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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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serious music -^at least he never, with the ex-
ception of one or two movements of Paganini,
played anything but his own compositions. His
private rendering of quartets is said to have
proved the wisdom of this self-imposed restraint.
He used on his violin an almost flat bridge,
an arrangement which enabled him to produce
beautiful effects by the playing of chords and
passages in four parts, but which had the ob-
vious disadvantages already mentioned. His bow
was of unusual length and weight, such as no
man of smaller stature and strength could effec-
tively or comfortably wield.

Three only of his numerous compositions ap-
pear to have been published : a set of ' Varia-
zioni di bravura,' ' La Preghiera d'una niadre,'
and a ' Notturno.' The rest consisted of con-
certos and other solo pieces, of which a * Polacca
guerriera' appears to have been his cheval de
bataille. The titles of others, such as ' The
Niagara,' ' Solitude of the Prairies,* ' To the
memory of Washington,' betray their American

The dates and main facts contained in this
article are taken from the biography of Ole Bull
by his second wife, Sara C. Bull. [P-D.]

_ BUNN, Alfeed. Add that the date of his
birth was probably April 8, 1796 or 1797. In
1826 he was manager of the Birmingham
Theatre, and in 1833 held the same post at
Drury Lane and Covent Garden. He was de-
clared a bankrupt on Dec. 17, 1840. In later
life he became a Roman Catholic, and died of
apoplexy at Boulogne, Dec. 20, i86o. (Diet, of
Nat. Biog.) Lines 3-4 from end of article, for
Long before his career as manager had come to
an end read In 1 840. [See also Dkdrt Lane.]

BUONONCINI. See vol. i. p. 649, note, and
add a reference to Aeiosti.

BURANELLO. See Galuppi, vol. i. p. 579.

BURGMULLER. Fk. See vol. ii. p. 7296,

where the date of his birth should be corrected

to I S06. Add a reference to Elotow and Lady


BURNEY, Chaeles. Line 2 of article, /or
7 read 12. Add that he wrote the music for
Thomson's 'Alfred,' produced at Drury Lane,
March 30, 1745, and that in 1747 he published
six sonatas for two violins and bass. Shortly


afterwards Fulke Greville paid Ame £201
cancel his articles, and took Burney to live '
him. In 1749 he married Miss Esther SI
who died in 1761. Eight years after her cV
he married Mrs. Stephen Allen of Lynn.
1759 he wrote an Ode for St. Cecilia's 1
which was performed at Ranelagh Gardens,
1806 Fox gave him a pension of £300, an(
the following year he had a paralytic str
His appointment to Chelsea Hospital was gi
him by Burke in 1783. (Diet, of Nat. Biog.)
The following is a catalogue of the mus
extracts in his ' History of Music' : —

Vol. 1. contains no musical example of consequence.

Eomance on the death of Eichard I, from fhe Provenfal .
Prologue to the Paraphrase of the Epistle for St. Steplien's Day
Plain Song for the Feast of St. John the Evangelist

Song for New Tear's Day

Chanson de Roland

Two Chansons du Chatelain de Coucy

Cliansons du Roman d'Alexandre

SongofThibaut of Navarre

Chanson ' L'autrier par la matinee

Old French song (fragment) ' Faux semblant '. . . .

Hymn 'Alia Trinita beata'

Song on the victory obtained at Agincourt ....

'Sumer is icumen in'

Cantilena of Guido

Canon in epidiapente by Okenheim

La Deploration de Jehan Okenheim, par Josquin des Pi'^s .

Two canons from Josquln's Missa sine nomine

Trio 'Pleui sunt' from Josquin's Missa 'I'homme arm4' . ,
Osannafrom Josquin's mass 'Faysan regres' . ■ . . ,

Benedictus from Do.

' Misericordias,' Motectus ^

'Murae Jovis ter maxim! ' (monody on Josquin's death) Bene-

' Anima mea.* Isaac

'De testimoniis' Do

Benedictus a 3. P. de la Rue

Cruciflxus a 2. A. Brumel

Kyrie a 4. Anthony Fevin , .

Et vitam. Do.

' Quampulcra es' (Motetti della Corona, lib. iii. no. 12), Mouton .

