George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 139 of 194)
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. manual chiming apparatus, as distinct from
Qe barrel machines, was introduced by the

Rev. H. T. Ellacombe at Bitton Church.

system has been somewhat modified and
lorated by Messrs. Warner, the well-known
-founders of London, who have of late years
ted many of these insti'uments in churches
chiming either tunes or changes on church
3.

.n apparatus for chiming by pneumatics has
1 introduced by Mr. Lewis, the church organ
der, which has some advantages, as the
pie touch on a keyboard produces the



required sound, but on the other hand the com-
plication of an organ bellows and valves to supply
the compressed air required for working, has not
commended it for general use. The simple
rope-pull apparatus before referred to may in a
minute be put into gear for chiming, or out of
gear to admit of the bells being rung.

The proportions and shapes of bells used for
chimes should be of a diiferent character from
ringing bells, to admit of tune and accord in more
pleasant harmonics, a point which also has bear-
ing upon the cup or hemispherical form of chime -s
which have of late years been adopted, a flattened
form of hemisphere giving far better results than
the more circular or cup outlines. [S.B.G.]

CHIPP, E. T. Line 7 of article, add that he
was in the Queen's private band from 1843 to
1845. Line 12, the date of his appointment to
the Panopticon is 1855. Line 14, the date of ap-
pointment to Holy Trinity, Paddington, is 1856.
Add that he took the degree of Mus. B. at Cam-
bridge in 1859, and that of Mus. D. in i860. He
died at Nice, Dec. 17, 1886. (Diet, of Nat. Biog.)

CHITAREONE. The instrument described
under this name is in Italy generally called
Arciliuto, the name Chitarrone being given to
a large chitarra, or theorbo with a shorter neck,
strung with wire, and played with a plectrum. The
German authorities, Praetorius (1619) and Baron
(1727), were followed by the writer. [A.J.H.]

CHLADNI, E. F. F. In list of works, No. 4,
for States read Stabes,

CHOLLET, Jean Baftiste Marie, born May
20, 1798, at Paris, was from 1804 to 18 16 taught
singing and the violin at the Conservatoire,
and in 1814 gained a solfeggio prize. In 1815,
the Conservatoire having been closed owing to
political events, he became chorus singer at the
Opera and the Italian and Feydeau Theatres.
In 1818-25 he played in the provinces, under
the name Dome-Chollet, the quasi - baritone
parts played formerly by Martin and others.
In 1825 he played both at Brussels and the Op^ra
Comique, Paris, and obtained in 1826 an engage-
ment at the latter, where, having adopted the
tenor repertoire, he remained until 1832. His
principal new parts were in operas of Herold
and Auber, viz. Henri ('Marie'), Aug. 12,
1826, in which he made his first success by
his rendering of the song ' Une robe legfere ' ;
Fritz, in 'La Fiancee,' Jan. 10, 1829; ' Fra
Diavolo,' Jan. 28, 1830, and 'Zampa,' May 3,
1831. In 1832-35 he was again in Brussels,
where hereafter he enjoyed even greater favour
than he obtained in Paris. In 1834 ^^^ sang at the
Hacue, and ini 835 returned to theOpera Comique,
where he remained several years, and created
several other parts in operas of Adam, Hal^vy,
and Balfe, viz. Lionel in 'L'^ficlair' (Halevy),
Dec. 30, '35 ; Chapelon in ' Postilion de Lon-
jumeau,' Oct. 13, '36; Josfelynin 'Roid'Yvetot,'
Oct. 13, '42 ; Edward III. in * Puits d' Amour,'
Apr. 20, '43; ' Cagliostro,' Feb. 10, '44; Beau-
manoir in ' Quatre fils d'Aymon ' July 15, '44.
He left the Comique, directed the Hague Theatre



588



CHOLLET.



