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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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assumed that Byrd's masses must have been
written during the reign of Queen Mary, when
he was a boy, but the fact that he remained
all his life a Catholic and continued to com-
pose music for the Catholic ritual renders the
assumption extremely improbable, especially
since the two extant masses themselves show

1 British Museum, K. 2, A. 9.

a Add MS. 29, 382-5.



no trace of boyish immaturity, but rather
belong to the composer's best works. They
were probably printed (without title-pages)
in 15S8: the type of the mass for five voices
being tliat which Easte used when he began to
print music as Byrd's assignee in this year.
The initial-letters are the same as those used in
Yonge's Musica Transalpina (158S). Byrd's
arms (Visitation of Essex, Harl. Soc. vol. xiii.)
were ' three stags' heads cabossed, a canton
ermine.' He had five children : — (i ) Christopher,
who married Catherine, daughter of Thomas
Moore, of Bamborough, Yorkshire, and bad a
son named Thomas, who was living at Stondon
Place in 1634; (2) Thomas, a musician, who
acted as deputy to John Bull at Gresham Col-
lege — in 1634 he was living in Drury Lane;
(3) Elizabeth, who married first, John Jackson,


and second, — Burdett; (4) Rachel, whomarrie'
Edward Biggs; and (5) Mary, who marrici
Thomas Falconbricige.

Many MS. compositions by Byrd are still ex
tant. The British Museum contains the larges
number, including some autographs, but other
are preserved in the collections of Her Majest;
the Queen, the Marquess of Abergavenny, Christ
church (Oxford), Peterhouse (Cambridge), am
the Bodleian, Lambeth Palace and FitzwiUian
Museum Libraries.

In conclusion, it may be mentioned that th'
statement that Byrd and members of his famil
lived 'at the end of the i6th century' in th<
parish of St. Helen's, Bishopgate, is inaccurate
The Byrds who lived there belonged to anothei
familj', and were probably not even relatives oi
the composer's. [W.B.S.]



CP. 289 a, 6-7 lines from bottom, for the
lino on which the clef mark stands, read
the line enclosed by the horizontal lines in
the clef mark.

CABEL, Mme. Correct the existing article
by the following : — Her name was properly
Cabu ; she studied at the Conservatoire in 1 848-9,
and in the latter year made her d^but at the
Op^ra Comique, with little effect, in ' Val d'An-
dorre ' and ' Les Mousquetaires de la Reine.'
She was next engaged at Brussels for three years,
and obtained a great success. After perform-
ances at Lyons and Strassburg she was engaged
at the Lyrique, Paris, for tbree years, and made
her first appearance Oct. 6, '53, as Toinon, on
production of ' Le Bijou Perdu ' (Adam). She
also appeared in new operas, viz. 'La Promise '
(Clapisson), Mar. 16, '54, and 'Jaguarita I'ln-
dienne' (Halevy), May 14, '55. In 1854 she
came to England with the Lyrique company.
She first appeared on June 7 in 'Le Bijou,'
and made a great success in the ' Promise,'
'Fille du Regiment,' and 'Sirfene,' in spite
of the inferior support given by the above com-
pany. On Feb. 23, '56, she reappeared at the
Opera Comique on the production of ' Manon
Lescaut' (Auber), and remained there until
1 86 1, her best new parts being Catherine,^ on the
revival of 'L'^toile du Nord'; and April 4, '59,
as Dinorah on tlie production of ' Le Pardon de
Ploermel.' In i860 she played the Figlia, etc.,
as described in vol. i., renewed her successes
in revivals of 'Le Bijou,' ' Jaguarita,' and ap-
peared as Feline on the production of 'La Chatte
merveilleuse ' (Grisar), March 18, '62. In 1861
she was again at the Lyrique, and on March
21) '63, played in 'Cos! fan Tutte,' with a new
libretto adapted to ' Love's Labour's Lost.' From
1865-70 she was again at the Opera Comique,

1 Mme. Vandenhenvel, then Caroline Duprez, daughter of the
tenor, was the heroine on its production, not Mme, Cabel, as stated
in vol. i.

and among her new parts were Philine in
' Mignon,' Nov. 17, '66, and H^lene, ' Le Pre-
mier Jour de Bonheur,' Feb. 15, '68. In '71 she
sang at the New Philharmonic and other con
certs, and in' 7 2 sang in French opera at theOp^ra
Comique, London, in the ' Fille du Regiment,'
' L'Ambassadrice,' and ' Galathee,' and was well
received, though the company was bad, and the
theatre much too small for important opera. She
played in the French provinces until i877j but
in '78 was struck with paralysis, from which she
never wholly recovered. She died at Maisons
Laflatte, May 23, '85.