' Toure counterfeyting.' Wm. Newark

' My woful hart.' Sheryngham

' That was my woo.' R. Fayrfax

'Alas, it is I.' Edmund Turges

' Dum transisset.' Taverner ,■

' Qui tollis ■ from mass ' O Michael.' Taverner ....
Do. from mass ' Albanus.' Fayrfax .....

' Quoniam * from Do

* Gloria,' from another mass by Fayrfax

' Esurientes.' John Shepherd

'Et in terra pax,' from mass 'Euge bone.' Tye ....
' Sabbatum Maria Magdalene." Robert Johnson ....
Song, ' Enforced by love and feare.' Robert Parsons . . ,

VOL. in.
■ Heare the Toyce and Prayer.' Tallys . . . . , ,
Ps. cx.xviii. 'Selig ist der gepreiset." Luther . . . . ,
Easter Hymn 'Jesus Christus unser Heiland' ... J

■Ein veste burg' »

Hymn 'Es woll uns Gott* j

Ps. c. harmonized by Claude Lejeune ,j

'Brhalt uns Herr' ,;

Four-part song, 'In deep distresse.' Mundy 1

Anthem, 'Lord, who shall dwell.' Robert White . . . .
' Salvator Mundi.' from ' Cantiones Sacrae,' Tallys . . . .

Motet, ■ Derelinquit.' Tallys j

The Carman's Whistle. W. Bird

'0 Lord my God.' Do

'My mind to me a kingdom is.' Do

Canzonet, ' Cease mine eyes.' T. Morley

Do. 'See, see, mine own sweet jewel.' Do I

Dr. Bull's difficult passages, from Virginal Book ....

Dr. Bull's Jewel

Alman by Robert Jhonson ,

'Fortune,' set by Bird for the Virginal

' My flockes feed not.' Weelkes

•Thou God of Night.' John Milton (Sir William Lelghton's
'Tears and Lamentations')

■ An heart that's broken.' Dowland

'I shame. I shame.' . Do

Airs, ' Like Hermit poore' and ' Singe we then.' A. FerraboscO .
Canon. * Veni Creator.' Zarlino

■ Deposuit ' from Magnificat in Second Tone. Palestrina . .

'Sicut erat* from Do. Pietro Pontio

Miserere. Animuccia


ifet. ■ Exaltabo te Dnmine." Palestrina • • • • • 191

idrigal. 'Ahi tn melneghi.' Marenzio 205

llota alia NapoMtana. Perissone Cambio 214

nzone Villanesche alia Napolitana. Baldassare Donate . . 216
idrigal. 'Jloro lasso.' Gesualdo, Prince of Venosa . . . 223

gue, ' Diffusa est gratia.' Costanzo Porta 227

lleto, '11 Beir humore.' Gastoldi 231

)o. 'L'lnnamorato' 232

inteverde's New Discords 235

idrigal, 'Stracciami pur.' Monteverde 237

►tet, 'Quam pulcra.' Festa 245

idrigal, 'Madonna, io v'amo.* Do 246

itet, 'Domine, quid multiplicati." Goudimel .... 267

anson. ' Bonjour.' Claudin le Jeune 271

tracts from ' Le Ballet Comique de la Eoyne.' Baltazarini . 279

el. Caurroy 285

Ldrigal, 'II bianco e dolcecigno.' Arcadelt .... 303

anson, ' Ta bonne grace." Cornelius Cauls 309

ldrigal, 'Alma Nemus.' Orlando Lasso 317

Do. 'Calami sonum.' Cipriano de Kore 319

tch and Canons from' Pamcaelia' 349

onds and Canons SiO

Lthem in 8 parts, eiercise for an Oxford degree . . . .351

ng. 'Come my Celia.' A. Ferrabosco 354

liitelocke's Coranto 378

r in Comus. Henry Lawes .383

Qg 'A lover once.' Do 397

iog to the King of Kings.' William Latves 405

ord. judge my cause.' Do 406

fho trusts iu thee.' Do 406

re Bells Consort. John Jenkin 411

non, ' I am so weary.' Thomas Ford 415

Do. 'Lift up your heads.' Simon lyes 415

3o. ' Xon nobis Domine.' Hilton 416

Do. ' Look down, Lord.' T.Ford 416

Do. ' Hold thy peace ' 416

;amp!es of Blow's crudities 449

lthem, ■ The ways of Zion.' Michael Wise 455

loriaPatri.' Deering 479

ee. 'Ne'er trouble thyself.' Matthew Locke .... 480
iree-part song, ' Sweet Tyrannies ' by the father of Henry Purcell 486

