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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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• of strings above it, forms at once a hammer
them and a temporary bridge, from which
7 vibrate up to the soundboard bridge. In
clavichord no other means beyond this very
litive contrivance is used for producing the
':, which is in consequence very feeble, at
igh sweet. The common damper to all the
igs, a strip of cloth interwoven behind the
of tangents, has the tendency to increase this
acteristic of feebleness, by permitting no
pathetic reinforcement.

all clavichords made anterior to about 1725
e was a fretted (or gebunden) system, by
ih the keys that struck, what from analogy
other stringed instruments may be called
strings, were in each octave F, G, A,
C, D, E b. With the exception of A and D
ch were always independent), the semitones
obtained by the tangents of the neighbour-
keys, which fretted or stopped the open
gs at shorter distance, and produced Fj,
B B, C J, and E []. Owing to this contrivance
is not possible, for example, to sound F and
ogether by putting down the two contiguous
since the FJ alone would then sound,
bave reason to believe that the independence
and D is as old as the chromatic keyboard
', which we know for certain was in use in
Old authorities may be quoted for the
ing of more tangents than one^ and Adlung,
died in 1763, speaks of another fretted
ion which left Et] and B independent,
ivident recognition of the natural major
which proves the late introduction of this

e tangent acts upon the strings in the same
that the bridging or fretting does upon the
le monochord, sharpening the measured
nces which theory demands by adding ten-
Pressing the key too much therefore makes
lote sound intolerably out of tune. An
Iful player would naturally err in this
tion, and Emanuel Bach cautions against it.
s famous essay ' on playing he describes an
special to the tangent, unattainable by
r jack or hammer, viz. the Beben or Bebung,
1 was a tremolo or vibrato obtained by a
aloua pressure upon the key with the fleshy

ranch flber die wahre Art Klavier zu spielen," 1753, another
1780, and republished by Schelling, 1857.



end of the finger. It was marked with a line
and dots like the modern mezzo staccato, but
being upon a single note, was, of course, en-
tirely different.

The article Clavichord is to be corrected by
the foregoing observations. [A. J.H.]

acts; words and music by Wagner. Produced
at Dresden, Oct. 20, 1845. At Cassel, by Spohr,
after much resistance from the Elector, early in
1853, At the Grand Opera, Paris (French transla-
tion by Ch. Nuitter), March 13, 186 1. It had
three representations only.^ At Covent Garden,
in Italian, May 6, 1876. The overture was first
performed in England by the Philharmonic
Society (Wagner conducting). May 14, 1855.
Schumann saw it Aug. 7, 1 847, and mentions it
in his ' Theaterbiichlein ' as 'an opera which
cannot be spoken of briefly. It certainly has
an appearance of genius. Were he but as melo-
dious as he is clever he would be the man of the
day.' [G.]

TANS'UR, William, who is variously stated
to have been born at Barnes, Surrey, in 1699,
and at Dunchurch, Warwickshire, in 1700, and
who was successively organist at Barnes, Ewell,
Leicester, and St. Neot's, compiled and edited
several collections of psalm tunes, and was author
of some theoretical works. The principal of his
several publications are ' The Melody of the
Heart,' 1737; 'A Compleat Melody, or. The
Harmony of Sion,' 1735 and 1738; 'Heaven on
Earth, or. The Beauty of Holiness,' 17.^8; 'A
New Musical Grammar,' 1746; in which he
styles himself, ' William Tans'ur Musico Theo-
rico '; * The Royal Melody compleat, or. The New
Harmony of Zion,' 1754 and 1755; 'The Royal
Psalmodist compleat' (no date); 'The Psalm
Singer's Jewel,' 1760; 'Melodia Sacra,' 1772;
and 'The Elements of Musick displayed,' 1772.
He died at St. Neot's, Oct. 7, 1 783. He had a son
who was a chorister at Trinity College, Cam-
bridge. [W.H.H.]