A brother-in-law (or son) of hers, Edouaed, waa
a singer at the Opera Comique and the Lyrique,
and sang the song of Hylas in ' Les Troyens k
Carthage.' See Berlioz' Memoirs. His song
was well received, but it was nevertheless cut
out, in order that Carvalho should not have to
pay him extra salary. [A.C.]

CABINET PIANO. Line 13 of article, /or
Lond read Loud. (Corrected in late editions.)
The improvement described in the next following
sentence was due to Isaac Hawkins, not to Loud.

CADENZA. P. 294 a, 1. 27, for Fjf read
Fjp minor.

CECILIA. Line 7 from end of article, /or
1834 ''<^«f^ 1S36.

G^ECILIAN SOCIETY. P. 295 a, 1. 6 from
bottom, for a few read nearly thirty.

C^SAR, Julius. Add that he was probably
the same Julius Caesar who was a son of Joseph
Csesar, and a grandson of Dr. Gerard Ceesar of
Canterbury, and who died at Strood on Apr. 29,
1712, aged 65.

CAFARO, Pasquale. Line 3 of article,/or
in 1708, read Feb. 8, 1706. Line 12, add day of
death, Oct. 23.

CAGNONI, Antonio, born Feb. 8, 1828, at
Godiasco, in the district of Voghera, entered the


Milan Conservatorio in 1842, remaining tliere
until 1847. Two operas of small calibre were per-
formed in the theatre connected with the establish-
ment, but his first essay before the public was with
' Don Bucelalo,' given at the Teatro Rfe in Milan
in 1847. This opera buffa, although it has kept
the stage in Italy, has never attained success
outside its own country ; it was given at the
Italiens in Paris, but very coldly received. His
successive operas have not been received with
uniform favour, though several, especially among
his later works, have been attended by good
fortune. Between 1856 and 1863 he held the
post of maestro di capella at Vigevano, and
while there devoted himself entirely to religious
music. The following is a complete list of his
operas: — ' Kosalia di San Miniato ' (1845);
'I due Savojardi' (1846); 'Don Bucefalo '
(1847); 'II Testamento di Figaro' (1848);
•Amori e Trappole' (1850); 'LaValle d'An-
dorra' (1S54) ; ' Giralda' (1852) ; * La Fioraja'
(1855); 'La Figlia di don Laborio' (1856);
' II Vecchio della Montagna ' (1863) ; ' Michele
Perrin' (1864); 'Claudia' (1866); 'La Tom-
bola' (1869) ; ' Un Capriccio di Donna' (1870) ;
'Papa Martin' (1871), produced by Carl Rosa
at the Lyceum in 1875 as 'The Porter of
Havre'; 'II Duca di Tapigliano' (1874);
' Francesca da Rimini' (1878). In that year
he retired to Novara, where he became maestro
di cappella in the cathedral, and director of the
Istituto musicale. He has since produced nothing
but sacred music. Two motets, ' Inveni David'
and 'Ave Maria,' were published in 1SS6. In
February of that year Cagnoni was made a com-
mander of the order of the Corona, He is at
present (1886) maestro di cappella at Santa
Maria Maggiore in Bergamo. [M.]

CALAH, John. Add that in 1 781-1785 he
was organist of the parish church and master of
the Song-school at Newark-upon-Trent. Correct
the date of his death to Aug. 5.

CALASCIONE. Last line but one of article,
for Cola read Colas.

CALDARA. Line 9 of article, correct date
of death to Aug. 28, 1763, on the authority of
Paloschi and Riemann.