lant. Thomas Purcell 487

non. Turini 521

visions, specimens of. Seracini 528

agments of Italian melody from Pallavicini, Cifra, Kovetta,

Uerula ?nd Facho 544

inna Nonna.' lullaby. Barbella 571

iadalTasso. Tartini 572

M alia Lecese. Leo 572


sences in Monteverde 27

agments of Peri, Caccini. and Monteverde 31

c. and Air from Cesti's 'Orontea' 67

agment of Cavalli's 'Erismena' -69

ena from Bontempi's 'Paride' 71

sne from the first Oratorio. Emilio del Cavaliere ... 91
c. from Mazzocbi's ' Tears of Mary Magdalen ' . . . .96
r from Federici's 'Santa Caterina da Siena' .... 117

let from Stradella's ' John the Baptist 118

r from Pistocchi's ' Maddalena ' 121

t 'Ilmio figlio.' Scarlatti 121

tract from Vecchi's ' Amfipamasso ' 127

:tract from Caccini 137

agments and Air from Cantata by Carissimi .... 143

auties of his cantatas 147

let from 'Musurgia.' Kircher 150

agments of cantatas and motet by Cesti 151

agments of cantatas by Luigi Rossi 157

r, 'Dolce amor.' Cavalli 158

agment of Bandini 158

ecimens of SalvatorKosa 165

agments of Bassani 168

»gments from Scarlatti's Cantatas 171

visions by various singers 216

agment from Handel's 'Teseo* 241

visions by Nicolai and others 243

r from Ariosti's ' Vespasiano ' 293

visions by Farinelli 437

r sung by Farinelli in Broschi's ' Artaxerxes ■ .... 439
Tiaious (1740 and 1755) 461

! BUSBY, Thomas. Add month of birth,
ecember. In the summer of 1769 he sang
■ Vauxhall at a salary of ten guineas a week,
id about 1786 was elected organist of St.
'ary's, Newington. The oratorio called ' The
rophecy ' had been written much earlier than
'99 ; it was a setting of Pope's ' Messiah.'
In3 15 of article.ybr next rend had previously.
Joanna' was produced at Covent Garden in
inuary 1800. To the list of melodrainas add
rhe Fair Fugitive,' 1803. Line 20,/or in April



read, on May 28. Line it,, for Day read Age.
Line 24, /or 1786 read 1785.

BUXTEHUDE, Dietrich. P. 286 a, line 6
from bottom, add a reference to English trans-
lation of Spitta's ' Bach,' i. 258 et seq. P. 2866,
1. 22, add reference to the same, i. 263, note 107.

B YFIELD, John, organ-builder. [See Harris
& Btfield, vol. i. p. 692, and ii. p. 596; also
Btfield, Jordan & Bridge below. [V. de P.]

BYFIELD, John, junr., organ-builder. No-
thing is known of his biography except that he
died in 1774. The works of the two By fields
pass current under one head ; but Dr. Rimbault
is able to quote eighteen instruments (from 1 750
to 1 771) as made by the younger By field. The
last six of these were buUt conjointly with
Green. [See Green, vol. i. p. 624.] [V. de P.]

Many new organs were required for the new
churchesbuilt atthebeginningof the i8th century,
and many incompetent persons were induced to
become organ-builders. To prevent the sad
consequences likely to follow, these three emi-
nent artists formed a coalition to build organs at
a very moderate charge, amongst which may be
cited those of Great Yarmouth Church (i733)
and of St. George's Chapel in the same town
(i 740). [See also each of these names.] [V. de P.]

