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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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Churches, to the leader of the singing. In Eng-
lish Cathedrals, the Precentor is usually second
only in dignity to the Dean ; the Precentor of
Sarum claiming still higher rank, as representing
the entire Province of Canterbury — an honour
which has long existed only in name. His seat
is the first return-stall, on the north side of the
Choir, facing the Altar; for which reason the
north side is called Cantoris, or the Chanter's
side. In some few Cathedrals in this country,
the familiar term, Chanter, is still retained ; and
the Succentor is called the Sub-Chanter. The
Latinised form, Cantor, is always used in Ger-
many ; but, in France, Chantre is frequently
exchanged for Maitre de Chapelle.

The duty of the Precentor is, to intone the
Psalms and Canticles — at least, where Gregorian
Services are used ; to exercise a general super-
vision over the singing ; to select the music ; and,
to take care that it is properly performed. It is
from the first of these functions that he derives
his title ; but, in consequence of the high rank
attached to the preferment, it is generally given
to a beneficed Clergyman who performs its
duties by deputy.

II. A name given to the Principal of a Col-
lege of Church Music.

We hear of the foimdation of such a College,
in Rome, as early as t!;e 4th century ; but it
was not until the Pontificate of S. Gregory the
Great (590-604) that the Roman Schols Can-
torum began to exercise any very serious influ-
ence upon the development of Church Music.
A sketch of their subsequent history will be
found in vol. iii. p. 519. Charlemagne founded
Singing Schools in many parts of his dominions ;


and watched over them with paternal can
Every such School was governed by its ow
special Primicerius, or Cantor ; and, as the cui
riculum was not confined to singing, but con
prised a complete course of instruction in musii
the influence of a learned Cantor was very grea
In later times the number of these institutior
increased rapidly ; and many of the old founc
ations still flourish. The French MaItrise
were excellent in principle; but, as time pre
gressed, they admitted the ssecular element, an
their Chantres developed into true INIaitres d
Chapelle. One of the oldest and most importac
foundations in Germany was that at the Abbe
of Fulda, But the Cantors who have exercise
the strongest influence on modern Art are thos
of the Thomas-Schule at Leipzig. [See vol. i
p. 115 a, and Leipzig in Appendix.] [W.S.R

CANTUS FICTUS. See Mdsica Ficta.

CAPOUL, Joseph Victor Amedee, bor j
Feb. 27, 1S39, at Toulouse, entered the Pari L
Conservatoire in '59, studied singing there unde |
Revial, and comic opera under Mocker, and i
'6 1 gained the first prize in the latter class.
Aug. 26 of the last-named j-ear he made hi
debut at the Opera Comique as Daniel in ' L
Chalet ' (Adam), and next played Tonio in ' L
Fille du Regiment.' He became a great favouritP,
there, being good looking, with a pleasant teno
voice, somewhat spoiled by the ' vibrato ' ; h
was a good actor in both serious and light parts
and was considered by the Parisians as the sue
cessor to Roger, though never the equal of tha
famous artist. He remained at that theatr
until '70. Among his best parts may be men
tioned Georges Brown (' La Dame Blanche ')
Mergy (' Pre aux Clercs '), Raphael D'Estunigi
(' La Part du Diable '), Fra Diavolo, etc., am
of those he created, Eustache in 'Les Absents
(Poise), Oct. 26, '64 ; Horace in ' La Colombe
(Gounod), June 7, '66 ; the tenor part in * Ls
Grande Tante ' (^lassenet), April 3, '67 ; Gastoi
de Maillepr^ in 'Le Premier Jour de Bonheur
(Auber), Feb. 15, '68 ; the title-part in ' Vert
Vert' (OS"enbach), March 10, '69. In '72-'7:
he sang in Italian opera in Paris (Salle Venta-
dour), in '76 at the 'Theatre Lyrique and Ga'it^,
where on Nov. 15 he played the hero on the sue- 1
cessful production of Mass^'s ' Paul et Virginie,' \
and in '78 he returned to the Salle Ventadour.j
where he playedRomeo on the production, Oct.i2j '=
of ' Les Amants de Verone' (Marquis D'lvry). ^

