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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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'31, first premium '33, second premium
singing '35, and finally a first premium in singi
and second premium in opera comique in 'j
She went on the operatic stage in Italy, a
sang with success at Turin, Milan, and Flora
(where in '40 she married Enrico Giampetro '.
singer), also at Vienna, etc. She next sang
the United States and Mexico. She first appeal
in England May 13, '44, at a Philharmoi .
concert, with such success that she was : ,
engaged at a subsequent concert on June ]
also at concerts given by Sterndale Benne,.
Benedict, etc. In the winter she sang in Itali
opera in St. Petersburg. On April i, '45,8
first appeared at Her Majesty's as Lucia, WJ
fair success, and remained there during that ai
the two next seasons, as the successor to Peraai
singing, among other parts, Zerlina ('Don G;
vanni'), Fiordiligi (' Cosl fan Tutte'), Amil
Linda di Chamouni, Adina ('L'Elisire d'Amore
and Isabella, on production in Italian of ' Rob«
le Diable,' May 4, '47, for Jenny Lind. Frc
'48 to '52, except '49, when she was at the Gra
Opera, Paris, where she was the original Bert
in ' Le Prophfete,' she sang each season at Cove
Garden, w'here she proved herself a pre-eminen'

1 Two brothers of Mme. Carvalho were also musicians. (1) AM^;
Felix, orchestral conductor, who died at New Orleans. (2) AL
ANDRE, prolessor of organ and harmonium, and as such Attac
to the Lyrique tor several years ; died April 26, lb73.


eful singer in many parts of a different charac-
% viz. Margaret of Valois, on the production in
ilian of ' Les Huguenots,' July 20, '48, Juliet,
:rtha, Isabella, Elvira (' Masaniello '), Agatha
Der Freischiitz '), Anais ('Mosfe in Egitto'),
atilde (' Guillaume Tell '), Ninetta, Bosina,
)igail (* Nabuco '), Pamina, Glicera on pro-
ction in England of Gounod's ' Saffo ' (Aug.
, '51), Cunegunda on production of Spohr's
'aust,' July 15, '52 (the composer interpolated

air for her from his opera ' Der Zweikampf '),
•mina, and Leonora ('Fidelio'). Madame
stellan sang frequently at the Philharmonic
d other concerts, and at the festivals at Nor-
ch, Gloucester, Worcester, and at Birmingham
ir times, from '49 to '58, where in '55 she ori-
lally sang the soprano music in Costa's ' Eli,'
d in '58 the same in Leslie's ' Judith.'
adame Castellan also played in Paris in Ita-
n in 1847, and for the last time in 1859, as well

in Italy and elsewhere. She has long since
,ired from public life.

' Madame Castellan . . . en]03'ed during some
irs a settled occupation of trust and variety on
r two Italian Opera stages. So far as industry
d general utility, a pleasing person, and a
upetent voice entitled their owner to public
^our, the new French prima donna was emi-
ntly qualified. But she fell short of complete
3ellence in every point save that of adaptability.
;r voice, an extensive soprano, having both
per and lower notes sufficient in power, was
ver thoroughly in tune . . . Madame Castellan,
)ugh she was always courteously received,
ver excited the slightest enthusiasm . . . Her
enity of manner, however, and the sedulous care
J always showed to keep faith with the public,
intained her long in London ; and since she
i passed from the stage, she has never been
)laced by any one equivalent to her.' (Chorley,
52). [A.C.]

2!ATALANI, Alfbedo, born at Lucca, June
1854, studied at first with his father, the
;anist of the church of S. Frediano in that
y. At the age of fourteen he wrote a mass
dch was sung in the cathedral. At seventeen

went to the Paris Conservatoire, where he
idied in Bazin's class. Returning to Italy, he
idied for two years at the Milan Conservatorio,

the theatre of which his first essay at dra-
itic composition, an ' Egloga ' in one act, ' La
Ice,' was produced in the summer of 1875.
i Jan. 31, 1880, his grand four-act opera,
;lda ' (words by D'Ormeville), was brought out

Turin; on March 17, 1883, a similar work,
^ejanice,' in four acts (libretto by Zanardini),
!,s given at the Scala at Milan; in 1885 a
uphonic poem for orchestra, ' Ero e Leandro,'
.ained considerable success ; and ' Edmea,' a
ree-act opera (libretto by Ghislanzoni), was
Sduced at the Scala, Feb. 27, 1886. He has
!ely completed a new opera, ' Loreley.' He
Inds in the foremost rank of the younger Italian
uposers. [^-l

CATELANI, Angelo. Add that he died at

Martino di Mugnano, Sept. 5, 1866.