BYRD,^ William, is generally said to have
been the son of Thomas Byrd, a member of the
Chapels Royal of Edward VI. and Mary ; but
this statement is purely conjectural, the only
evidence upon which it rests — viz. that Byrd's
second son was named Thomas, as it was sup-
posed, after his grandfather — having been dis-
proved by the recent discovery that he was
named after his godfather Thomas Tallis. The
date (1538) usually given as that of his birth is
conjectured from a statement that he was the
senior chorister in St. Paul's Cathedral in 1554,
when his name was alleged to appear in a peti-
tion of the choristers for the restoration of cer-
tain benefactions to which they were entitled.
This petition cannot be found among the public
records of the year, though documents relating to
the restoration of the payments in question are
in existence, and in these William Byrd's name
does not occur, though two other choristers,
named John and Simon Byrd, are mentioned.
It seems most likely that the composer was a
native of Lincoln, where a Henry Byrde, for-
merly mayor of Newcastle, died on July 13,
15 1 2, and was buried in the Cathedral. Accord-
ing to Anthony k Wood, William Byrd was ' bred
up to musick under Thomas Tallis,' but the first
authentic fact in his biography is his appoint-
ment as organist of Lincoln Cathedral, which
took place probably about 1563. He remained
at Lincoln for some years, but no trace of his
residence there has been found in the Chapter
Records, except the appointment of his successor,

1 Since the article on Btrd was written in Volume T. of the Dic-
tionary, so much fresh information about him has come to light
that it has been thought best to write a fresh account of his life.
Most of the documents upon which the above article is based were
printed by the writer in the ' Musical Review,' for 1881, Nos. 19—21.



Thomas Butler, who on Dec. 7, T572, was elected
master of the choristers and organist ' on y''
nomination and commendation of Mr. William
Byrd.' From this it would seem that Byrd re-
tained his post of organist at Lincoln until 1572,
although on Feb. 22, 1569, he had been elected
a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal. It was prob-
ably during this part of his life that he was
married to Julian or Ellen Birley, a native of
Lincolnshire. On Jan. 22, i575,Tallis and Byrd
obtained a patent from Elizabeth for printing
and selling music and music paper, English and
foreign, for 21 years, the penalty for the infringe-
ment of which was 40 shillings. This monopoly
does not seem to have been very valuable, as a
petition preserved in the Stationers' Registers, in
which a list of restrictions upon printing is given,
records that ' Bird and Tallys . . . haue musike
bukes with note, which the complainantes con-
fesse they wold not print nor be furnished to
print though there were no priuilege.' In 1575
Byrd and Tallis published a collection of motets,
'Cantiones, quje ab argumento sacrse vocantur,
quinque et sex partium,' of which 18 were the
conjposition of Byrd. The work was printed by
Thomas Vautrollier, and was dedicated to the
Queen. It contains eulogistic Latin verses by
Richard Mulcaster and Ferdinando Richardson,
an anonymous Latin poem ' De Anglorum Mu-
bica,' a short Latin poem by the composers,^ and
an epitome of their patent. In 1578 he was
living at Harlington in Middlesex. The parish
records prove that he had a house here as late
ns 1588, and he probably remained here until
his removal to Stondon, in Essex. A glimpse
of Byrd is obtained in 1579 in a recently dis-
covered letter preserved in the British Museum
(Lansd. 29, No. 38) from the Earl of Northumber-
land to Lord Burghley, which runs as follows :
' My dere good lorJe I amme ernestly required
to be a suiter to your l[ordship] for this berer,
M"". berde, that your l[ord,shi j) wyll have hime
in remebrance wh your fauer towardes hime
seinge he caue not inioye that wyche was his
firste sutte [suit] and granted vnto hime. I aiTie
the more importenat to your l[ordship] for that
he is my frend and chefifly that he is scollemaster
to my daughter in his artte. The mane is
honeste and one whome I knowe your l[ordship]
maycoiliande.' Theletter isdatedFeb. 28, 1579,
and endorsed ' Bird of y^ Chappell,' but what the
suit is to which it refers is not known. About
1579 Byrd wrote a three-part song for Thomas
Legge's Latin play 'Richardus III.' This was
a]iparently his only composition for the stage.
On the death of Tallis in 1585 the benefit of the
juonopoly in music-printing became the sole pro-
perty of Byrd, who during the next few years
was unusually active in composition. In 1588
he published 'Psalmes, Sonets, and Songs of
Sadnes and Pietie, made into Musicke of fiue
parts : whereof, some of them going abroade
among vntrue coppies, are heere truely
con-ected, and th' other being Songs very rare
and newly composed, are heere published, for