On June i, 1871, M. Capoul first appeared in '
England at the Italian Opera, Drury Lane, aS ^
Faust, and sang there with success, and also ^*
during the season as El vino and the Duke ia
* Rigdletto.' He appeared at the same theatre
every season until '75, with the exception of '74,
in several characters, being especially good as
Lionel (' Martha'), Wilhelm Meister ('Mignon'),
and Faust. From '77 to '79 he appeared at
Covent Garden with tolerable success, in spite
of great exaggeration and mannerism botli in
singing and acting, and played for the first time
Fra Diavolo, his original characters in the above


eras of Masse and D'lvry, June i, '78, and
ay 24, '79, and Canaoens on the production of
otow's 'Alma I'lncantatrice,' July 9, '78. He
iB also sung in Italian opera in Yienna, and in
merica with Xilsson, where he has also been
5-80 as principal tenor of the French Opera
juffe company. On Dec. 18, '81, he played at
e Renaissance on the production of ' Le Sais '
Ime. Marguerite Olagnier), and on June S, '87,
ok part in the concert given at the Trocadero
r the benefit of the sufferers in the Opera
)mique fire. [A.C.]

CARADORI-ALLAN. Add that she sang
the Ninth Symphony of Beethoven on its
•eduction at the Philharmonic, March 21, 1825.
CARAFA'. Correct date of birth to Nov. 17,
•87. P. 308 b, 1. 6, add date of 'La Violette,'
3t. 182S. Line 21, for a post which he was
ill filling in 1876, read where he died, July
., 1872.

CAREY, Hexby. p. 3095, 1. 19, /or Nov.
ad October. P. 310 a, 1. 5, for date of first
iblication of his poems read 1713. Line 14,
•r 1739-40 read 1737. P. 3106, 1. 6, add
ites of George Savile Carey, 1 743-1807- (Diet.
■ Nat. Piog.)

CARILLON. P. 311a, 1. 34, /or Louvain
15 bells) read Louvain (two carillons of 40
id 41 bells respectively). Correct note below
le same column by adding that Aerschodt
ade the 33 bells for Cattistock Church, the
achinery only being supplied by GiUet and
land. See also Chimes in Appendix.
CARISSIMI. Line 13 of article, /or in read
an. 12.

CARLTON, Rev. Eichabd. Add that he
as at Clare College, Cambridge, and took the
sgree of B.A. in 1577. Soon after his ordin-
tion he obtained an appointment at Norwich
athedral. In Oct. 161 2 he was presented by
homas Thursby to the rectory of Bawsey {sic)
ad Glosthorp. (Diet, of Nat. Biog.)
CARMAN'S WHISTLE. The first line of
le musical example on p. 316 a, is an intro-
uction to the tune proper. In bar 3 of the
rst line, /or G, F, read A, G.
CARMEN. Opera comique in four acts; words
y Meilhac and Halevy (founded on Prosper
leiim^e's story with the same title), music by
eorges Bizet. Produced at the Opera Comique,
'aris, March 3, 1875. In Italian, at Her
lajesty's, June 22, i8'78 [see Hacck, Minnie].
Q English (Carl Rosa) at Her Majesty's, Feb. 5,
879. In French, at the same theatre, Nov. 8,1886
Mme. Galli-Marie in her original part). [M.]
CARNABY, William, Mus. D. Correct day
r death to Nov. 7.

CARNEVAL,^ Scen-es mignonnes sur 4
OTES (,the translation, on the printed copy, of
le autograph heading, 'Fasching. Schwiinke
uf vier Noten f. Pfte von Eusebius'). A set of
I piano pieces written by Schumann in 1834,