CAVAILL^-COL. Add date of death, Jan.

CAVALLI. Line 16 of article, for 1637
read 1 639. Line 2 1 , for ' Xerse ' read ' Serse,'
and add day of production, Nov. 12. Line 23,
for in read Feb. 7. As to Cavalli's claim to be
regarded as the inventor of the Da Capo, see
AiK, vol. i. 47 a, and Opera, ii. 502, 503.

CAVALLINI, Ernesto, a great clarinet
player, born at Milan Aug. 30, 1807. He was
taught in the Milan Conservatorio, and after an
engagement at Venice and considerable travel-
ling he returned to his native city, first as player
in the Scala orchestra and then as professor in
the Conservatorio. In 1852 he accepted a post
at St. Petersburg, which he filled for fifteen years,
after which he returned to Milan in 1870, and
died there Jan. 7, 1873. In 1842 he was elected
member of the Paris Academic des Beaux Arts.
Cavallini travelled much and was well known
in Paris, London and Brussels. He played a
concerto of his own at the Philharmonic Concert,
June 23, 1845. F^tis describes his volubility
and technique as prodigious, and his breath
as inexhaustible ; his intonation was also very
good, though his instrument was only the old
six-keyed clarinet. To this Mr. Lazarus adds
that his music is very difficult, his studies and
duets excellent ; and although his tone was not
of the purest, he might well be called the Paga-
nini of the clarinet for his wonderful execution.
Lists of his works are given by F^tis, and by
Pougin in the Supplement thereto. [G.]

CAVATINA. Add that the derivation of
the word is not clear. Cavata is defined as the
act of producing tone from a musical instrument.
The strict definition of Cavatina will be found
under Opera, ii. 511 o.

CEBELL, a name used by Purcell and others
for the dance form now generally known by the
name of Gavotte. An instance occurs in a suite
of Purcell's printed in Pauer's * Old English
Composers,' and ' The Old Cebell ' is given by
Hawkins, History, App. 22. [M.]

CECILIA. P. 3296, 1. 10, for 1739 read

CELLIER, Alfred, bom Dec. 1, 1844, at
Hackney, of French extraction, was educated
there at the Grammar School, and from 1855 to
i860 was a chorister at the Chapel Rojal, St.
James's, under the Rev. Thomas Helmore. In
1862 he was appointed organist to the church
of AU Saints, Blackheath. At the age of
twenty-one he became Director of the Ulster
Hall Concerts, Belfast, succeeding Dr. Chipp,
and conductor of the Belfast Philliarmonic
Society. He was appointed organist to St,
Alban's Holborn in 1868. Mr. Collier has also
been conductor at the Prince's Theatre, Man-
chester (1871-5); Opera Comique, London
(1877-9), and joint conductor, with Sir A. Sul-
livan, of the Promenade Concerts, Covent Garden
(1878 and 9), besides holding numerous smaller
appointments at the Court, St. James's, and