TAN-TA-RA. A word which occurs in English
hunting songs, and is evidently intended to imi-
tate the note of the horn. One of the earliest
instances is in * The hunt is up,' a song ascribed
by Chappell to Henry VIII's time: —

The horses snort to be at the sport.

The dogs are running free,
The woods rejoice at the merry noise

Of hey tantara tee ree I

Another is ' News from Hide Park,' of Charles
II's time : —

One evening a little before it was dark.
Sing tan-ta-ra-ra-ra tan-ti-vee, etc.

2 For the extraordinary uproar which it created see Prosper
Merimfe's 'Lettreskune Inconnue.' ii. 151-3. One of thejolteswas
*qu'on s'ennuie aux ri^citatifs. et qu'on se tanne aux airs.' Even
a man of sense lilte Merim^e says that he ' could write something
as good after hearing his cat walk up and down over the key*
of the piano.' Berlioz writes about it in a style which is equally
discreditable to his taste and his penetration (Correspondance iuedite,
Nos. ciii to cvi).



But the word is as old as Enniua, who has
At tuba terribili sonitu taratantara dixit.

And the same form occurs in Grimald (1557)
and Stanyhurst (1583). [G.]

TANTO, i.e. 'too much,' as in Beethoven's
String Trio (op. 9, no. 1) — ' Adagio ma non
tanto,' i.e. Slow, but not too slow. Tanto has
practically the same force as 'Troppo.' [G.]

TANTUM ERGO. The first words of the
last two stanzas of the Hymn 'Pange lingua
gloriosi Corporis Mysterium,' written by S.Thomas
Aquinas, for the Festival of Corpus Christi.^

The extreme solemnity of the circumstances
under which ' Tantum ergo ' is suns in the


Roman Catholic Church, renders its adaptatidl ,
to solemn Music more than ordinarily impera
tive. It is used whenever the Eucharist is carria
in Procession ; at the conclusion of the Ceremon;
of Exposition ; and at the Office of Benediction
and never heard but in the presence of th
Eucharist. Except, of course, in Processions, i
is sung kneeling.

The Plain Chaunt Melody of ' Tantum ergO
is the same as that used for ' Pange linguft
The purest printed version is that given in th
new Ratisbon Office-Books; but, owing to til
excision of certain ' grace-notes,' this version |j
at present, less popular than that printed in th
Mechlin Vesperal.* The pure version stand
thus —

From the Ratisbon Vesperal.' w

No - vo ce - dat ri - tu
Sit et ben - e - die - ti

Prces-tet fl - des sup-pie ■
Pro - ce - den - ti ab u

The antient Melody has been frequently treated
in Polyphonic form, and that very finely ; but
no setting will bear comparison with the mag-
nificent ' Pange lingua' in Palestrina's 'Hymni
totius anni,' which concludes with a 'Tantum
ergo ' for 5 Voices, in which the Melody is as-
signed, entire, to the First Tenor, while the re-
maining Voices accompany it with Harmonies
and Points of Imitation. Vittoria has also
written a very beautiful ' Pange lingua,' which,
unhappily, treats the alternate stanzas onlj' ;
the first stanza of ' Tantum ergo ' is there-
fore omitted, though the music written for the
second — 'Genitori, Genitoque' — may very con-
sistently be sung to it.

The almost daily use of ' Tantum ergo ' at
the Office of Benediction has led to the fabrica-
tion of an immense number of modern Melodies,
of more or less demerit. One of the best of
these — a really good one — attributed to Michael
Haydn, is extremely popular, in England, as
a Hymn-Tune — — under the title of
'Benediction.'* Another, said to be 'Gre-
gorian,' and probably really of Plain-Chaunt
origin, is scarcely less popular, under the title of
'S. Thomas.'^ A third, set for two Voices by
V. Novello, is equally pleasing, though wanting
in solemnity. These, however, are quite ex-
ceptionally good specimens. Notwithstanding
the beauty of the text, and the solemnity of
the occasions on which it is sung, it is doubtful
whether any Hymn has ever been fitted to so
much irreverent music as 'Tantum ergo.' The
present Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster has
sternly condemned the use of such Music in

1 Not to be mistaken for the Hymn (better known in England),
sung, under the same title, during Holy Week—' Pange lingua gloriosi
Lauream certaminis.'