CHORALE.



for a time, and finally re-appeared in Paris at
the Lyrique without success. In '50 he played
with Mitchell's company at St. James's Theatre,
viz. as Lejoyeux (' Val d'Andorre'),in which he
made his dt^but, Jan. 4, as Bamab^ (Paer's
' Maitre de Chapelle '), and in his well-known
parts of Zampa, Josselyn and the Postilion. He
was well received, on account of his easy, gentle-
manly, and vivacious acting, and his command
both of humour and pathos, which atoned for
loss of voice. Fetis says of him that ' endowed
with qualities that should have taken him to
the highest point of art, if he had received
a better musical education, he had more inge-
nuity than real ability, more mannerism than
style. Sometimes he jerked out his song with
affectation ; he often altered the character of the
music by introducing variations of the phrase
and numerous cadenzas in which he made use
of his head voice. Vocal studies had not
been studied, inasmuL-h that his 'mezza voce'
was defective, and that he executed ascend-
ing chromatic passages in an imperfect man-
ner. In spite of these faults, the charm of his
voice, his knowledge of what would please the
public, and his aplomh as a musician often
caused him to make more effect than skilful
singers deprived of these advantages. His fare-
well benefit took place at the Op^ra Comique,
April 24, 1872, when Roger reappeared in a scene
from ' La Dame Blanche,' and ChoUet himself as
Barnab^ in the celebrated duo from Paer's
' Maitre de Chapelle.' On this occasion Pala-
dilhe's musical setting of Cojipee's 'Le Passant'
was first produced, with Mme. Galli-Mari^ and
the late Mile. Priola. [A.C.]

CHOPIN. Add the following list of works
(for PF. solo, unless otherwise stated). The
works marked with an asterisk were published
posthumously.

Op.

1. Rondo, C minor.

2. * La ci darem ' Variations (witli

Orchestra).

3. Introduction and Polonaise

in C (PF. and Cello).

4. »Sonata, C minor.
E. •Kondeau i la Mazur.

6. Four Mazurkas,

7. Five Mazurkas.

8. Trio (PF. and Strings).

9. Three Nocturnes.

10. Twelve Studies.

11. Concerto, E minor.

12. Variations (with Orch.), 'Lu-

dovic' (Ht5rold),

13. Fantasia on Polish airs,

14. Kraliovlak Rondo (with Orch.)

15. Three Jioctumes.

16. Rundo, Eb.

17. Four Mazurkas.

18. A'alse, Eb.

19. Bolero.

20. Scherzo, B minor,

21. Concerto.F minor (with Orch.)

22. Polonaise. E \> (with Orch.)

23. Ballade, G minor,

24. Four Mazurkas.

25. Twelve Studies.

26. Two Polonaises.

27. Two Nocturnes,
'JB. Twenty-four Preludes.
29. Impromptu, Ab,
SO. Four Mazurkas.

31, Scherzo, Bb minor.

32, Two Nocturnes,

33, Four Mazurkas.

34, Three Valse»,



Op.

33. Sonata. B b minor.

36, Impromptu, F Jf.

37. Two Nocturnes,
as. Ballade. F,

39. Scherzo, C J minor.

40. Two Polonaises.

41. Four Mazurkas,

42. Valse. Ab,

43. Tarantelle,

44. Polonaise, FJJ minor.

45. Prelude, C J£ minor,
4(>, Allecro de Concert,

47. Ballade, A b.

48. Two Nocturnes,

49. Fantasia. F minor.

50. Three Mazurkas.
■51. Impromptu, D b.

52. Ballade. F minor.

53. Polonaise, Ab.

54. Scherzo, E.

.55, Two Nocturnes,

56, Three Mazurkas.

57. Berceuse.

.5S. Sonata, B minor,

59. Three Mazurkas.

60. Barcarolle,

61. Polonaise Fantaisie,
Two Nocturnes,

63. Three Mazurkas.

64. Three Valses.

65. Sonata, G minor (PF,

Cello).
i. *Fantaisie Impromptu,
67. •Four Mazurkas,
6S. "Four Mazurkas,
69. »Two Valses,
•Three Valses,



(•Mazurkas in G,



D. 0,



Op,

71, tThree Polonaises,

72, •Nocturne, E minor, MarcheVvalses, E major and minor

fuii^bre in C minor, andj^Poloiiaises, Gtt minor anc
three Ecossaises.

73, •Rondo for two PFs. in



Without opus-number,
•Seventeen Songs with PF. acct.
Three Studies.