Criterion Theatres. His compositions include
a setting of Gray's Elegy, written for the Leeds
Festival (Oct. lo, 18S3), a Suite Symphonique
for orchestra, various songs and PF. pieces,
among which latter must be mentioned a chann-
ing 'Danse pompeuse,' 1880, dedicated to and
frequently played by Mme. Montigny-Remaury.
But Mr. Cellier is best known as a composer of
light opera or opera boufFe. Besides much in-
cidental music to plays, etc., he has produced
the following: — 'Charity begins at Home,'
Gallery of illustration, 1870, 'The Sultan of
Mocha,' produced at the Prince's Theatre, Man-
chester, Nov. 16, 1874, with great success, and
at St. James's Theatre, London, April 17, 1876 ;
'The Tower of London,' Oct. 4, 1875; 'Nell
Gwynne,' Oct. 16, 1S76; 'Bella Donna, or the
Little Beauty and the Great Beast,' Apr. 27,
1S78, all produced at Manchester; 'The Foster
Brothers,' 1876 (St. George's Hall); 'Dora's
Dream,' Nov. 17, 1877 ; 'The Spectre Knight,'
Feb. 9, 1878 ; * After all,' Dec. 16, 1879 ; ' In the
Sulks,' Feb. 21, 1880, operettas in one act, all
produced at the Opera Comique Theatre. ' Pan-
dora,' a grand opera in three acts, words by Long-
fellow, was produced in Boston in 1881. Few
of the larger works obtained other than pro-
vincial popularity, in spite of the pleasing
and elegant music contained therein, probably
owing to weak librettos; but on Sept. 25, 1886,
in his opera of 'Dorothy,' produced at the Gaiety
Theatre, a fresh setting of his 'Nell Gwynne'
to a new book, Mr. Cellier gained his first real
success, thanks to the musical merits of the
work, which ran through the entire autumn
season, and on Dec. 20, was transferred to the
Prince of Wales' Theatre, where it has been
performed ever since. A lever du rideau en-
titled 'The Carp,' was produced at the Savoy
Theatre on Feb. 13, 18S6, and another 'Mrs.
Jarramie's Genie,' at the same, Feb. 14, 1888.
On Sept. 21, 1887, the 'Sultan of Mocha' was
revived at the Strand Theatre, with a new
libretto by Lestocq, Mr, Cellier has of late
resided in America and Australia, but returned
to England in 18S7. [A.C.]

CEMBAL D'AMORE, Add that the in-
strument should be regarded as a double clavi-
chord, the two instruments being separated by
the tangents. [A. J.H.]

CEMBALO. P. 330 b, 1. 24,/or Pedal read
Pedals, I.

CERTON. Line 12 of article, /or 153.^-49
read 1527-36, ttndfor 1543-50 read 1543-60.

CESTI, Antonio. Add that he died at Venice,
1669, and refer to the last sentence of the article
Carissimi, for another composition attributed to

CHABRIER, Alexis Emmanuel, born at
Ambert (Puy de Dome) Jan. 18, 1841,^ at first
took up music as an amateur, while he was
studying law at Paris, and was employed at the
Ministfere de I'lnterieur. While at the Lyct^e
St. Louis he had been taught the piano by

• Date verified by the register of birth.


EJouard Wolff, and he afterwards studied h.
mony and counterpoint with Aristide Hignar
but in reality he was self-taught. His first woi
of any importance wei-e two operettas, mc
worthy of notice than most compositions of th'
kind: 'L'fitoile' (Bouffes ParLsiens, Nov. i
1877), and ' L' Education manqu^e' (Cercle
la Presse, May i, 1879). Two years lati
having devoted himself entirely to music,
published ' Dix Pieces pittoresques ' for pian
and in Nov. 1883, a Rhapsody on origir
Spanish airs, entitled ' Espaiia,' was very st
cessful at the concerts of the Chateau d'Ea
where he was for two years (1884-5) ^^'^^
master, and where he helped Lamoureux to pi
duce the first two acts of ' Tristan und Isold'
While there he produced a scena for mezz
soprano and female chorus, 'La Sulamit
(March 15, 1885), also selections from his ope
'Gwendoline,' which was given in its entire
at the Theatre de la Monnaie, Brussels, Api
10, 1886; finally he produced, at the Op^
Comique in Paris, a more extensive work, ' I
Roi malgre lui' (May iS, 18S7), which, aft
three performances, was stopped by the fire
May 25 ; it was reproduced at the terapora)
establishment on Nov. 16, 1887. M. Chabrier
works show a rare power of combining all the mi
sical materials at his disposal, and his 'Espana'
a model in this respect; but in his original con
positions a lack of spontaneity is apparent, an
his orchestration, though not deficient in variet
of colouring, is noisy and too thick. He
a gifted composer, but his attachment to varioi
schools shows him to be without settled artist:
convictions. [A.J

CHANGING-NOTE. See Nota Gambit.
ii. 466, and Wechselnote, iv. 430.