2 Hymns Ancient and Modern, Hymn 67. new ed.
> Ibid., Hymn 51, ibid.



England, and his remonstrance has not
without eifect; but hitherto the reform
only been a partial one.

Of orchestral settings of 'Tantum ergo,'
two finest are unquestionably those by Moza:
Nos. 142 and 197 in Kochel's Catalogu
4 Voices, with accompaniments for Stringed
struments, 2 Trumpets, and Organ. Schubi
has left three ; one, op. 45. and one in MS., boi
in C, and both for quartet, orchestra, and orgai
and one in Eb (MS., 1828). [W.S.B ■;

TAPPERT, WiLHELM, German critic ailb
writer on music, born Feb. 19, 1830, at Ob<p
Thomaswaldau in Silesia; began life as ascho<ji
master, but in 1856 adopted music, under Del
for theory and Kullak for practice. Since thin
time he has resided in Berlin, where he is ^
known as a teacher and musical writer, andj
able and enthusiastic partisan of Wagner,
was a teacher in Tausig's school for higher PJi i E
playing. His 'W^agner Lexicon' (1877) Oltft
tains a collection of all the abuse that has he
lavished on that composer and his friends-
useless and even mischievous labour. Mu
more important are his researches into ande
Tablatures, on which it is to be hoped he*
soon publish something. From 1 876-80 he edit
the 'Allgemeine Deutsche Musikzeitung.' 1
is a contributor to the ' Musikalisches Wocfe t-
blatt ' and has published several pamphlets, '
pecially one on consecutive fifths, ' Das Veri
von Quintenparallelen ' (1869). {(

TARANTELLA, a South Italian dance, wM
derives its name from Taranto, in the old p
vince of Apulia. The music is in 6-8 tii
played at continually increasing speed, w
irregular alternations of minor and major. It

* For a free reading of the impure version, see ' Hymot .
and Modern,' Hymu 309, no. S, new ed.



erally danced by a man and a woman, but
letimes by two women alone, who often play
tagnets and a tambourine. It was formerly
g, but this is seldom the case now. The
■autella has obtained a fictitious interest irom
idea that by means of dancing it a strange
d of insanity, attributed to the efl'ects of
bite of the Lycosa Tarantula, the largest
European spiders, could alone be cured. It
certain that a disease known as Tarantism
vailed in South Italy to an extraordinary ex-
t, during the 15th, "i6th, and 17th centuries,
lot later, and that this disease — which seems
have been a kind of hysteria, like the St.
,us dance epidemic in Germany at an earlier
e — was apparently only curable by means of
continued exercise of dancing the Tarantella;
, that the real cause of the affection was
bite of the spider is very improbable,
;r experiments having shown that it is no
re poisonous than the sting of a wasp.
3 first extant notice of Tarantism is in
xolo Perotto's 'Cornucopia Linguae Latinas'
20 a, ed. 1489). During the i6th century the
Idemic was at its height, and bands of musi-
is traversed the country to play the music
|ich was the only healing medicine. The forms
[ich the madness took were very various :
le were seized with a violent craving for
;er, so that they were with difficulty pre-
ited from throwing themselves into the sea,
ers were strangely affected by different colours,
I all exhibited the most extravagant and out-
eous contortions. The different forms which
disease assumed were cured by means of
erent airs, to which the Tarantists — the name
which the patients were known — were made
tdance until they often dropped down with
laustion. The epidemic seems only to have
ed in the summer months, and it is said that
:se who had been once attacked by it were
I'ays liable to a return of the disease. Most
ithe songs, both words and music, which were
d to cure Tarantism, no longer exist, but the
uit Kircher, in his ' Magnes ' (Eome, 1641),
K III, cap. viii., has preserved a few speci-
He says that the Tarantellas of his day
e mostly rustic extemporisations, but the airs
gives (which are printed in Mendel's Lexicon,
voce Tarantella) are written in the Ecclesi-
ical Modes, and with one exception in common
e. They bear no resemblance to the tripping
lodies of the modem dance.^ Earcher's work
tains an engraving of the Tarantula in two
itions, with a map of the region where it is
nd, and the following air, entitled 'Antidotum
rantulae,* which is also to be found in Jones's
altese Melodies* (London, 1805) and in vol. ii.
Stafford Smith's 'Musica Antiqua ' (181 2),
ere it is said to be derived from Zimmermann's