CALLCOTT, John Wall. Add that in 1780
he wrote music for a play performed at Mr.
Young's school. P. 298 a, 1. i^,for In the latter
year read! About 1782; andaddthab he occasion-
ally played the oboe in the orchestra of the
Academy of Ancient Music. P, 2986, 1. 27,
for 1 801 read 1795 ; and add that the band was
formed, as stated, in the former year. Line 41,
for appointed to succeed Dr. Crotch as lecturer
on music, read appointed in 1807 to lecture on
German music ; and compare Ckotch in vol. i.
I and in Appendix. For date of death read May
23, and add that it took place at Bristol, though
he was buried at Kensington. (Diet, of Nat.
Biog.) Add the dates of William Hutchins
Callcott, 1807 — Aug. 4, 1S82.

CALVARY. The performance at the Norwich
Festival was not the first, as the work had been


given in the Hanover Square Rooms by the
Vocal Society, under Mr. Edward Taylor, March
27, 1837. [G-]

CAMBERT, Robert. Omit the words Some-
times called Lambert. Line 12 of article, add
date of production of ' La Pastorale ' April, 1659.
Line 14,/br in read on June 28. Line 19, add
day of production of 'Pomone,' March 19.

CAMBINI. Add day of birth, Feb. 13.

quent application in our own country of the
principle of Caeillons is in the short musical
phrases which are used to mark the divisions of
the hour. Among these the quarter-chimes of
Cambridge or Westminster, and those of Don-
caster have become most famous. There is an
interesting account of the origin of the Cam-
bridge or Westminster chimes. It is said that
Dr. Jowett, Regius Professor of Law, was con-
sulted by the University authorities on the
subject of chimes for the clock of St. Mary's,
Cambridge, and that he took a pupil of the
Regius Professor of Music into his confidence.
The pupil, who was no other than the afterwards
famous Dr. Crotch, took the fifth bar of the
opening symphony of Handel's ' I know that my
Redeemer liveth,' and expanded it into the
musical chime, which is as follows : —


First quarter.

Second quarter.

P m


-•— P-



Third quarter.


I I * ■ - ^-1 ' I

-#-• — U

Fourth quarter.


::;^ g^(_.-{ ; - P— l-[H,-P- |!!qirq :P -> F 1 1 I f E=f =iiw=[i

The old * Whittington ' chimes, famous at one
time in London

have apparently become old-fashioned and out
of date.

The chimes of the Royal Exchange (London)
present the Cambridge arrangement ; but with
this diS'erence, that bar 2 of the second quarter,
and bar 2 of the third quarter, are transposed.
It is generally considered that the old arrange-
ment is best.

The Doncaster and Fredericton chimes are
arranged to come in upon a set or ring of eight
bells, whereas the Cambridge or Royal Ex-
change chimes need a set or part of a set of ten
bells, and as so many churches have an octave
of ringing bells the Doncaster arrangement has
many advantages for the more general adoption,
being arranged thus —

First quarter. Second quarter.






Third quarter.


r<h— J— T— H-


-» J J 1

^— ^i - ^

'"- •



the fourth quarter being made up of the second
quarter and the first two bars of the third
quarter chimes. [S.B.G.]

CAMIDGE. Line i of article, ^or about read
in. Add that John Caniidge received his early
education from Nares, and that he afterwards
went to London, where he studied under Dr.
Greene and took some lessons from Handel.
Line 4, for until his death April 25, read until
Nov. II, 1799. He died April 25. Line ^,for
forty-seven read forty-two. Line 'j, for 1764
read 1758. Line g,for death read resignation;
and 1. 10, for 1803 read 1799. Line 14, /or he
died, etc., read He resigned Oct. 8, 1842, and
died, etc. Line 1^, for 80 read 86. Add date
of birth of his son John, 1790. Line 20, for the
death of his father in i^^^^read the resignation
of his father in 1842. Bottom line, for the
sentence heginning Early in 1859 read In Nov.
1848 he became paralysed while playing even-
ing service, and never recovered sufficientlj' to
undertake the duty again. He died Sept. 21, 1859.
(Diet, of Nat. Biog.)