1 This is the spelling of the original edition; in his letters Schu-
auu generallf, but not always, writes Carnaval.



and dedicated to Carl Lipinski. Each piece
has its title. The allusions to the Carnival are
obvious — 'Pierrot,' 'Arlequin,' 'Pantalon et
Colombine ' ; but the other subjects of which
Schumann's mind was then full are brought in,
such as 'Chiarina' (Clara Wieck), 'Estrelle'
(Ernestine von Fricken), ' Chopin,' ' Paganini,'
'Papillons'; he himself is depicted under the two
aspects of his mind as ' Florestan ' and ' Euse-
bius,' and the events of a ball are fully deline-
ated in the ' Valse noble ' and ' Valse allemande,'
' Coquette ' and ' Ri^plique,' ' Reconnaissance,'
' Aveu ' and ' Promenade.' The whole winds up
with a 'March of the Davidsbiindler against the
Philistines,' who are represented by the common-
place and domestic ' Grossvatertanz.' [See vol. i.
p. 634.] The arrangement of the pieces, how-
ever, was made, and the title added, afterwards.
Between numbers 8 and 9 are inserted the
' Sphinxes,' or ' Lettres dansantes,' that is, the
4 notes which in Schumann's mind formed the
mystical basis of the whole.^
'So. I. Ko. 2. No. 3.


A.S.C.H. S.C.H.A.
Leitres dansantea.

No. I is to be read as S (Es), C, H, A, the
musical letters in the composer's name ; Nos. 2
and 3 as As, C, H, and A, S, C, H, the letters
forming the name of a town in Bohemia, the
residence of a Baron von Fricken, to whose
daughter Ernestine he was actually engaged at
this time.^

The Cameval was published in 1837. It was
probably first played in England on June 17,
1856, when Mme. Schumann performed 16 of the
21 numbers.

Schumann returned to the Carnival as the
subject of a composition in his ' Faschings-
schwank aus Wien' (op. 26). [G.]

CARNICER. Add days of birth and death,
Oct. 24 and March 17.

CAROL. The history of this word presents a
remarkable parallel to that of the kindred term
Ballad. Both originally implied dancing : both
are now used simply to denote a kind of song.

In old French, Carole signified a peculiar
kind of dance in a ring. This dance gave its
name to the song by which it was accompanied :
and so the word passed, in one or both of these
senses, into most of the languages of Western

In the English of Chaucer carolling is some-
times dancing and sometimes singing. In
modern usage a carol may be defined as a kind
of popular song appropriated to some special
season of the ecclesiastical or natural year.
There are, or were, Welsh summer carols, and
winter carols ; there are also Easter carols ;
but the only species which remains in general
use, and requires a more detailed examination,
is the Christmas carol.

2 These are never played by Mme. SchumanD.

3 Scbumana's Jugeadbriefe, Sept. 5, 1834, note.



Christmas carols then are songs or ballads to
be used during the Christmas season, in reference
to the festival, under one or other of its aspects.
In some it is regarded chiefly as a time of mirth
and feasting ; in others as the commemoration of
our Lord's nativity. In many carols of widely
different dates some one or more of the customary
circumstances or concomitants of the celebration
appear as the main subject of the verse. This
is the case with the oldest known carol written
in England, which exists in the Norman French
language in a manuscript of the 13th century.
(Joshua Sylvester, in ' A Garland of Christmas
Carols,' etc., J.C. Hotten, 1861, states that it was
discovered on a leaf in the middle of one of the
MSS. in the ^British Museum, but as he gives no
reference, its identification is almost impossible.)
This points to an important fact in the history
of the Christmas festival. In Northern Europe
especially the solemnities of the annual celebra-
tion of Christ's birth were grafted upon a great
national holiday-time, which had a religious
significance in the days of paganism ; and this
has left a distinct impression upon Christmas
customs and on Christmas carols. The old
heathen Yule has lent its colouring to the
English Christmas ; and it is largely to this
influence that we must attribute the jovial and
purely festive character of many of the traditional
and best I\nown, as well as of the most ancient
Christmas carols. These carols have not, like
the hymns appropriate to other Christian seasons,
exclusive reference to the events then com-
memorated by the Church, but represent the
feelings of the populace at large, to whom the
actual festivities of the season are of more
interest than the event which they are ostensibly
intended to recall.