•Variations in

Swiss Boy,'
Duet Concertante, on ' Bol

(for PF, and Cello, wr



nor anc ij;

■The kB

on 'BolV
lello, wr Hi



I



with Frauchomme),

CHORALE. Add to the article in volumi''
p. 351, the following : —

In tracing the history of the Chorale it is
tremely difficult to distinguish the composer
the melody or canto fenno from the harmoui
(called Tonsetzer by Winterfeld). A large p
portion of extant chorales appear to be based
old church tunes, so that they present a C(
tinuity with the past which is quite consistt.
with Luther's earlier practice. As to the ancit *?
origin of these tunes, see Luthee, vol, ii. p. i]
The Chorales used in this first period are treat
as INIotets [see Motet], as the examples
Winterfeld show : that is, the melody is giv
out as a canto fermo, generally in a tenor or
least a middle part, with the other parts in mc
or less florid counterpoint. The music is not 5
measured [see Measoke] or divided into equ
rhythm {musica mensurahilis). The contr
puntal treatment, which became more elabora
under such musicians as Stephen Mahu ai
Job. Kugelmann — both early in the i6th ce
tury — advanced greatly in the number of voic '■
parts and general complexity towards tl
end of the i6th and first half of the 17th cei
tury, the chief writers being Gumpelzhaime
Joh. Eccard, Mich. Praetorius, Job. Schopp ar
Job, Rosenmiiller. This again, when the sinj
ing came to be restricted to the canto fermo i
unison, originated the school of organ accompan
ment to the Chorales such as we see in Bach
organ works, and as it is still occasionally to I
heard in Germany.

It has been noticed that some chorales
based on secular songs of an earlier date,
old ecclesiastical forms of music inherited
Saint Gregory were proper to the Latin hy
of the Breviary ; but for hymns written in
modern language and forming no part of a pi
scribed ritual, the freer style used in secular sodl
was, or was soon found to be, quite natural
Most, however, of the secular melodies thus usei
were not so employed till towards the end of th
16th or beginning of the 17th century.

Simultaneously with this elaborate contra
puntal treatment, which demanded the resource;
of a church with a good choir, it is interesting
to note the tendency towards a simpler treat
ment. This is found ^ar excellence in Goudimd'i
setting of Marot and Beza's Psalms, 1565 [se<
Goddimel], in which there are four voices, witl
counterpoint note against note, and the melodj
generally in the tenor, but in twelve psalms il
the discant. In the latter point this book ii
the harbinger of one of the chief revolutions ir
the history of hymn-music. The revolution is
fully effected in 1586 by Lucas Osiander in his
' Geistliche Lieder und Psalmen mit 4 Stimmei
auf Contrapunkts weiss . . . also gesetzt, dass eii



CHORALE.

iristliche Gemein durchauss mit singen Jcann.'
he title shows that the removal of the melody
> the upper part was due to a desire for congre-
itional singing. The earlier books in motet
irm of course contemplated only the participa-
on of the practised choir. This book was
illowed in 1594 by a similar treatment of the
Salter in Lobwasser's version by Samuel Mar-
shal. The chorale was after this sung either in

ur Voice-parts, with the canto fermo in the
iscant; or in unison, with florid counterpoint
1 the organ. The latter is considered the more
assical form in Germany. [See also BoUB-
EOis and Franc in Appendix].
j The composition, harmonization, and collection
if chorales for the services of the Lutheran (and
,;her Protestant) churches engaged the artistic
*lents of a whole school of musicians, of whom
!)me of the most eminent are treated in special
rticles. [See Ageicola, Martin; Calvisius,
ieth; Cruger,J. ; Ducis, Benedictus ; Eccaed,
oh. ; Frank, Melchior ; Fretlinghausen, J.
.. (App.) ; HAiQiERSCBaiiDT, A. (App.) ; Isaac,
leinrich ; Neumark, Georg. (App.) ; Peae-
DBirs, Michael and Jacob ; Scheidt, S. (App.);
chein, J. Hermann (App.) ; Senfl, Lud. ;
'oPELius, Gottf. (App.) ; VuLPius, Melchior
A-pp.) ; Walther, Joh. Ofthe more important
msicians not thus treated short notices now
)llow.

Arnold de Beuck (i. e. of Bruges), bom at
•ruges in 1480; in 1530 Kapellmeister to the
Ling of Rome (afterwards Emperor Ferdi-
and I) at Vienna, where he died in 1536;
'rote for 4 or 5 voices ; pieces by him are
iven in M. Agricola's ' Kewe deutsche geistliche
resenge.'