CAMPANA, FabIo, bom 1S15, at Bologna,
and received his musical education there at the
Liceo. In early life he produced several operas
with more or less ill-success, according to Ft^tis,
viz. ' Gaterina di Guise,' Leghorn, 1S38 ; another
(name not given by Fetis), at Venice, 1S41 ;
'Jannina d'Ornano,' Florence, '42; ' Luisa di
Francia,' Rome, '44; and * Giulio d'Este,' at
Milan, in or about '50. He then settled in
London, where he was well known as a teacher
of singing, and a composer, principally of Italian
songs, some of which were successful. He com-
posed two other opei'as, viz. ' Almina,' pi'oduced
at Her Majesty's, April 26, '60, with Piccolo-
mini [.see PiccoiiOsriNi] , and ' Esmeralda,' pro-
duced at St. Petersburg, Dec. 2C, '69, and at
Covent Garden Theatre, June 14, '70, with Patti
as heroine, afterwards produced through her in-
strumentality at Homburg, in '72. Signer Cara-
pana died in London, Feb. 2, 1SS2. [A.C.]

CAMPANINI, Italo, born June 29, 1846, at
Parma, received instruction in singing there at
the Conservatorio, and later from Lamperti of
Milan. He first attracted public attention in

187 1, on the production in Italy of 'Lohengrin'
at Bologna under Angelo Mariani. On JNIay 4,

1872, he first appeared in England at Drury
Lane as Gennaro in ' Lucrezia,' with such
success that hopes were entertained that a suc-
cessor of Mario and Giuglini had been found.
From that time until '82, he sang every year in
opera both there and (from 1887) at Her Ma-
jesty's. He did not fulfil his early promise, but he
still obtained considerable popularity as a hard-
working and extremely zealous artist. In addition
to the usual repertory for tenors, he played Ken-
neth on the production ofBalfe's'Talismano,' June
II, 1874; Don Jos^ on the production of 'Car-
men,' J une 22, '78; Rhadames (' Aida') first time


at Her Majesty's, June 19, '79, and Faust on
production in England of Boito's ' Mefistofele,'
July 6, '80. He had played the same part
Oct. 4. '75 on the occasion of the successful re-
production of that opera at Bologna. He sang
also at St. Petersburg, Moscow, and later in
America under Mapleson with great effect. We
believe he has now retired from public life. He
was present at the production of ' Otello' at Milan
as correspondent for an American paper. [A.C.]

CAMPANOLOGY. Refer to Cambeidgb
Quarters, Chimes, in Appendix.

CAMPBELL, Alexander. Add that he was
born in 1764 at Tombea, Loch Lubnaig, and that
he and his brother John were pupils of Tenducci,
Not long after the publication of his songs, he
abandoned music and took to medicine, but
subsequently fell into great poverty, and died
May 15, 1824. (Di-ct. of Nat. Biog.)

CAMPENHOUT, FBAN901S van. Correct
date of birth to Feb. 5, 1779, and add day of
death, April 24.

CAMPION. Add that he published his
' Poemata ' in 1595. Line 8 of article, /or Hayes
read Hay. Line 11, the date of publication of
the first two books is probably 1613, as the
second contains a song apparently lamenting the
death of Prince Henry. Line 16, Books 3 and
4 should probably be dated 161 7, as they are
dedicated to Sir Thomas Monson, who was im-
plicated in the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury,
and pardoned Feb. 22, 1617. Campion alludes to
' the clouds that lately overcast ' Monson's ' for-
tune being disperst.' The lines to his patron's
son, John Monson, also show that the publication
must have been about this year. [W.B.S.]

CAINIPORESE. For the last line of article
read She died at Rome, 1S39.

CAMERA, Andre, born Dec. 4, 1660, at
Aix, in Provence, and educated in music by
G. Poitevin. He gave little promise of distinc-
tion until his sixteenth year, when his talent
made a sudden stride; and a motet, 'Deuff-
noster refugium et virtus,' then composed by
him, was so full of scholarly and contrai)untal
writing, that his master predicted his future
eminence. As early as 1679, Campra was
selected to fill the place of maitre de musique
in the cathedral of Toulon, where he remained
until his removal to Paris in 1694. His first
post there was the directorship of the music
at the church of the College of the Jesuits ;
and from this he was soon promoted to the
directorship at Notre Dame. His reputation as
a composer would appear to have been already
established, for we are told that crowds went to
hear his motets at great church festivals ; but
while thus employed, Campra was also study-
ing the diamatic works of Lully and Cambert,
and discovering where his own special talent lay.
In 1697 he produced his first opera, ' L'Europe
galante,' and this was followed in 1699 by an
operatic ballet called 'Le Carnaval de Venise,'
but both these compositions appeared in his



rother's name.^ He was deterred from pub-
shing them in his own name by fear cf losing
is valuable ecclesiastical appointment. In 1 700,
owever, he decided to abandon the church for
le stage. Indeed he may have been constrained
) do so, because we learn from a popular rhyme
f the day —