t has been suggested that these fragments of melodies— for they

ittle more— are ancient Greek tunes banded down traditionally


a Hazella's ' Balli. Correnti.' etc., (Eome, 1689). is a Tarantella in

mon time in the form of a short air with ' partite.' or variations.

Iboon (Vollkomener Kapellmeister, 1739) says there is one in the

inteuence des Xourelles ' for 1T27.



For farther information on this curious sub-
ject we must refer the reader to the following
works : —

N. Perotto, 'ComTtcopia' (Venice. 14S0); A. Kircher,
'Ma^Ties' (Rome, 1041>; 'Mustirgia' (Kome, 16o(J) ; Her-
mann Grube, 'De Ictu Tarantulae' ^F^ankfurt, IGiJi;
G. Baglifi, ' De Praxi Medica' (Eome, I6JG1; Dr. Peter
Sha-w, -New Practice of Physic,' vol. 1. (London, n2(i);
Yt. Serao, ' Delia TarantolaMKome, 1742); Dr. K. Mead,
' Mechanical account of Poisons ' (3rd ed., London, 174.5) ;
J. D. Tietz,' Von den Wirktingen der T6ne aut den mensch-
lichen Korper' (in Justi's 'NeuenWahrheiteu,' Leipzig,
1745) • P. J. Buchoz, 'Lart de connaitre et de designer

Medico' for 1842; C. Engel, 'Musical Myths,' vol. ii.
(London, 1876,'.

The Tarantella has been used by many modern
composers. Auber has introduced it in ' La
Muette de Portici,' Weber in his E minor Sonata,
Thalberg wrote one for Piano, and Rossini a vocal
Tarantella 'La Danza' (said to have been com-
posed for Lablache) the opening bars of which
are here given : —

a - re chi h In amor non man - che - rk, etc.

One of the finest examples is in the Finale
to Mendelssohn's Italian Symphony, where it is
mixed up with a Saltarello in the most effective
and clever manner. Good descriptions of the
dance will be found in Mme. de SUel's 'Corinne '
(Book VI. ch. i.), Mercier Dupaty's ' Lettres sur
ritalie' (1797), and Goethe's 'Fragmente iiber
Italien.' It was danced on the stage with great
success by Cotellini (i 783-1 785) at the Teatro
dei Fiorentini at Naples, and in our own day by
the late Charles Matthews. [W.B.S.]

TARARE. Opera, in prologue and 5 acts
(afterwards 3 acts) ; worcis by Beaumarchais,
music by Salieri. Produced at the Grand Op^ra
June 8, 1787. Translated into Italian (with
many changes of text and music) as ' Axur, Re
d'Ormus,' for the betrothal of the Archduke
Franz with Princess Elizabeth of Wurtemberg
at Vienna, Jan. 8, 1788. Produced in English
as 'Tarrare, the Tartar Chief,' at the English
Opera House, London, Aug. 15, 1825. lG.]




