George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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article, for Theater an der Wien, read Kamth-
;rthor Theatre. (Corrected in late editions.)

CHORTON". The ' Chorus ' or ecclesiastical
tch to which organs were usually tuned in the
'th and 18th centuries. It was considerably
gher than the chamber pitch, used for secular
usic. This chamber pitch (Kammerton) was

two kinds, the high and the low, but both
are below the chorus pitch. [See Pitch, vol. ii.

757 i. Also Spitta, J. S. Bach, Engl. ed. ii.
16, 324, 676, etc.] [M.]

CHORUS. Add that the word was very
mmonly used, in the 17th and i8th centuries,

denote the concerted conclusion of duets,
ios, etc., and was in fact the exact equivalent

our ' ensemble.' The meaning of the word
,s frequently been misunderstood, as for in-
stance in many modern editions of Purcell's
jll-known duet 'Hark, my Daridcar ! ' where
e last ensemble section, beginning ' S'o ready
id quick is a spirit of air ' has been omitted, no
lubt under the impression that the word
Chorus ' meant that these bars were to be sung
7 many voices. Conclusive proof that the word
M used commonly in this sense is afforded in
any of Handel's Italian operas, in the scores of
hich the names of the quartet of soloists are
aced at the beginning of their respective lines

ensemble numbers, though the movement is
ititled ' Coro.' [M.]

CHOTJQUET, GusTAVE. Add that from
I40 to 1856 he was teaching in New York, and
at he died Jan. 30, 1886.
CHRISTUS. P. 355 a, last line but one, for
' read 26.

CHRYSANDER, Friedrtch. For his chief
ark as editor of Handel's works see Haxdel-
ESELLSCHATT in this Appendix. Of the ' Denk-



maler der Tonkunst' edited by him, vol. i of
Corelli and vol. 2 of Couperin are published
and the second and final volumes of each nearly
ready ; and the Te Deum of Urio is published.
The ' AUgemeine Musikalische Zeitung ' was
edited by him from 1869 to 1871 and again
from 1875 to 1883, when it became extinct.
The 'Jahrbiicher fiir musikalische Wissenschaft'
ceased to appear after vol. 2. His life of Handel
has been laid by on account of the constant and
absorbinglabour on the edition of Handel's works;
but it is believed that there is still hope of its
resumption and completion. [R.M.]

CHWATAL, Fr. Xav. See vol. ii. p. 729 6.
Add that he died June 24, 1879.

CIMAROSA. Add dates to the following
operas': — L'ltaliana in Londra, 1779; II Con-
vito di pietra, 1782; II Pittore Parigino,
1782 ; II Sacrifizio d'Abramo, 1786 ; Le Astuzie
femminile, 1793! L'Impresario in angustie,
1786; II Matrimonio per raggiro, 1779; Gli
Orazii e Curiazii, 1796; Ai'taserse, 1781 ; Semi-
ramide, 1799.

CIMBALOM. See Dulcimer, vol. i. p. 468 b.

CINELLI. The ordinary Italian name for
cymbals. The name Piatti is almost universally
used in orchestral scores, though it is, strictly
speaking, only applicable to the small cymbals
used in Janitschabeniidsik. [M.]

CINQ MARS. An 'ope'ra dialogue' in four
acts ; words by Poirson and Gallet, music by
Gounod. Produced at the Op^ra Comique, April
5, 1877. [M.]

Add that the society ceased to exist in 1880,
owing to financial difficulties consequent upon
the resignation of several of the older members.
A concert was given on May 11 of that year in
Steinway Hall.

CLAGGET, Charles. Add that he is said
to have died in 1S20, and that the tuning-fork
referred to in the last sentence of the article is
one of the sounding bars of his ' Aiuton.'

CLARIEEL. See Barnard, Charlotte
Alington, in Appendix, vol. iv. p. 531 a.

CLARINET. P. 361 a, 1. 15 from bottom,
add a reference to Abbreviations, i. 4 a, and to
Chalumeau, for examples of the use of the term.
P. 362 b, last paragraph, add that the first in-
stance of the use of the clarinet as an orchestral
instrument is said to be in J. C. Bach's ' Orione '
(1763). [M.]