Qtiand notre archeveqne saura

I'auteur du nouvel opera

M. Gampra decampera.


lat the true authorship of his operas had ceased
) be a secret. ' Hesione,' the first opera pro-
uced under his own name, appeared in 1700;
nd thenceforth for forty years his works held
le stage with ever-growing popularity. His
ist opera, 'Les Noces de V^nus,' came out in
740. Honours and emoluments were freely
estowed on him: by a patent dated Dec. 15,
718, the King granted hiin a pension of 500
vres, ' in recognition of his merits as a dra-
latic composer, and as an incentive to con-
inued composition for the Academic Eoyale de
lusique.' In 1722 he was given the title of
omposer and director of Music to the Prince
e Conti, and in the same year he was nomi-
ated maitre de chapeUe to the King, as well
s director of the pages at the Chapelle Eoyale.
^his last appointment he held until his death
t Versailles on June 29, 1744.

Campra's historic place in the French opera
?as between two composers whose eminence
ranscended his own ; he followed Lully and
receded Eameau,^ but his inferiority to them
hould not make us overlook his marked supe-
iority to his own contemporaries, such as Co-
vsse and Destouchea. Indeed Campra's operas
re the only ones besides those of Lully which
ept their place on the stage during the first
alf of the 18 th century. In the opera of
Tancrede,' Campra rises to a very high level ;

is a work full of warmth and life and genuine
seling, which was popular from its first appear-
nce in 1702 until its last performance in 1764.^
.till it must be owned that Campra failed to
ontribute to the progressive development of the
fi'rench opera, and his failure may be ascribed
a part to want of originality, but even more to
.n excessive deference to the taste and fancies
f the public. It was a time when the so-called
pectacles coupes — i.e. performances in one even-
ig of favourite acts or scenes from different
peras — were in special vogue, and to Antoine
)anchet, the librettist of 'He'sione' and several
ther operas of Campra's, is assigned the dubious
istinction of having popularised this fragmen-
ary kind of dramatic representation. Campra
limself, with his ' L'Europe galante,' was one
f the first composers to enter upon this debased
ath of art ; and as a perfect type of his work
a this category, we may mention the operatic

1 Joseph Campra, a double-bass plajer at the Opera in 1699. Ha
iceived a pension in 17-27, and was still living in 17*4.

2 For Campra's high appreciation of Eameau. see vol. iii. 70 b.

3 This opera partly owed its great success to the circumstance that
le heroine (Cloriude) was taken by a contralto (Mdlle. llaupin) for
le first time since the foundation of the French opera.


ballet called *Les Fetes V^nitiennes,' which has
been described as a lyrical kaleidoscope.

Fetis giv^es the following list of his works : —

'L'Europe Galante.' 1697 (with some pieces by Destouches) ; 'Car-
naval de Venise," 1699 ; ' Hesione,' 1700 ; 'Arethusa,' 1701; 'Frag-
ments de LuUi.' Sept. 1702 ; • Tancrede," Nov. 1702 ; • Les Muses.' 17U3 ;
'Iphigenie en Tauride.'May 1704 (with Desmarets) ; 'T^lemaque.'
Nov. 1704; 'Aline,' 1705; ' Le Triomphe de I'Amour,' Sept. 1705;
'Hippodamie,'1708; 'Les Fetes V^nitiennes,' 1710; an act of ' Laura
et Petrarque,' Dec. 1711 ; 'Idomenfe, 1712 ; ' Les Amours de Mars et
de V6nus,' 1712 ; ' T(51^phe.* 1713 ; ' Camille,' 1717 : • Les Arcs.' 1718 ;
' Achille et D^idamie,' 1735 ; several acts of ' Sil6ne et Bacchus,' Oct.