Geoeg Rhatt (Rhaw), bom 1488 at Eisfeld
1 Franconia, was Cantor at the Thomasschule
t Leipzig till 1520, after which he settled at
7ittemberg and became a printer, issuing books
oth in ordinary typography (including many
rst editions of Luther's writings) and in musical
otes, including his own work 'Enchiridion
lusicae mensuraUs' 1532. [See Ageicola,
lartin.] Winterfeld ascribes some chorales to
im.

Stephan Mahu, a singer in the chapel of
'erdinand King of the Romans (afterwards
Imperor) is known as a contrapuntist ; his chief
'ork is Lamentations for four voices (in JoaneUi's
Thesaurus'), and there are some pieces in G.
'orster's collection of Motets, Hans Walther's
lantionale, etc.

JoHANN KcGELMANN, of Augsburg, was a
rumpet-player and contrapuntist of the first half
f the i6th century, and Kapellmeister to Duke
dbert at Kocigsberg; he wrote some church
lusic printed at Augsburg in 1540.

Nicolas Herman (Heermann), Cantor at
'oachimsthal in Bohemia about the middle
f the i6th century, and esteemed also as versifier;
.e died very old in 1561. There are chorales
xtant, of which both words and music are by
lim, e. g. ' Erschienen ist der herrlich Tag ' and
Lobt Gott, ihr Christen alle gleich.' For



CHORALE.



589



tonality and clear rhythm his chorales sound
more modern than most of his age.

Balthasae Resinaeids {Mine for Harzer),
born at Hessen in the territory of Meissen in
the early years of the i6th century, took clerical
orders and became bishop of Leipa in Bohemia.
He was a pupil of Isaac, and published at
Wittenberg in 1543 ' Responsoriorum numero
octoginta de tempore et festis . . . libri duo.'

SiXT Dietrich, an excellent German com-
poser, who lived at Constance in the middle of
the 16th century, wrote 36 Antiphons, Witt.
154T, and ' Novum opus musicum,' Witt. 1545.

Lucas Osiandee, born 1534 at Nuremberg,
Protestant minister at several places in Wiirtem-
berg, died in 1604. Of his Chorale book with
the melody in the upper part for congregational
singing mention has been made above.

Samuel JMaeschal (Marschall), born 1557 at
Tournay, was a notary, and became University
musician and organist at Basle ; he was living in
1627. He was a composer of hymns, in which
he followed Osiander in putting the melody in
the discant. His works are ' Der ganze Psalter
Ambrosii Lobwassers mit 4 Stimmen,' Leipzig
1594 and Basle 1606; 'Psalmen Davids, Kir-
chengesange . . . von M. Luther und anderer,
mit 4 Stimmen,' Basle 1606; and 'EinftLhrung
zu der Musica.'

Nicolaus Selneccee (properly ScheUenecker),
bom 1539 at Hersbruck in Franconia, played
the organ as a boy, became an eminent theologian,
and in 1557 was Court preacher at Dresden.
He published ' Christliche Lieder und Kirchen-
gesange,' Leipzig 1587 ; and seven penitential
psalms, 1585, and died 1592,

Adam Gumpelzhaimer, born a,bout 1560 at
Trostberg in Upper Bavaria, was instructed in
music by Father Jodocus Enzmiiller of the con-
vent of S. Ulrich, Augsburg; in 1575 went into
the service of the Duke of Wiirtemberg as
musician, and gained considerable reputation as
composer of songs both sacred and secular. His
sacred songs or hymns, generally for several
voices, sometimes as many as eight, are con-
sidered almost equal to those of Lassus. He
also wrote ' Compendium musicae latinum-ger-
manicum,' Augsburg 1595, of which Fetis says
no less than twelve editions were published. In
1 581 he took the place of Cantor at Augsburg,
which he held till his death at the beginning of
the next century.