CLARK, Jeremiah. Add that he is said to
have been born in 1669, but that the date is
probably much earlier. L. 13 from end of
article, for the same year read 1699. L. 9 from
end, add date for 'The World in the Moon,'
1697. To the list of plays for which he fur-
nished music, the following are to be added :
— ' The Campaigners,' 1698 ; ' The Bath,' 1 701 ;
'AH for the better,' 1702, and 'the Committee,'
1706. Since the publication of the article in the
Dictionary of National Biography, from which



the above additions are taken, its writer, Mr.
W. Barclay Squire, has succeeded in establishing
the date of Clark's death, concerning which
authorities have hitherto been at variance. The
printed copies of Hawkins's History give Nov. 5
as the date, but in a copy corrected by Hawkins
himself, now in the British Museum, this is
altered to Dec. i, 1707 ; a contemporary news-
sheet has been found which confirms this date
bej'ond a doubt. For the detailed account of the
occurrence, and for the process by which the
true date has been established, the reader is
referred to the Athenaeum of April 2, 1887. [M.]
CLARK, ScoTSON. See Scotson Clabk.

CLARKE, John (Clakke-Whitfeld). L. 7 of
article, from the semi-colon read as follows : —
in the same j^ear (1793) he was appointed master
of the choristers (not organist) at St. Patrick's
Cathedral and Christ Church, Dublin. In 1794
he succeeded Richard Langdon as organist of
Armagh Cathedral, which post he held till 1797.
In 1795 he took the degree of Mus. D. in
Dublin, and in 1799 the Irish rebellion led him
to resign his appointments, (etc. as in 1. 13).
L. 21, add date of death of H. F. Whitfeld, 1814.
Other corrections will be found under Tkinitt
College, vol. iv. p. 1706, note 8. [M.]

CLAUS. For Claus read Clauss-Szarvady,
and add that she visited London in the summer
of 1 886, giving one concert in a private house.

CLAUSULA. The mediaeval name for what
is now called a Cadence, or Close.^

The most important Close employed in Poly-
phonic Music, is the Clausula vera, or True Ca-
dence, terminating on the Final of the Mode.
The Clausula 'plagalis, or Plagal Cadence, is
rarely used, except as an adjunct to this, follow-
ing it, at the conclusion of a Movement, in the
form of a peroration. A Close, identical in con-
struction with a True Cadence, but terminating
upon some note, other than the Final of the
Mode, is called a Clausula ficta, sulsidiaria, or
media; i.e. a False, Subsidiary, or Medial
Cadence. A Clausula vera, or ficta, when ac-
companied, in the Counterpoint, by a suspended
discord, is called a Clausula diminuta, or Dimin-
ished Cadence, in allusion to the shortening of
the penultimate note, in order to allow time for
the suspension and resolution of the dissonance.

Though the Clausula vera is the natural
homologue of the Perfect Cadence of modern
Music, and may, in certain cases, correspond
with it, note for note, it is not constructed upon
the same principles — for, the older progression
belongs to what has been aptly called the 'hori-
zontal system,' and the later one, to the ' per-
pendicular, or vertical system.' ^ In the Clau-

' It is necessary to be very cautious in the use of these two English
words, which, in the 16th century, were not interchangeable. Morley,
for instance, at pp. 73 and 127 of his Plaine and Easie Introduction
i2nd Edit. 1608) applies the term ' Close ' to the descent of the Canto
fermo upon the Final of the Mode ; and ' Cadence ' to the dissonance
with which this progression is accompanied, in the Counterpoint,
when the form employed is that known as the Ciautula Jimtnula.
In cases like this, it is only by reference to the Latin terms that all
danger ol misconception can be ayoided.

2 SeeTol. 1. p. 6726.


sida vera, the Canto fermo must necessari
descend one degree upon the Final of the Mod
the Counterpoint, if above the Canto fermo, e:
hibiting a Major Sixth, in the penultimate not
if below it, a Minor Third. In the Clausui
diminuta, the Sixth is suspended by a Seventl
or the Third, by a Second. In either case, th
Cadence is complete, though any number
parts may be added above, below, or betweei
its two essential factors. The constitution (
the Perfect Cadence is altogether different,
depends for its existence upon the progressio
of the Bass from the Dominant to the Tonic
each of these notes being accompanied by it
own fundamental harmony, either with, or with >*
out, the exhibition of the Dominant Seventh v
the penultimate Chord. But, by the addition o
a sufficient number of free parts, the two Ca
dences may be made to coirespond exactly, ii
outward form, through the joint operation of twi
dissimilar principles ; as in the following exam
pie, in which a Clausula vera, represented b^
the Semibreves, is brought, by the insertion of
Fifth below the penultimate note of the Cantt n
fermo, into a form identical with that of th( i
Perfect Cadence.