CHANSON. P. 335 b, 1. 27, /or Vive He:
QuATRE read Henri Quatre (Vive).

CHANT. P. 337 a, 1. 6 from bottom, fc
1613 read 1623. P. 338 a, I. 10, for Camidg
read Crotch.

CHAPPLE, Samuel. Add date of death.iSs;

CHARD, G. W. Line 5 of article, /or soHl
years later read in 1802, and add date of appoii
ment to the College, 1832.

CHARTON-DEMEUR. See Demeur in .
pendix, vol. iv. p. 611.

CHATTERTON, J. B. Line 2 of article,.
1810 read about 1802. Line 3, add first
pearance at a concert of Aspull's in 1824. Lv
4, for 1844 read 1S42. Line 7, for in re
April II.

CHAULIEU, Charles. Add day of bu
June 21.

CHELARD. Line 8 of article, add date|
his obtaining the Grand Prix de Rome, i8li
P. 341 b, 1. 7, /or in read Feb. 12.

CHELL, William. Add that the work
mentioned in the ai'ticle appear to be nothinj
but copies of the treatises of John de Muris




;eby (Hothby) , and others. He was Precentor
Hereford in 1554, but after the accession of
zabeth was deprived of all his cathedral ap-
ntments. (Diet, of Nat. Biog.)

3HERUBINI. P. 342 a, 1. 44, add date of
duction of 'All Baba,' July 22, 1833. Add
t in 181 5 he came to England and conducted
' ' Anacreon ' overture and two MS. com-
itions at the Philharmonic concert on March

B- 343 ^) !• 24,/ar May read March.
:HEST of VI0L>S. A set of six viols,
perly matched as to size, power, and colour,
d for chamber performance. It usually con-
ed of two trebles, two tenors, and two basses :
asionally of two trebles, three tenors, and one
8, the bass being properly twice as long in

string as the treble. [See Violin.] Sets of
Ls, thus duly proportioned, were often made
the old English makers. They were carefully
ed into a ' chest,' which seems to have been
ballow vertical press with double doors. Dr.
iway, in a letter addressed to his son, printed
Hawkins (ch. 144) describes it as 'a large
ch, with several apartments and partitions
it, each partition was lined with green bays,
keep the instruments from being injured by

weather.' Hawkins quotes an advertise-
at, dated 1667, of two 'chests of viols' for
}, one made by John Eose in 1598, the other
Henry Smith in 1633. 'Both chests,' says

advertiser, probably referring to the instru-
nts, but possibly to the hutches, 'are very
ious work.' In a well-kriown passage in
usic's Monument' (p. 245), Mace says of

' Press for Instruments,' which forms a con-
3U0US part of the furniture of his elaborately
igned music room, ' First see that it be con-
liently large, to contain such a number as you
U design for your use, and to be made very
36 and warm, lyn'd through with bayes, etc.,
which means your instruments wiU speak
slily, brisk and clear. . . . Your best provision,
I most complete, will be a good chest of viols,

in number, viz. two basses, two tenors, and
I trebles, all truly and proportionably suited.
Suppose you cannot procure an entire chest
riols, suitable, etc., then thus : endeavour to
k up, here or there, so many excellent good
I ones, as near suiting as you can, every way,
both for shape, wood, colour, etc., but
ecially for size.' Mace's Press for Instruments
iudes, besides the 'chest of viols,' a pair of
ILns, a pair of ' lusty full-sized theorboes,' and
ee 'lusty smart speaking' lyra-viols, the whole
stituting 'a ready entertainment for the
atest prince in the world.' The principle of

• chest of viols ' is found in the quartets and
ntets of violins which were occasionally made
the Cremona makers. [E.J. P.]