Michael Altenburg, born about 1583 at
Trochtel in Thuringia, studied theology at Halle
in 1601, and was pastor at several places, finally
at Erfurt, where he died in 1640. He worked
at music from his student-years and was one of
the most eminent arrangers of church-music of
his time. Of his chorale tunes, ' Macht auf die
Thor der G'rechtigkeit ' and ' Herr Gott nun
schleuss den Himmel auf are still used. But
more important are the collections published by
him, and his larger sacred works : — ' Christliche
liebliche und andiichtige neue Kirchen- und
Hausgesange,' Erfurt 1619-21 in 3 vols.; '16
Intraden ' for violins, lutes, organs, etc. ; also



590



CHOKALE,



psalms, motets, cantiones, etc., for 4, 6, 8 or 9
voices. His writings combine simplicity with
religious grandeur ; and the congregational and
choral singing of his various churches was re-
nowned and regarded as a model.

Matthaus Apelles von Lowenstern, born
1594 at Neustadt in Upper Silesia, studied at
the university of Frankfort on the Oder, directed
the music of the church at Neustadt, and was
taken by Duke Henry of Oels to his court as
music-director, becoming in 1626 praeses of the
Prince's school at Bernstadt, and in 163 1 director
of chamber music at the court of the Emperor
Ferdinand II, whose successor ennobled him.
But he subsequently went back to the Duke of
Oels, with whom he lived in wealth and pros-
perity, and had a character for beneficence and
generosity. His talents were shown both in
writing sacred verse and in composing vocal
music to German words, in a pleasing and flow-
ing style. He published ' Syrabola oder Gedenk-
spriiche,' containing 30 hymns for 1-9 voices;
the best are ' Jesu meum solatium,' ' Nun
preiset AUe Gottes Barmherzigkeit,' * Wena
ich in Angst und Noth,' ' Mein' Augen schliess
ich jetzt ' ; also ' Fruelings Meyen,' 1644.

JoHANN ScHOPP, born at Hamburg at the
beginning of the 17th century, lived there till
1642, and subsequently at Ltineburg. He was
a violinist and composer, and published 'Neue
Paduanen, Galliarden, AUemanden, etc.,' Ham-
burg, 1633-40, in 3-6 parts ; ' 30 deutsche Con-
eerte von i, 2, 3, 4 und 8 Stimmen,' Hamburg,
1644 ; ' Job. Eisten Himmlische Lieder. Mit
sehr anmuhtigen, mehrerentheils von Joh. Scho-
pen gesetzten Melodeyen,' Liineburg, 1641-2 ;
' Joh. Eistens frommer Christen alltiigliche
Hausmusik,' Luneburg, 1654 (the melodies by
him and Michael Jacobi in common) ; ' Phil,
von Zesens dichterische Jugend- und Liebes-
Flanimen und dessen geistlicbe Wollust Salomo-
nis, rait Melodien,' Hamburg, 1651; 'Jacob
Schwieger's Fllichtige Feldrosen mit Melodien,'
Hamburg, 1655. In these works are found the
well-known chorale tunes ' Lasset uns den Her-
ren preisen,' ' Ermuntre dich, mein schwacher
Geist,' ' Werde munter, mein Gemiithe.' It is
impossible to overlook the great change that has
come over the chorale with the commencement
of the 17th century, especially in the writings of
Gumpelzhaimer, Lowenstern, and Schnpp — a
change which is the direct consequence of putting
the melody in the upper part, and writing for
four fixed voice-parts. The new form of the
tune is closely similar to that of English hymns
of the period ; it has the modern scale with the
leading note, rliythm in equal bars, and the
common chord with its inversions. The melody
has a clearer rhythm and a more rapid and easy
swing, in fact becomes far more like a secular
song ; which goes far to explain the fact that just
about the year 1600 popular secular songs were
adapted to sacred words, especially 'Isbruck,
ich muss dich lassen' in 159S, 'Venus du und
dein Kind' in 1605, and 'Mein Graiith ist mir
verwirret ' in 161 3.



CHOEALE.