Clausula vera.

Clausula diminuta.




A Close, formed exactly like the above, but!
terminating upon the Mediant of the Mode, isl
called a Clausula 'medial In like manner, a
Clausula ficta, or sulsidiaria, may teiininate
upon the Dominant, or Participant of the Mode,
or, upon either of its Conceded Modulations.'
Modern writers are generally inclined to de-
scribe Closes of this kind as True Cadences
in some new Mode to which the composer is
supposed to have modulated. But, the early
Polyphonist regarded them as False Cadences,
formed upon certain intermediate degrees of the
original Mode, from which he was never per-
mitted to depart, by the process now called

The form oi Clausula plagalis most frequently
employed by the Polyphonists was that in which,
after a Clausula vera, the last note of the Canto
fermo was prolonged, and treated as an inverted
Pedal-Point. It is used with peculiarly happy
effect in Mode IV — the Plagal derivative of the
Phrygian — in which the impression of a final
Close is not very strongly produced by the Clau-
sula vera.


Claustila vera.

. Clausula plagalis.



' For a Table of Uedial Cadences, in all the Modes, see ToL U.
pp. 243-4. « See vol. u. p. 342.


The Dominant of this Mode is the fourth de-
ee above its final, corresponding with the
)dern Sub-dominant. And, as this forms so
iportant an element in the treatment of the
yerted Pedal, modem Composei-s apply the
rm Plagal to aU Cadences in which the Sub-
minant precedes the Tonic Bass. The term
rves its purpose well enough : but it rests
ron an erroneous basis, since there is no such
terval as a Sub-dominant in the Plagal Modes
)m which the progression derives its name.
In all the Clausiilce hitherto described, the
o essential parts form together, in the final
■te, either an Octave, or Unison. There is yet
other class in which the parts form a Fifth.





iMorley ^ seems inclined to class these among the
•ue Closes ; but most early writers regard tliem
Clausulce fictcB, vel irregulaies. [W.S.R.]

CLAVICHORD. Line 2 of article, add The
alian name is Manicordo, the name Clavicordo
:ing the equivalent of the German Clavier in
e sense of any keyboard instrument having
rings. P. l^-j a, add at heginning of line i8,

clavichords of the 1 8th century. P. 368 a, 1. 2 2,
i.n admired effect due to change of intonation '

inaccurate. To play out of tune was depre-
,ted by C. P. E. Bach. There is no doubt that
ivichord players preserved a very tranquil posi-
Dn of the hand in order to preserve truth of
touation. Line 26, for shortened read tight-
led. Line 30, for with varying power of touch,
ad without quitting the key. Line 31, The
ebung (vibrato) was obtained without allowing
16 finger to quit the key.

With respect to the introduction of the chro-
atic keyboard, Hubert van Eyck painted the

Cecilia panel of the famous Ghent altar-piece

which there is a Positive organ depicted with
e chromatic division of the keyboard. He
ed in 1426, and that was therefore the last
;ar in which this panel could have been painted.
; is probable that the Halberstadt organ, built
1 1360, had this division. If so, it is the earliest
aown example.

P. 36S b, 1. 17, for the end read the middle.
Corrected in late editions.) Line 25. The
atin version of Virdung is, as is now well
aown, by Luscinius, whom many have credited
ith being the original author. Line 34. The
lale of Guido should include the highest note e,
id contain, with the B raolle et durum, 22 notes,
ine 8 from bottom, the statement that there
as a clavichord dated 1520, wanting two semi-
>nes in the octave, proves to be unfounded,
se Welck'rr's earlier account of it in ' Neu eroff-
3tes Magazin musikalischen Tonwerkzeuge,'
, 106 (Frankfort, 1855).