Besides these works, Campra wrote also : —

' V^nus,' 1698 ; ' Le destin du nouveau Si^cle,' a divertissement for the
year 1700 ; ' Les Fetes de Corinthe,' 1717 ; ' La Fete de I'ile Adam.*
divertissement for the Court, 1722 ; ' Les Muses rassemblues par
I'Amour,' 1723 ; 'Le G^nie de la Bourgogiie,' divertissement for the
Court, 1732; 'Les Noces de Venus,' a score written in 1710, at the

as well as three books of cantatas, and five books
of motets. The once celebrated air ' La Furstem-
berg' was also by him.

In the preface to his ' Cantates Fran9oises '
(dated 1 708) Campra states that he has attempted
to combine the characteristics of the French and
Italian schools, and the attention paid by him to
the latter school is clearly indicated by the use of
the orchestra and the more expressive treatment
of the words, especially in the later collections,
dated respectively 17 14 and 1718. In his
motets* he paid special heed to the solo voice,
and emancipated it from the mere declamatory
phrases so prevalent in Lully's time. It is note-
worthy also that Campra was the first composer
who obtained permission to use other instru-
ments besides the organ in church music ; and
his indications of the difi'erent instruments em-
ployed give proof of his acquaintance with them,
although his study of orchestral colouring may
have been very slight.^ Among the more beau-
tiful of his motets is the last of the 3rd book :
its brilliant and effective passages for the solo
voice, and expression marks, such as affettuoso,
etc., are tokens of its thoroughly Italian charac-
ter. These works furnish us with the best
criterion of Campra's merits as a cultivated
musician, although his operas chiefly established
his popular fame.

(See also A. Pougin's study of Campra and
his works, which appeared in the Menestrel,
Series 47, Ko. 15.) [A.H.W.]

CANTABILE. See vol. i. p. 426.

CANTATA. P. 305 a, 1. 3-4 from bottom.
The number of cantatas published by the Each-
Gesellschaft up to the present year (1888) is 170.
See Bach-Gesellschaft and Kibchencantatek
in Appendix.

in three acts ; written by Gilbert k Beckett,
music by C. Villiers Stanford. Composed for,
and produced by, the Carl Eosa company,
Drury Lane, April 28, 1884. [M.]

< Campra's five books of motets did not appear first in 1706 (Fetis),
nor in 1699 (Pougin). for Dr. W. Langhaus says he is in possession
of a second edition dated 1699. They are dedicated to the Abbe of
St. Sever de la Grange Trianon.

5 In the motet on the l'26th Psalm, i grand Chceur, there is a group
of two oboes and bassoon used for strengthening the accompaniment.
and alsf for short solos ; but written on the title-page is the remark
'ou dejUles d' AUemagne'



CANTILENA — etj'mologically, a little song.
This term was formerly applied to the upper
or solo part of a madrigal ; also to a small
cantata or any short piece for one voice. At
the present time the term is employed in in-
strumental music to denote a flowing melodious
phrase of a vocal character ; or, to indicate the
smooth rendering of slow expressive passages.
It is also sometimes used as a substitute for
Cantabile. [A.H.W.]

CANTIONES SACR^. The name given to
several collections of Latin motets published in
London between 1575 and 1610. They comprise
the following : — ' Cantiones quae ab argumento
sacrse vocautur, quinque et sex partium,' by
Tallis and Byrd, 1575 [see Tallts, Thomas];
and the following by Byrd alone : — ' Liber Pri-
mus Sacrarum Cantionum Quinque Vocum,'
1589 (reprinted in score by the Musical Anti-
quarian Society, 1842) ; 'Liber Secundus Sacra-
rum Cantionum Quinque Vocum,' 1591 ; 'Gra-
dualia, ac Cantiones Sacra quinis,quaternis,trinis
vocibus concinnatse. Liber Primus,' and the same,
' Liber Secundus,' 1607. See Bybd in Appen-
dix. [W.H.H.]

CANTOR (Mediasval Lat. Primicerius ; Eng.
Precentor, Chanter; Fr. Cliantre, Grand

I. A title given, in Cathedral and Collegiate

Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 136 of 194)