1 See vol. It. p. 53 a.


the recreation of all such as delight in Musickjt
This work was published by Thomas Easte, ' t
assigne of W. Byrd,' in 1588. In Rimbaul
untrustworthy Bibliotheca Madrigaliana an u
dated edition is mentioned, which may be t
same as one mentioned in the Stationers' Reg
ter as being in print on Nov. 6, 1687. T,
' Songs of Sadnes ' are dedicated to Sir Chrisi
pher Hatton : prefixed are the following quai
' Reasons briefely set downe by th' auctor,
perswade euery one to learne to sing ' : —

First, it is a knowledge easely taught, and quid
learned, where there is a good Master, and an

2. Tlie exercise of singing is delightfull to Natu
and good to preserue the health of Man.

3. It doth strengthen, all parts of the brest, and do
open the pipes.

4. It is a singuler good remedie for a stutting a:
stamering in the speech.

5. It is tlie best meanes to procure a perfect pronuni
ation, and to make a good Orator.

6. It is the onely way to know where Nature ha
bestowed the benefit of a good voyce • which guilt is
rare, aa there is not one among a thousand, that ha
it: and in many, that excellent guilt is lost, becau
they want Art to expresse Nature.

7. There is not any Musicke of Instruments whatt
euer, comparable to that which is made of the voyc
of Men, where the voices are good, and the same Wi
sorted and ordered.

8. The better the voyce is, the meeter it is to hone
and seme (iod therewith : and the voyce of man
chiefely to be imployed to that ende.

Since singing is so pood a thing,

1 wish all men would learne to singe.

At the end of 1588 Byrd contributed tv
madrigals to the first book of Nicholas Yongf
' Musica Transalpina,' and in the following ye;
published two more works. The first of thes
' Songs of Sundrie Natures, some of grauitie, ar
others of mirth, fit for all companies and voyces
was dedicated to Sir Henry Gary, LordHunsdo
and was published by Thomas Easte ; a secoi
edition was issued by Easte's widow, Lucretia,
1610. The second, ' Liber Primus Sacrarum Gai
tionum quinque vocum,' was dedicated to tl
Earl of Worcester. It was published by Eas
on Oct. 25. In 1590 Byrd contributed tv
settings of 'This sweet and merry month <
May ' to Thomas Watson's ' First Sett of Italia
Madrigalls Englished,' and on Nov. 4, 1591, 1
published the ' Liber Secundus Sacrarum Cai
tionum,' dedicated to Lord Lumley. Durin
this period of his life Byrd wrote a very larg
amount of music for the virginals, many mam
script collections of which are still extant. Or
of the most important of these is the volume
transcribed for the use of Lady Nevill by Joh
Baldwin of Windsor, which consists entirely (
Byrd's compositions. This manuscript wa
finished in 1591, and furnishes evidence of th
repute which the composer enjoyed at this tim(
Baldwin quaintly writing against Byrd's name a
the end of the 1 7th piece, ' Mr. W. Birde. Horn
memorabilis.' The great esteem in which he wa
held as a musician must have been the reaso:
why he continued, though a Gatholic, to hold hi
appointment in the Chapel Royal, where for som
time he had acted as organist. Probably prio
to the year 1598 he had obtained from the crow)

2 See vol. iT. D. 310 a.


I lease for three lives of Stondon Place, an estate
n Essex, which had been sequestrated from one
William Shelley, who was committed to the
Fleet for taking part in an alleged Popish plot.
Shelley died about 1601, and in 1604 his heir
Daid a large sum of money for the restoration of
ais lands, whereupon his widow attempted to
regain possession of Stondon, which formed part
jf her jointure. But Byrd was still under the
orotection of the Court, and James I. ordered
Mrs. Shelley to allow him to enjoy quiet posses-
sion of the property. In spite of this, on Oct. 27,
1608, Mrs. Shelley presented a petition to the
Earl of Salisbury, praying for the restoration of
Stondon, and setting forth eight grievances
igainst the composer. From these it seems that
Byrd went to law in order to compel her to ratify
the crown lease, but being unsuccessful he
ombined with the individuals who held her
jther jointure lands to enter into litigation with
her, and when all these disputes had been set-
tled, and finally ' one Petiver ' submitted, ' the
said Bird did give him vile and bitter words,'
and when told that he had no right to the pro-
perty, declared ' that yf he could not hould it by
right, he would holde it by might ' ; that he had
cut down much timber, and for six years had
paid no rent. Probably Mrs, Shelley died soon
after this, for both Byrd's son and grandson re-
tained possession of the estate. This glimpse of
the composer's private life does not present him
in a very amiable character, but the most curious
part of the matter is that while he was actually
in the possession, under a crown lease, of lands
confiscated from a Catholic recusant, and also
held an appointment in the Protestant Chapel
Royal, both he and his family were undoubtedly
Catholics, and as such were not only regularly
presented in the Archidiaconal Court of Essex
Irom 1605 to 1612, and probably later, but since
the year 1598 had been excommunicated by the
same ecclesiastical body. A modus vivendi un-
der these circumstances must have been rather
difficult, and Byrd can only have remained secure
from more serious consequences by the protection
jf powerful friends. To this he evidently alludes
in the dedication to the Earl of Northampton of
the first book of his ' Gradualia,' in which he says,
' Te habui ... in afflictis familise meae rebus benig-
nissimum patronum.' In 1600 gome of Byrd's
virginal music was published in ' Parthenia.'