1 Plains aad £asie lutioductioo. P. 71 (2ad edition, I6O8).

The last clavichords that were made were
constructed by Hoffmann, Stuttgart, in 1857, o'l
the pattern of one belonging to Molique. They
were made for the late Joseph Street, of Lloyds.
[See also Tangent.] [A.J.H.]

CLAVICYTHERIUM. P. 3695. This in-
strument is figured in Virdung, 1511, and a
remarkable specimen from the Correr collection,
now belonging to Mr, G. Donaldson of London,
was exhibited in the Music Loan Collection, 1885,
and is figured from a drawing in colours in Mr.
A. J. Hipkins's 'Musical Instruments' (Black,
Edinburgh, 18S7).

CLAY, Feedeeic. Add the productions of
'The Merry Duchess' (Royalty Theatre, May
23, 188 ^), and 'The Golden Ring' (Alhambra,
Dec. 3."i883).

CLAYTON, Thomas. Add that he is said
to have died about 1730.

CLlfi DU CAVEAU. The title of a large
collection of French airs, including the tunes of
old songs dating from before the time of Henri
IV, old vaudevilles, commonly called pont-neufs,
and airs from operas and operas comiqiies which
from their frequent use in coniedies-iaudevilles
have become popular airs (what are called
timbres). The fourth and last edition of the
work, published by Capelle, goes down to 1848 ;
a new edition would have to include airs taken
from comic operas by Auber, Adam, etc., written
since the above date, and airs from the operettas
of Offenbach and Lecocq, which have now
become new types for the vaudeville couplet and
have enriched the domain of the popular song.
The collection is so arranged that it is perfectly
easy to find either the tune of a song of which
the words only are known, or the metre and
rhythm of words which will fit any particular
air. The publication is especially useful to
dramatists who have to write couplets for a vau-
deville, and to amateur song-writers ; it contains
2350 different airs, and as many forms or models
for couplets. The origin of the title is as follows :
— Three French song- writers of the 18th century
Piron,Crebillon^Z5, and Coll^, instituted, in 1 733,
a sort of club, where they dined regularly, together
with other song-writers and literary men. They
called their society le Caveau, from the place of
meetino-, an inn of that name kept by one Lan-
delle in the Rue de Buci, near the Comedie
Franfaise and the Cafe Procope, where these
boon companions finished their evenings. From
that time all societies of sony:-writers have con-
nected themselves as much as possible with this
first society, and so the name Caveau is synony- '
mous with a club of the same kind. Tlie original
society lasted exactly ten years, after which, in
1762, Piron, Crebillon ^Zs, and Gentil-Bernard
formed a new society in the same place, which
lasted only five years. After the Revolution, the
'Caveau moderne'was founded in 1806 by Capelle,
the author of the Cle du Caveau, with the help of
Grimod de la Reynifere, Piis, Armand Gouffe,
and Philippon de la Madeleine ; they met at
Balaine's in the Rocher de Caticale, rue Mont-





orgueil. The society lasted till I Si 5, and in 1825
an effort was made to revive it, but after a
year's existence it disappeared, together with
another club, 'Les Soupers de Momus,' founded
in 1813. In 1835 * ^^^ society was founded at
Champeaux's under the direction of Albert Mon-
t^mont, and was called at first les Enfants du
Caveau, and then le Caveau only. It still exists,
and is managed by a committee headed by a presi-
dent elected every year, who holds Panard's glass
and Colle's bells as symbols of his office, [A.J.]

CLEGG, John. P. 371 a, 1. 2, for 1742 read
On Jan. 21, 1743-4. Add that he was discharged
as cured on July 20, 1744, but again admitted on
Dec. 15 of the same year. He was finally dis-
charged Oct. 13, 1746. (Diet, of Nat. Biog.)

CLEMENS NON PAPA. L . 24 of article,
for VI. read VII.

CLl&MENT, Felix. Add date of death, Jan.
33, 18S5.

CLEMENTI. L. 2 of article, /or March 9
read March 10. Add that he was buried in the
south cloister of Westminster Abbey. P. 372 b,
1. 5, for Condicelli read Cordicelli. P. 373 a,
third paragraph, add that during his continental
tour, 1802-10, he married a daughter of Leh-
mann, the cantor of the Nicolaikirche in Berlin,
who, after a journey to Italy with her husband,
died in childbirth. C^I-]

CLIFFORD, Rev. James. Lines 12 and 13
of article, /or About the year 1700, read in Sept.