At the same time there are many other Christ-
mas carols, ranging from an early period, vvhich
treat entirely of the occasion, the circumstances,
the purpose and the result of the Incarnation.
These differ from hymns chiefly in the free ballad
style of the words and the lighter character of the
melody. Moreover, a large proportion of them
embody various legendary embellishments of
the Gospel narrative, with a number of apocry-
phal incidents connected with the birth and early
years of Jesus Christ. For these they are in all
probability indebted immediately to the Mystery
Plays, which were greatly in vogue and much
frequented at the time from which Christmas
carols trace their descent ; that is, the 1 2th or
1 3th century. Indeed, it seems probable that the
direct source of Christmas carols, as we under-
stand the term, is to be found (as has been
already stated in this Dictionary *) in similar
compositions which were introduced between the
scenes of the Mysteries or Miracle Plays, the
great religious and popular entertainments of the
middle ages. Three such compositions, belong-
ing to one of the Coventry plays," have been
preser^-ed, by accident, apart from the play

1 Vol.1, p. vein.

2 The Paeeant of the Company of Sheremen and Taylors In
Coventry, as performed by them on the festiyal of Corpus Christl,
etc. Coventry, lbl7.


itself, with this note : ' The first and last tl
shepheards singe : and the second or middlemo
the Women singe.' It is easy to see from th
how carols relating to the mysteries of man
redemption might become rooted in the memi
ries and afl^ections of the people. Christm;
carols have also been aflected by the hymns 1
the Church on the one side, and by purely sect
lar songs or ballads on the other. The words (
a very large number, dating from the I5t
century downward, are extant, and have bee
published in such collections as those of Sandy!
Husk, Sylvester, and, most recently, A. E
Bullen ; but the materials for a history (
their musical character are less copious and let
easily accessible. It cannot be doubted that th
style of the tunes was that of the ballad musi
of the period to which they belong : a perio
which extends, so far as concerns existing melc
dies, from the 15th century to the 19th. A:
example of a strictly mediaeval carol tune is t
be found in that of the second of the carols in
troduced into the Coventry play already men
tioned. ' Lully, lulla, y" littell tine childe
which has been published in modern notation b;
Mr. Pauer. Others, in three or four parts,
the time of Henry VII. and Henry VIII. exis
in manuscript.^

In the time of King Henry VII. and later i
was one of the duties of the choir of the Chape
Royal to sing Christmas carols before the sove
reign ; and it may be that this custom gave rise
to the elaborate compositions bearing that name -
of which some specimens are preserved amonf :;
the works of William Byrd. Each of the coUeo
tions numbered 2, 3, and 8 in the list of hii *■•
works given in this Dictionary* contains i *.
Christmas carol, so called. The first, ' Lullar'
lullaby,' is probably the Lullaby referred to bj
the Earl of Worcester in his letter about th«
doings at Queen EHzabeth's court.* The firstfs
strain of the second is here given as a specimen
The third, ' This day Christ is borne,' is headed
' A Carroll for Christmas day,' and is followed bj
' A Carroll for New yeares day.'

A Carowlefor Christmas Day.


■_l , J 1 ^: ^- J E

From Virgin's womb. etc.


From "Vlrgiu's womb, etc.

Virgin's womb, etpC


8 Additional MSS. 5465 and 5665 in the British Museum contain
such tunes.'
4 Vol. i. o. 2W a. 6 Vol. i. p. 237 6.





— =

— 1 — 1

1 ^ 1

L^^-„ J

From 'Virgin's womb





s^gi=r - ^EgE^EgEp|

Virgin's Tvomb.


^ j "^


this day.

this day

did spring.

■ ^ \ fZ )

1 T

-^— ^-


ut these were not carols in the popular
01- for popular use. They exhibit the
J abundance of contrapuntal resources which
inspicuous in Byrd's other compositions ; nor
hey differ, except so far as they may be
;ted by the character of the words, from
r madrigalian music of the Elizabethan era.
y may well be compared, both in regard to
[r structure and their position in the develop-
|.t of vocal music, with the Italian and French
Inples of a similar treatment of this species
bmposition referred to under Noel.^
ihe 'Sacred Hyinnes,' of Byrd's contemporary
|n Amner, published in the year 1615, include
( ' Motects ' for Christmas, each for six voices.
I former, which begins ' yee little flock,
ie faithful shepherds,' is divided into three
1,8 ; the latter, of which the first words are
e, how from heaven like stars the angels
lig,' into two. There is also a carol, ' Upon
I lap my Soveraigne sits,' which approaches
Ie to the character of a part-song, in the
iivate Musicke ' of Martin Pearson, printed
|de year 1620.