Morley, in his 'Introduction' (ed. 1597, p-
115), mentions how Byrd, ' never without rever-
ence to be named of the musicians,' and Alfonso
Ferabosco the elder, had a friendly contention,
each setting a plainsong forty different ways.
It was no doubt this work which was pub-
lished on Oct. 15, 1603, by Easte, under the
following title : ' Medulla Musicke. Sucked out
of the sappe of Two [of] the most famous Musi-
tians that euer were in this land, namely Master
Wylliam Byrd . . . and Master Alfonso Fera-
bosco . . . either of whom having made 40*'®
severall waies (without contention), shewing
most rare and intricate skill in 2 partes in one
vpon the playne songe " Miserere." The which



at the request of a friend is most plainly sett in
severall distinct partes to be sunge (with moore
ease and vnderstanding of the lesse skilfull), by
Master Thomas Robinson, etc' Unfortunately
no copy of this work is known to be extant, and
the existence of it vras only revealed by the pub-
lication of the entry in the Stationers' Registers.
In 1607 appeared the first and second books of
the 'Gradualia,' a complete collection of motets
for the ecclesiastical year of the Catholic Church,
including (in the first book) a setting for three
voices of the words allotted to the crowd in the
Passion according to St. John. The first book is
dedicated to the Earl of Northampton ; the
second to Lord Petre. A second edition of both
books appeared in 1610. In 1611 was issued
'Psalmes, Songs, and Sonnets: some solemne,
others joyfull, framed to the life of the Words :
Fit for Voyces or Viols, etc' This was dedi-
cated to the Earl of Cumberland, and contains
a quaint address ' to all true louers of Musicke,'
in which, after commending ' these my last
labours,' he proceeds : ' Onely this I desire ; that
you will be but as carefull to heare them well
expressed, as I haue beene both in the Com-
posing and correcting of them. Otherwise the
best Song that euer was made will seeme harsh
and vnpleasant, for that the well expressing of
them, either by Voyces, or Instruments, is the
life of our labours, which is seldome or neuer
well performed at the first singing or playing.
Besides a song that is well and artificially made
cannot be well perceiued nor vnderstood at the
first hearing, but the oftner you shall heare it,
the better cause of liking you will discouer : and
commonly that Song is best esteemed with
which our eares are best acquainted.' In 1614
Byrd contributed four anthems to Sir William
Leighton's ' Teares or Lamentacions of a Sorrow-
full Soule.' These were his last published com-
position. He died, probably at Stondon, on
July 4, 1623, his death being recorded in the
Chapel Royal Cheque Book as that of a ' Father
of Musicke,' a title which refers both to his great
age and to the veneration with which he was
regarded by his contemporaries. In addition to
the works of Byrd's which have been already
mentioned, he wrote three masses for 3, 4, and
5 voices respectively. These were all printed,
but copies of the first and second have disap-
peared, and only a single copy of the third ' is
known to exist. Printed copies of the two first
can be traced down to the sale of Bartleman's
Library in 1822, since when they have vanished,
though the mass for three voices is fortunately
preserved in MS. copies in Immyns's handwriting
recently found in the British Museum^ and
Fitzwilliam Libraries. It has always been

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