CLIFTON, John C, bom 1781, studied for
five years under Richard Bellamy. He subse-
quently became a pupil of Charles Wesley, and
devoted himself entirely to music, resigning an
appointment in the Stationery Office which he
had held for about two years. After an engage-
ment at Batli, where he conducted the Harmonic
Society, he went in 1802 to Dublin, and in 1815
produced there a musical piece called * Edwin.'
He organized, together with Sir John Stevenson,
a concert in aid of the sufferers by the Irish
famine. In 1816 he invented an instrument
called the ' Eidomusicon,' intended to teach
sight-reading. An attempt made in 1818 to
bring out his invention in London faileJ, and he
then adopted Logier's system of teaching, and
remained in London for some time. He married
the proprietress of a ladies' school at Hammer-
smith, where be died Nov. 18, 1841, having be-
come partially insane some three years pre-
viously. [W.B.S.]

COCCIA, Caelo. Correct date of birth to
April 14, 1782, and add place and date of death,
Novara, April 13, 1873. L. 12 from end of
article,/or 36 read 40. L. 5 from end,/or 1816
read 1815.

CODETTA. For the special meaning of the
word in fugue, see vol. i. 56S a, and vol. iv. 1386.

COGAN, Philip, Mus. D. was born in Cork
about 1750, and became a chorister and after-
wards a member of the choir of St. Finbar s

Cathedral in that city. In 1 7 7 2 he was appoint
a stipendiary in the choir of Christ Churi
CatheJral, Dublin, but soon resigned his poi
In 1780 he became organist of St. Patricl
Cathedral, and about the same time obtaim
the degree of Mus. D. from the University
Dublin. He resigned the organistship of S
Patrick's in 1810, and resided in Dublin as
teacher of music, dying there at an advanc
age. He was distinguished as a player on tl
organ and the harpsichord, as well as for h ig
powers of fugue extemporization. He publisht
several sonatas of merit, written somewhat in t\ ^
manner of Mozart. Michael Kelly, who too
lessons from Cogan about 1777, describes h
execution as 'astounding.' [G.A.C *

COLLA. See Agdjaki

COLLARD. Line 9 of article, /or Gieb rea


tents of the following published collections
music will be found in this Dictionary und(
the headings referred to

Alfleri. EaccoltadiMusica Sacra. Motet Society, il. 376.

Musica Antiqua. ii. 410.
Alte Klavlermusik. See Klavler-

Alte Meister. See Melster, Alte.
Arnold's Cathedral Music, i. 86 6.
Auswahl vorziifUcher

werke. i. 105 o,
Bach-Gesellschaft, Edition of.

i. 119; ii.60 6; iv. 629 a.
Barnard. Church Music, i. 140.
Berg. PatrociiiiumMusices. i. 230.
Berlin. See Auswahl.
Bodenschatz. Florilegium Por-

tense. i. 253.
Boyce. Catliedral Music. 1. 268.
Burney's History, Examples in.

iv. 570.
Cathedral Music. See Arnold,

Barnard. Boyce, Tudway.
Choron. Raccolta generate (Col-
lection generale. etc.) iii. 63.
Olementi, Practical Harmony.

iii. 24.
Crotch's Specimens, iii. 648-50,
Ecclesiasticon. i. 481, 482.
Eslava's 'Lira sacro - hispana.'

1. 494, 495.
Farrenc's 'Tr^sor des Fianlstes."

iv. 168.
Fitzwilliam Music, i. 530. 531,
Florilegium Fortense. See Boden-
Harmonia Sacra (Page), ii. 632 b.
Hawkins's History, Examples in

i. 700.
Hullah. See Fart Music and

Vocal Scores.
Klaviermusik. Alte. ii. 63.
Latrohe. Selection of SacredMusic.

U.632I '>

Musica Divina. ii. 411, 412.
Musical Antiquarian Society. 1

Novello. Bee Fitzwilliam Maslc k(
Musik-jOrpheus. ii. 613.