leanwhile, no doubt, the older and simpler
jl of Christmas carol held its place among the
br orders of society ; and it reappeared, which
i;e more elaborate and artificial forms of
istmas songs never did, when the pressure of
Puritan ascendancy which prevailed during

3L. rv. PT. 5.

1 Vol. ii. pp. 462 6, 463 a.



the Commonwealth was removed. Both before
and after that period books of carols for Christ-
mas Day and its attendant feasts were printed,
with the names of the tunes to which they were
to be sung. These are in most cases popular
airs of secular character.^ But gradually even
these musical directions disappeared. During
the last century the carol literature was of the
humblest kind. Sheets of words were printed
for the use of itinerant singers ; but if the
strains to which they were to be sung were
committed to paper at all, the possession of them
must have been pretty well confined to parish
clerks and village amateurs. Still they were
handed on by tradition ; and many of them have
now been rescued from oblivion, and may even
now be heard, in a more or less modernized form.

The first person who attempted to fix these
vanishing memories of the past seems to have
been Davies Gilbert, F.R.S., etc., who in the
year 1822 published 'Some Ancient Christmas
Carols with the Tunes to which they were for-
merly sung in the West of England ' ; ' being
desirous,' as he says in his preface, ' of preserv-
ing them in their actual forms ... as specimens
of times now passed away, and of religious
feelings superseded by others of a different cast.'
Another reason he gives for so doing is the
delight they afforded him in his youth, when, as
he seems to imply, they were sung in churches
on Christmas Day, and in private houses on
Christmas Eve.

The first line of the first Carol in his collection
is as follows : —




The Lord at first did A - dam maice. Out




Its strange tonality seems to indicate a pedigree
of centuries, and an ancestry among the Eccle-
siastical Modes. [H.R.B.]

CARPENTRAS. Additions and corrections
for the article will be found under Genet, vol. i.
588, 9.

CARTER, Thomas. Add that he was organist
of St. Werbergh's in Dublin from 1751 to 1769.
The second sentence of the article is to be omitted,

2 For example: in "Christmas Carols Good 4 True. Fresh & New,»
printed in 16+2, the tunes are as follows: — For Christmas Day.

(1) Troye Towne, (2) All you that are good fellowes : (the first line of
the Carol following.) St. Steven's. (1) Wigmore's Galliard, (2) Bonny
Sweet Eobin. St. John's Day, (1) Flying Fame, (2J The King 's going
to Bulleine. Innocents' Day, (1) As at noone Dulcina rested,

(2) The Spanish Pavin. New Yeares-day, Green Sleeves. Twelfe
Day. (1) The ladies tail, (2) The Spanish Gipsies.

3 The last three notes stand thus in Gilbert's collection, but they
can hardly be taken as a correct representation of the end of the
strain, ^




since it probably refers to another Thomas Carter,
who died Nov. 8, 1800, aged 32, of liver com-
plaint. (Gent. Mag.) A third of the same name
was a musician in Dublin and was living at the
beginning of the present century. (Diet, of
Nat. Biog.) The composer of the operas, etc.,
died Oct. 16 (not 12), 1804, aged (according to
the Sun newspaper) 60. W. Hawes, who remem-
bered him well, told the late T. Oliphant that
this Carter had never been to India. [J.M.]

CARULLI, Feedlnando. Add day of birth,
Peb. 10.

CARUSO, LuiGi. Add day of birth, Sept. 25.