TARTINI, Giuseppe, famous violin-player and
composer, was born at Pirano, a town in Istria,
April 12, 1692. His father, a Florentine by
birth and an elected Nobile of Parenzo, intended
hun for the Church, and sent him fco the school of
the Oratorians in his native town. Later on he
attended an ecclesiastical school at Capo d'Istria,
and there received his first instruction in music.
Being entirely averse to the Church career, he
went, at eighteen, to Padua, and matriculated as
a student of law. But law was not more to his
taste than theology. Led by his highly impulsive
temperament he even set aside his musical studies
in favour of the then fashionable art of fencing.
In this he soon became so great an adept as to
propose seriously to adopt it as a profession at
Naples or Paris. Fortunately for music Tartini's
passionate character involved him in a serious
difficulty and caused him to exchange the
sword for the fiddlestick and the pen. He fell in
love with a niece of the Archbishop of Padua,
Cardinal Comaro, and was secretly married to her.
The immediate consequences of this hasty step
were disastrous. His parents withdrew all further
support, and the Cardinal was so incensed by
what he considered an insult to his family, that
Tartini had to fly from Padua. He first went
to Rome, but not considering himself safe there,
took refuge in a monastery at Assisi, of which a
relative of his was an inmate. Here he remained
for two years, and in the solitude of monastic Ufe
resumed his musical studies, and at last discovered
his true vocation. The organist of the monastery.
Padre Boemo,was an excellent musician.and being
delighted to find so talented a scholar, spared no
time and trouble in teaching him counterpoint and
composition. As a violinist he appears to have
been his own teacher. His progress however
must have been very rapid, as we know that his
performances at the services of the monastery
chapel soon became a well-known attraction to
the neighbourhood. The development of his mu-
sical genius was not however the only fruit of
these two years: he underwent a remarkable
change of character. Influenced by the peaceful
religious life around him, he seems entirely to
have lost his quarrelsome temper, and acquired
that modesty of manner and serenity of mind with
which he has been credited by all who knew him
later in Ufe. His residence at Assisi came to a
sudden end by a curious accident. One day, at the
service, a gust of wind blew aside the curtain
behind which Tartini was playing a solo. A
Paduan, who happened to be present, instantly
recognised his strongly-marked features, and
brought the news of his whereabouts to his native
town. Meanwhile the Archbishop's pride had
softened, and Tartini was allowed to rejoin his
wife. He went with her to Venice, where he
met Veracini, and was so much struck with the
great Florentine violinist, as at once to recognise
the necessity for fresh studies, in order to modify
his own style and correct the errors into which
he, being almost entirely self-taught, had very
naturally fallen. For this purpose he went to
Ancona, leaving even his wife behind, and

remained for some time in complete retiremen
In 1 7 2 1 he appears to have returned to Padu:
and was appointed solo violinist in the chapel
San Antonio, the choir and orchestra of whic
enjoyed a high musical reputation. That h
reputation must have been already well estal
lished is proved not only by this appointmen .
but more especially by the fact that in 1723 IV
received and accepted an invitation to perfon
at the great festivities given for the coronat;
of Charles VI at Prague. On this occasion l f
met with Count Kinsky, a rich and enthi
siastic amateur, who kept an excellent privaf
band, and prevailed on Tartini to accept tl
post of conductor. This he retained for thrt
years and then returned to his old position
Padua. From this time he appears never agai
to have left his beloved Padua for any length
time, where he held an highly honoured positioi
with an income sufficient for his modest requiit "
ments. An invitation to visit England, undi
most brilliant conditions (£3000), which he n
ceived from Lord Middlesex, he is reported 1 *'
have declined by stating ' that, although not ricl
he had sufficient, and did not wish for more.' H *
salary at San Antonio's was 400 ducats, to whic
must be added the fees from his numerous pupi
and the produce of his compositions. Bu;
who visited Padua a few months after his d
gives a few interesting details. But when
writes, ' He married a wife of the Xantippe
and his patience upon the most trying bci
was always truly Socratic,' we need not al
too much weight to such a statement. G]
artists are frequently but indifierent mam
and, in their honest endeavours to restore
balance, their wives have often most undi
edly gained unpleasant reputations. Bume
continues, 'He had no other children tha
his scholars, of whom his care was constantl
paternal. Nardini, his first and favourite pup
came from Leghorn to see him in his sic"
and attend him in his last moments with
filial aflFection and tenderness. During the I
part of his life he played but little, except at
church of S. Antony of Padua, to which he
voted himself so early as the year 1722, wi
his attendance was onlyrequired ongreat festival i\
but so strong was his zeal for the service of lli
patron-saint, that he seldom let a week pass witl
out regaling him to the utmost of his palsie ii
nerves.' He died Feb. 16, 1770, was buried i
the church of S. Catherine, a solemn requioi
being held in the chapel of S. Antonio. At
later period his statue was erected in the Prat
della Valle, a public walk at Padua, where it nUf
still be seen among the statues of the most ami
nent men connected with that famous universitg
Tartini's fame rests on threefold ground. H
was one of the greatest violinists of all time, *'
eminent composer, and a scientific writer on mna
cal physics. To gain an idea of his style
playing we must turn to the testimony of hi
contemporaries. They all agree in crediting hii
with those qualities which make a great player
a fine tone, imlimited command of fingerbo»r|l