)HEV]6 or Galin-PabisChev^ System. A
bhod of teaching part-singing and sight-read-
, much used in France, is thus called, from

names of its founder and chief promoters.

essential features are two : first, the use of

principle of ' tonic relationship,' the learner

being taught to refer every sound to the tonic,
and secondly, the use of a numeral notation, the
figures I, 2, 3, etc. serving as the written sym-
bols for the several sounds of the scale. Bo \ut)
= 1, Ee=2, etc. The following is an example
of a tune, 'God save the Queen,' thus written in
two parts,

1127 rr 23343^1 217 ^•

335 5«'3 5 112 1^33 5353»0

A dot under a figure shows that it is in a lower

octave, a dot above a figure in a higher. The
zero shows a ' rest ' or silence ; a thick dot, as
in the second measure, continues the preceding
sound. The varying lengths of sound are shown
by a bar or bars above the figures, as in the
second and fourth measures. The numerals
are treated only as visual signs ; the names sung
are the old sol-fa syllables. The use of the
numerals is to keep the positions of the sounds
in the scale impressed on the learner's mind,
and thus help him to recognise and sing the
sounds. This figure notation is used only as
introductory to the ordinary musical notation.
The system has been the subject of much con-
troversy in France, but it has made considerable
way and is now allowed to be used in the Paris
Communal Schools. It has been adapted for
English use by M. Andrade and Mr. G. W.
Bullen. The English class-books and exercises
are published by Messrs. Moffatt and Paige, 28
Warwick Lane. The '£cole Galin-Paris-Cheve'
has its head-quarters at 36 Rue Vivienne, Paris,
and has for many years been under the direction
of M, Amand Cheve. He edits the monthly
paper, 'L'Avenir Musical ' (10 centimes), which
gives full accounts of the progress of the method.
An experiment was begun some years back,
under the authority of the Paris Municipality,
to test the relative efiectiveness of the method,
by putting certain specified Communal Schools
under the direction of its professors, and this is
still in progress.

The idea of using numerals in the way above
shown is best known to the general world
through the advocacy of Jean Jacques Rousseau.
PiEBKE Galin (i 786-1821), who first developed
the plan practically, was a teacher of mathematics
at Bordeaux. Aime Pakis (1798- 1866), one of
his most energetic disciples, was educated to be
an avocat, but devoted his life to the musical
piopaganda. He added to this system a special
nomenclature, since adopted into the Tonic-Sol-fa
system, for teaching ' time.' ElllLE Gheve ( 1 804
— 1S64) was a doctor, and married a sister of
Paris. His ' Methode Elementaire de la Musique
Vocale,' a complete exposition of the system, has
a curious title-page. The title is followed by the
words ' ouvrage repousse [in large capitals] k
I'unanimit^ 9 Avril, 1850, par la Commission du
Chant de la ville de Paris, MM. Auber, Adam,
etc., etc' and below this is a picture of a medal
' Decerni^e Juin 1853 k la Soci^te Chorale Galin-
Paris-Chev^ ' for ' lecture k premiere vue ' and

686 CHEVJ&.

other things, by a jury composed of M. Berlioz
and other musicians (6th ed. 1856). [E.B.L.]

CHIAVETTE {i.e. Little Keys, or Clefs).
Under this name, the acute Clefs were used, by
the Polyphonists, for certain Modes of high
range, such as Modes VII, and XIV ; while
those of more moderate pitch were used for
Modes I, III, or VIII, and others of like ex-
tent ; and the graver forms for the lowest Modes
in use — such as Mode XIV transposed. The
Clefs of moderate pitch were called the Chiavi
or Chiavi naturali, and both the acute and the
grave forms, the Chiavi trasportati ; but the
term Chiavette was generally reserved for the
acute form only.

Chiavi naturali. Chiavette.

It has been suggested, that the system of
Chiavi and Chiavette may serve to assist in the
determination of the Mode, especially with re-
gard to its Authentic or Plagal character : but
this is not true. Palestrina's * Missa Papse
Marcelli,' in Mode XIV (Plagal), and his 'Missa
Dies sanctificatus,' in Mode VII (Authentic),
are both written in the Chiavette. Asola's
' Missa pro Defunctis,' in Mode XIV transposed,
is written in the Chiavi trasportati. Pales-
trina's ' Missa brevis,' Mode XIII transposed, is
written in the Chiavi naturali, [See also vol.
ii. p. 474 o.] [W.S.R.]

CHILCOT, Thomas. Add that he died at
Bath, Nov. 1766.

