtuoso, was born Feb. 5, 18 10, at Bergen i j
Norway, where his father practised as a phj ij
sician. Some members of the family, especiall
an uncle, were very musical, and at the frequen
meetings held for quartet-playing, the boy b«
came early familiar with the masterpieces c
Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. Without havin
regular instruction he soon tried his hand a
fiddling, and made such progress as to eriabl
him not only to take part in these domesti
practices, but also to play first violin in tb
public orchestra. His first teacher was Paulseii
a Dane, and later on he received some instrufi
tion from a pupil of Baillot's, a Swede namej
Lundholm who had settled at Bergen. In thi
main, however, he was a self-taught player. Hil
individuality was so strongly marked as to leavj
but little room for the direct influence of \
teacher. He was himself a true son of th<
North, of athletic build and independent chaij
racter; and the ruling passion of his life wai|
the love he bore to his native land. The glo(|
rious scenery of the mountains and fjords of hilj
home, the weird poetry of the Sagas of the North, |
took hold of his sensitive mind from early child- 1
hood and filled his imagination. They were re-|
fleeted in his style of playing, and gave to it thatj
originality and poetic charm by which he never j
failed to captivate his audience. His father didi
not approve of a musical career, and, after having]
gone through the grammar school at Bergen, Ole j



' BULL.

I was sen^ to the university of Christiania to
ly theology. Very soon however we find

the conductor of a musical and dramatic
3ty in that town. At this time political
ag ran high in Norway, and he appears to
a taken some part in the agitation. At all
its he suddenly left the country and went to
tel to satisfy an ardent desire of seeing and
ing Spohr, for whose violin compositions he

a sincere admiration. Spohr appears to
3 behaved somewhat coldly to the rather ee-
rie and, to him, utterly unknown young
lusiast, and the latter left Cassel much dis-
)inted. He made a short stay at Gottingen,
re his boisterous manner involved him in a
, and then returned to Norway, where he
ed with much success at public concerts in
jen and Trondjhem. But it was not till he
t to Paris in 1831 that his powers as an
■•utant were fully developed. He failed to
I admittance to the Conservatoire, but it was
I that he first heard Paganini, and this con-
ited, as he himself used to declare, the
dng-point of his life. Paganini's playing
e an immense impression on him, and he
w himself with the utmost vigour into the
iuit of technical studies in order to emulate
feats performed by the great Italian vir-
o. Meanwhile his limited means were ex-
ited, and being too proud to ask for further
itance from his father, and failing to get an
ointment in one of the orchestras, he fell into
)us difiBculties. According to one report he
mpted in a fit of despair to commit suicide
arowing himself into the Seine ; according to
.her he was attacked by a severe illness
ight on by low living and mental anxiety,
.unately at this time he came under the
laerly care of a benevolent Parisian lady, who
ed him, and whose daughter he afterwards
•ied. After his recovery he made his first
arance in Paris (April 18, 1832), assisted by
pin and Ernst, and then started for Italy,
re he created a perfect furore. From this

to the end of his life he continued travelling
ver Europe and North America, taking now
then a summer's rest in his native country,
clayed first in London, May 2 1, 1836 ; at the
harmonic, June 6, and during the next sixteen
uhshegave 2 74Concerts in England, Scotland,
Ireland. In 1843 he went to America for the

and in 1879 ^'^^ *^® Mih and last time,
success and popularity in the States were
'unded, and he began to amass a consider-
fortune. He frequently revisited his native
, and made himself a beautiful home near
en. To the end of his life he retained a
onate love for the North and his country-
; antl, touched by the abject poverty of
f of them, he conceived the idea of founding
■rwegian colony in the States. With a ^dew
le execution of this scheme he acquired a

tract of land (125,000 acres), but, though
as not without natural shrewdness in busi-
jmatters, he unfortunately fell into the hands
i/indlers, who sold to him what was really



EULL.



569



the property of a third party. Bull was in
consequence involved in a troublesome and
expensive lawsuit, by which he lost a great part
of his capital. But, nothing daunted, he resumed
travelling and playing to replace what was lost.
On Feb. 5, 18S0, he celebrated his 70th birthday
in America, and on Aug. 17 of the same year he
died at his country seat in Norway, where his
death was deplored as a national loss.

Ole Bull was a man of remarkable character
and an artist of undoubted genius. All who
heard him, or came in personal contact with
him, agree that he was f;ir from being an ordi-
nary man. Tall, of athletic build, witli large
blue eyes and rich flaxen hair, he was the very
type of the Norseman, and there was a certain
something in his personal appearance and con-
versation which acted with almost magnetic
power on those who approached him. The
writer of this article has been assured by per-
sonal friends of Ole Bull that his powers as
a teller of ghost-stories and other tales was
simply irresistible to young and old, and their
effect not unlike that of his violin-playing. At
the same time it cannot be denied that we find
in him unmistakeable traits of charlatanism, such
as when he seriously relates (see his Biography,
by Sara Bull) that his ' Polacca guerriera '
was ' first conceived while gazing alone at mid-
night on Mount Vesuvius flaming through the
darkness,' or when he played the fiddle on the
top of the great Pyramid !

Spohr, who was by no means prepossessed in his
favour, writes of him in his autobiography : —
' His playing in chords and the certainty of his
left hand are admirable, but, like Paganini, he
sacrifices too many of the noble qualities of the
violin to his tricks. His tone, on account of the
thinness of the strings he uses, is bad ; and
owing to the use of an almost flat bridge he
can, on the 2nd and 3rd strings, play in the
lower positions only, and then only piano. Hence
his performances, whenever he does not execute
his tricks, are monotonous. We experienced this
in his playing of some of Mozart's quartets. At
the same time he plays with much feeling, if not
with cultivated taste.'

This criticism, as far as it goes, no doubt is
fair and correct ; but it entirely ignores those
peculiarities of Ole Bull's talent which constitute
his claim to an eminent position among modern
violinists, and explain his success. In the first
place his technical proficiency was such as very
few violinists have ever attained to. His play-
ing in double-stoppings was perfect ; his staccato,
upwards and downwards, of the utmost bril-
liancy; and although he can hardly be consi-
dered a serious musician in the highest sense of
the term, yet he played with warm and poetical,
if somewhat sentimental, feeling. He has often
been described as the ' flaxen- haired Paganini,'
and, as we have seen, he was to a certain extent
influenced by the great Italian. But his imita-
tion hardly went beyond the reproduction of
certain technicalities, such as an extensive use
of harmonics, pizzicatos with the left hand, and.



E70



BULL.



Bimilar effects. In every other respect the style
of the two men was as different as the colour of
their hair. While Paganini's manner reflected
his passionate Southern nature to such an extent
that his hearers felt as under the spell of a
demon, Ole Bull transferred his audience to the
dreamy moonlit resjions of the North. It is
this power of conveying a highly poetical charm
— a power which is absolutely beyond any mere
trickster or ordinary performer — that redeems
him from the reproach of charlatanism. His
rendering of Scandinavian airs never failed to
charm and move, and his tours de force, if they
raised the smile of the musician, invariably car-
ried away his audience. He appears to have
been conscious of his inability to do justice to



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