bow, enabling him to overcome the greatest
iculties with complete ease ; perfect intonation
loublestops, and a most brilliant shake and
ble-shake, which he executed equally well with
angers. That the composer of the ' Trillo del
ivolo,' and many other fine and noble pieces,
Id not have played but with the deepest feeling
most consummate taste, it is almost super-
lus to say. Indeed we have his own testimony,
sn Campagnoli in his Violin-School reports
I as having remarked upon a brilliant virtuoso:
lat is beautiful ! That is difficult ! but here
inting to the heart) he has said nothing to me.'
the same time it ought to be mentioned that
i.Nz(seethat article), who heard him atPrague,
. who certainly was no mean authority, while
nting his eminence as a player generally,
s: 'his manner was cold, his taste wanting
noblesse and in the true style of singing.'
(.atever the reason of this strange criticism
i7 have been, to our mind it stands condemned
|the deeply emotional and pathetic character
i.'artini's compositions, and the want of taste
presume to have been on the side of the
ic rather than of the artist. Quanz also states,
t he was fond of playing in extreme positions,
tatement which is difficult to understand,
luse in his works we very rarely find him
jeding the compass of the third position. But
, is to be understood that Tartini, in order to
tinue the same musical phrase on the same
ag, frequently used the higher positions for
iages which, as far as the mere mechanical
iuction of the sounds was concerned, he might
e played in lower ones, Quanz's criticism
lid imply that Tartini used one of the most
ortant and effective means for good musical
asing and cantabile playing, in doing which he
anticipating the method by which the great
ters of the Paris School, and above all Spohr,
seeded in making the violin the ' singing
jrument' par excellence. That Tartini should
• have condescended to astonish his audiences
ihe execution of mechanical tricks after the
ion of a LOCATELLI (see that article), appears,
1 the character of all his known compositions,
rally impossible. Both as player and com-
;;r he was the true successor of Corelli, re
lenting in both respects the next step in the
jslopment of the art. But there is an undeni-
\: difference of character and talent between
I two great masters. They are striking in-
lices of the two main types of the Italian
3t, which can be distinguished from the oldest
.38 down to our days. The one, to which
Jelli belongs, gifted with an unerring sense of
(Stic propriety and technical perfection, the
Sngest feeling for beauty of form and sound—
ill pathos, dignity and gracefulness their chief
Uns of expression ; the other, of which Tartmi
li a representative, while sharing all the
fit qualities of the former, adds to them that
m thern fire of passionate emotion which carries
e rything before it. In technique Tartini re-
p ;ents a considerable progress upon Corelli by
h introduction of a great variety of bowing,



which again was only possible by the use of a
longer and elastic bow. [See Bow ; and Tourte.]

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