JoHANN EosENMUiLER, born in the Elector
ate of Saxony at the beginning of the I7tl i
century, was collaborator at the Thomasschul
at Leipzig in 1647, and director of music ii
1648. On account of alleged scandalous conduc
towards pupils in 1655 (which perhaps was no
true, as in later life he bore a high character ii
Germany) he had to leave Leipzig and went t(
Venice ; he was subsequently appointed Kapell
meister at Wolfenbiittel, where he died ir
1686. He published chorales harmonized it
many parts. His works are : ' Kernspruche
mehrentheils aus heiliger Schrift, mit 3, 4 bis 7
Stimmen sammt ihrem Basso continue gesetzt,
Leipzig, 1648 (containing 20 hymns) ; 'Stu-
denten-Musik von 3 und 5 Instrumenten,'
Leipzig, 1654 ; '12 Sonate da camera a cinque
strouienti,' Venice, 1667 and 1671 ; and Sonatas
with 2-5 instruments, Nuremberg, 1682.

Joh. Geo. Ebeling, born at Liineburg about
1620, was in 1662 director of the music at the
principal church of Berlin, and in 1668 professor
of music at the Caroline Gymnasium at Stettin,
where he died in 1676. He composed church
music, and some chorales of his are favourites ;
e.g. ' Warum sollt ich mich denn gramen.'
He published ' Archaeologia Orphica sive anti-
quitates musicae,' Stettin, 1657 ; * Pauli
Gerhardi Geistliche Andachten, bestehend in
1 20 Liedern mit 4 Singstimmen, 2 Violinen und
General-bass', Berlin, 1666-7 ; and an arrange-
ment of the latter for piano, Berlin, 1669.

Jacob Hintze, born 1622 at Bernau near
Berlin, became in 1666 court musician to the
Elector of Brandenburg at Berlin ; but he retired
to his birthplace, where he died in 1695, with
the reputation of being an excellent contrapuntist.
He edited the 12th edition of Criiger's "Praxis
pietatis," Berlin, 1690, adding to it 65 hymns to
the Epistles by himself, none of which are said
to be ever used now ; but others in the book are
his, some of which continue to be favourites,
especially " Gieb dich zufrieden " and " AUe
Menschen miissen sterben " (if the latter be
really by him). Concerning the chorales composed
by Bach, refer to Spitta's Bach, vol. iii. p. loSj
114, 287, etc. (English edition).

The literature of the subject is considerable,
and only a few of the most important modem
works can conveniently be mentioned here. The
great standard work is that of Carl von Winter-
feld, ' Der evangelische Kirchengesang und sein
Verhaltniss zur Kunst des Tonsatzes,' in three
large quarto volumes, with abundant specimens
of the setting of the old tunes from ancient
manuscripts (Leipzig, 1843-47) ; it is, however,
not clearly arranged. G. Doring's ' Choralkunde '
(Danzig, 1865), and E. E. Koch's 'Geschichte
des Kirchenlieds und Kirchengesangs, mit be-
sonderer Eiicksicht auf Wurtemberg,' 2 vols.
(Stuttgart 1847), are useful guides. Of collec-
tions of chorales, treated either as 4-voice hymns
or for singing in unison, there is a great number.
The following may be noted as having especial
interest : — ' J. S. Bach's mehrstimmige Choral-
gesange und geistliche Arien zum erstenmal



CHORALE.

iverandert . . , herausgegeben von Ludwig
rk,' 1850; ' Choralbuch, enthaltend eine Aus-
ahl von 272 der schonsten . . . Kirchengesange
. viei-stiuunige Bearbeltung. Nebst einem
nbang, bestehend aus 69 von J. S. Bach theils
inz neu componirten, theils im Generalbass
jrbesserten Melodien. Herausgegeben von J.
. Lehmann,' third edition, 1871; '371 vier-
immige Choralgesange von J. S. Bach.' [Edited
f C. F. Becker.] To what extent the melodies
" these, which editors persist in attributing to
ach, are really his, is a very difficult question,
1 which the present writer hesitates as much to
•onounce an opinion as on the similar question
' Luther's authorship of the music of certain
rmns. Another carefully prepared collection
hich bears the respectable names of Baron von
ucher, Immanuel Faisst, and Joh. Zahn, is
ititled 'Die Melodien des deutschen evan-
ilischen Kirchen-Gesangbuchs in vierstimmi-
sn Satze fiir Orgel und Chorgesang,' Stuttgart,
554. A good popular book also is ' Hausclioral-
ich : alte und neue Choralgesange mit vier-
immigen Harmonien,' of which the 7th edition
as published at Giitersloh, 1871. [R.M.]

CHORAL SYMPHONY. Line 9 from end



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