Page's ' Harmonia Sacra.'
Parthenia. ii. 653.
Part Music, ii. 656, 627.
Patrocinium Musices. See Berg '■
Pianoforte Music, old. See Kl«

viermusik. Meister, Parthenii
Practical Harmony, iii. 24.
Prince de la Moskowa. Becuell

etc. iii. 31.
Proske's ' Musica Divina.' ii. 411

Baccolta di Musica Sacra(Alfiei4]

iv. 520.
Raccolta generale, etc. (ChorOD)

iii. 63.
Recueil des morceaux de muslqni

ancienne. See Prince Hot

Eochlitz's Sammlung, etc

141. 142.
Sammlung Sion. Appendix.
Sammlung vorziiglicher Gesi

stiicke. See Rochlitz.
Scotish Music, ancient,

Skene MS.
Selection of Sacred Music.

Skene MS., contents of. iii. 691,1

5-25. :»|

Smith, J. Stafford. See HiulMI

Aniiqua. 1

Specimens, Crotch's, iii. 648-50.
Tresor des Pianistes. iv. 168.


ii. ]0'2. 103.
Lira sacro-hispana. See Eslava.
Meister. Alte. ii. 247.
Moskowa, Prince de la. Becuell

etc. iii. 31.

Tudway. Collection of Churdl

Music, iv. 19S, 199.
Virginal Music. See FartbenU)

and iv. 30S— 312.
Vocal Scores, iv. 319, 320.

COLMAN, or COLEMAN, Charles, Mus,D.
Add that he took the degree of Mus.D. on
July 2, 1651, and that in Nov, 1662 he was
appointed Compossr to the Kin?, with a salary
of £40 per annum. He contributed the musical
definitions to Phillips' 'New World of Words'
(1658). Last line but one of article, /or 1657,
read 1656, and add that he died in July, i664i
(Diet, of Nat. Biog.) '

COLMAN, or COLEMAN, Edward. Add
that he was the original composer of the music.


Shirley's 'Contention of Ajax and Ulysses,'
I its production in 1653, and that on Jan. 21,
562, he took Lanier's place in the royal band.
. 5 from end of article, j^or 19 read 29. (Diet.
Nat. Biog.)

COLOMBA . Opera in 4 acts ; the words,
unded on Prosper Merim^e's story with the
,me title, by Francis HuefFer ; music by A. C.
[ackenzie (op. 28). Written for, and produced
y, the Carl Bosa company, Drury Lane,
pril 5, 1883. Given at Hamburg (in German)
an. 27, 1884, and at Darmstadt, April 29 of
ie same year. [M.]

COLONNE, Judas (called Edouard), violin-
t and conductor, born at Bordeaux, July 24,
338, studied music at the Paris Conservatoire,
here he gained the first prize for harmony in
358, and the same for violin in 1863. He
3came first violin in the Opera orchestra, but
ft it in 1873 to establish, with the music-pub-
3her Hartmann, the 'Concert National.' These
mcerts lasted two seasons, and were first held
; the Od^on theatre, where Franck's ' R^demp-
on ' and Massenet's * Marie Magdeleine ' were
3rformed for the first time ; the concerts were
ibsequently held at the Ch^telet. In 1874,
hartmann having retired, Colonne endeavoured
I form an association among artists which should
3 patronised by amateurs and the public. In this
ay were founded the Concerts duChatelet, which
lough at first unsuccessful, have since gained
I wide a reputation. It was not easy to struggle
jai'ist the established popularity of the Concerts
opulaires, conducted by Pasdeloup, but Colonne
id the excellent idea of giving more prominence
I the works of the younger French composers ;
3 produced several orchestral suites by Masse-
3t, the first and second of which had previously
3en given at the Concerts Populaires, and various
•chestral compositions by Lalo, Dubois, Franck,
ic. ; but the success of the concerts was not
lily assured until Colonne, foreseeing a reaction
L favour of Berlioz, and incited by the example
' Pasdeloup, in a manner devoted his concerts
p the great French composer by producing with
:eat care, and in their entirety, all his works
r chorus and orchestra; ' L'Enfance du Christ,'
Elom^o et Juliette,' and particularly 'La Damna-
on de Faust,' the success of which crowned the
jpularity of his undertaking. The enterprise,
iving quite replaced the Concerts Populaires in
ablic favour, became most profitable to all con-
srned in it, and to its director, who in 1880

Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 140 of 194)