CHILD, William. Line 6 of article, for
1632 read 1630, and add that he was appointed
conjointly with Nathaniel Giles. Line 9, add
that in 1643, when the whole establishment was
expelled, Cliild is said to have retired to a small
farm and to have devoted himself to composition,
the anthem ' O Lord, grant the King a long
life ' dating from this time. At the Restoration
he was present at Charles II's coronation, Apr.
23, 1661. On July 4 in the same year he was
appointed Composer to the King, in place of the
Ferraboscos deceased. The story of the pave-
ment at Windsor, told in lines 9-17 from end of
article, is correctly as follows (from a document
in the chapter records) : — ' Dr. Child having
been organist for some years to the king's chapel
in K. Ch. 2nds time had great arrears of his
salary due to him, to the value of about £500,
which he and some of our canons discoursing of,
Dr. C. slited (sic), and said he would be glad if
anybody would give him £5 and some bottles of
wine for ; which the canons accepted of, and ac-
cordingly had articles made with hand and seal.
Ai^ter this King James 2 coming to the crown,
paid off his Brs. arrears; wch. much affect-
ing Dr. Child, and he repining at, the canons
generously released his bargain, on condition of


his paving the body of the choir wth. marl
wch. was accordingly done, as is comemorated jj
his gravestone.' (Diet, of Nat. Biog.) 1

CHIMES. Certain beats on one or more b
used to give notice of the commencement
religious services or of the time of day. It
not difficult to trace the origin of chimes
our own land, or in other European Christ
countries, whether applied to sacred or secu

The famous manuscript of St. Blaise, said 1
be of the 9th century, shows that there was I
attempt made in early times to produce a Beit
chimes with small suspended bells which w.
tapped with a hammer or wooden mallet b
cleric or lay performer. The later illustrati(
from the illuminated manuscript of the Bened
tional of S. ^thelwold, which was executed
Hyde Abbey about the year 980, would shi,
that chime bells in early times were mounted k
campaniles without the appendages for ringi'
or swinging according with the present custon ^

There are examples of the introduction «
the half swinging chimes in the isth centuj
which have been carefully recorded, and whi £
show a more convenient arrangement in ' t '
dead rope pull ' than the earlier arrangemer 1
of levers ; and also of ' full puU swing '
ringing the bells mouth upwards, in distir
tion to chiming them, where if swung at all h;
the distance is sufficient. In most cases, ho'
ever, for the purposes of chiming, the bells hai
dead and are struck with the clapper or with 1
outside or distinct hammer, or are only swui
a short distance on centres, which facilitates tl
work on large or Bourdon bells. As soon
S. Paulinus had determined to erect the ne
churches in Northumbria, and as soon as S. Du
Stan had with his usual energy devoted himst
to the elevation of the Christian Church amor
the Saxons, an impetus was given to chin
ringing, in the one case by the importation ati
in the other by the manufacture at home of tl
necessary bells for chiming and of the woode
structures with which they were associated an
which would not have carried large sets of chime
This system of application has been repeate
down to modern times in the large stone fabric
and is employed in the cases of the famoi
cliristened bells, such as Tom of Oxford, Tom <
Lincoln, Big Ben, and Great Paul.

In King's 'Rites and Ceremonies of tl
Greek Church in Russia,' it has been said tha
' Bells are now always used in Russia, and tli
chiming them is looked upon as essential to th
service, the length of the time signifies to th
public the degree of sanctity in the day ; ever
church, therefore, is furnished with them, the
are fastened immovably to the beam that sup
ports them, and are rung by a rope tied to th
clapper, which is perhaps a mark of their anti
quity in that country, our method of ringin
being more artificial.'

It is interesting to note the weight of met?
and the dimensions of prominent bells in ou
own and other countries. The following list, fo


most part taken, from Denison's ' Clocks,'
, will show the leading particulars of some of
most celebrated : —



Great BelU 0/


lul'g, London, ' Great Paxil '


ibon .




lul's, London, old bell

3r, 'Peter' .
kfort . . .
iincoln . .
i Town HaU
tta, Malta .


minster, fourth

„ third

„ second

„ first

it tenor

I de Ville, Paris, clock hell .



;he5ter Boyal Exchange

„ tenor or hour hell

„ fourth

„ third

„ second


Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 138 of 194)