CARVALHO, Maeie Caroline Felix, n6e
Miolan, born Dec. 31, 1827, at Marseilles, re-
ceived instruction from her father, F^Iix Miolan,
an oboe player, and from Duprez at the Conser-
vatoire, Paris (1843-47), where she obtained the
first prize in singing. She made her d^but in
the first act of 'Lucia,' and in the trio of the
second act of ' La Juive,' at Duprez's benefit
Dec. 14, '49. In 1849-56 she sang at the Opera
Comique, and made her reputation as Isabelle
in 'Le Pr^ aux Clercs,' as the heroines on the
respective productions of 'Giralda' and ' Les
Noces de Jeannette,' July 20, '50, and Feb. 4,
'53. In the latter year she married Carvalho, then
engaged at the same theatre. From 1856-69 she
sang at the Lyrique, where she first appeared in
a new opera, ' La Fanchonnette ' (Clapisson),
and where she increased her reputation as the
foremost female lyric artist of the French stage.
She appeared as Cherubino, Zerlina ('Don Gio-
vanni '), with Nilsson (Elvii-a) and Char ton-
Demeur (Donna Anna), as Pamina to the Astri-
fiamniante of Nilsson, and in new operas of Mass^
and Gounod, i.e. 'La Reiue Topaze,' Dec. 27,
'56, 'Faust,' March 19, '59, 'Philemon et Bau-
cis,' Feb. 18, '60, ' Mireille,' March 19, '64,
and 'Romeo et Juliette,' April 27, '67. 'The
opera stage has rarel}' seen a poet's imagining
more completely wrought than in the Marguerite
of Mme. Miolan-Carvalho . . . I had . . . watched
the progress of this exquisitely finished artist
with great interest . . . finding in her perform-
ances a sensibility rarely combined with such
measureless execution as hers — and it has been
fancied hardly possible to a voice in quality like
hers, a high and thin soprano with little volume
of tone — but I was not prepared for the delicacy
of colouring, the innocence, the tenderness of the
earlier sce.ies, and the warmth of passion and
remorse and repentance which one then so slight
in frame could throw into the drama as it went
on. Rarely has there been a personation more
complete or more delightful. Those know only
one small part of this consummate artist's skill
that have not seen her in this remarkable Faust.'
(Chorley). In '69-70 and later she sang alter-
nately at the Grand Opera and the Opera Comique
until her final retirement, which took plane in
scenes from ' Faust ' and ' MireilJe ' at the Op^ra
Comique, June 9, 1885. She sang in a duet
from the lat.ttr opera, w ith Faure, at the concert
given at the Trocad^ro on June 8, 1S87, for the


benefit of the suSerers in the fire at the Oj
Comique. She first appeared in England at
Royal Italian Opera as Dinorah, with gi
success, on the production of that opera ('Par^
de Ploermel') July 26, '59. She sang ev
season until '64 inclusive, and again in '71-
and worthily maintained her reputation — viz
Margaret on the production of 'Faust,' O;
(' Ballo in Maschera'), the Zerlinas (Mozart ;
Auber), Matilde, Donna Elvira, Rosina ('I
biere' and 'Nozze'), Catarina ('L'fitoile
Nord '), etc., and in the small part of the Ha]
Shade in ' Orfeo.' Mme. Carvalho has also si
at Berlin, St. Petersburg, and elsewhere. '^

Leon Caevaille, known as Carvalho, b
1825, educated at the Paris Conservatoire, wh
in 1848 he obtained an accessit, played sn
parts at the Op^ra Comique, was manager of j|
Lyrique, in '56-69, afterwards at the Vau
ville, where he produced Sardou's celebra
' Rabagas'; in '76 became manager of the Op
Comique. In consequence of the fire of May
1887, a heavy fine was imposed upon him, i
he was imprisoned for a time, since the accid
was judged to be the result of managerial ca
lessness. In 1888 he was succeeded by
Paravey. [A.'

CASE, John. Line 3 of article, add that
became a Scholar of St. John's College in 15-
and that he took the degree of B.A. in 151
and that of M.A. in 1572. (Diet, of Nat. Bio

CASTELLAN, Jeanne Anais, bom
Beaujeu (Rhone), Oct. 26, 18 19, received instr
tion in singing from Bordogni and Nourrit ati
Paris Conservatoire, where she remained
years ; she obtained an accessit in solfeggio

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