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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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as decorated with the Legion d'Honneur ; he
j,d before, in 1878. been chosen to conduct the
mcerts at the Trocadero during the Exhibition,
[e is an extremely careful conductor, he re-
sarses with the most scrupulous care, and suc-
;eds in giving a correct and vigorous interpre-
ition of the works he performs. In his anxiety
IT clearness he had at one time a tendency to
acken the tempi, and was sometimes lacking in
re and energy ; hut in this respect he has cor-
seted his deficiencies, and now infuses more
armth into the members of his orchestra. [A. J.]



COLTELLINI. Add date of death, 181 7.

COLYNS, Jean-Baptiste, a distinguished
vioHnist, was born at Brussels Nov. 25, 1838.
He was admitted to the Brussels Conservatoire
at the age of 8, where he gained prizes for
violin playing, harmony, etc. He became solo
violinist at the Th^3,tre de la Monnaie at a very
early age, and soon afterwards was appointed
professor of his instrument at the Conservatoire.

He has made many professional tours in
Europe with great success, and has at various
times received advantageous offers to leave his
native city. Among others he was in 1876
invited by the King of Saxony to migrate to
Dresden as Concertmeister and Professor at the
Conservatorium there. These offers he has de-
clined for family reasons. He visited England in
1873, and played at the Crystal Palace, April
12, and at the Philharmonic, July 7. M. Colyns
has occupied himself with composition for his
special instrument, and has also produced several
dramatic works — for example, an opera in i act,
'Sir William' (1877); opera in 3 acts, ' Capi-
taine Eaymond' (1881). [T.P.H.]

COMES. See Answer, Dux, and Fugue.

COMMA. Line 5 from end of article, for
551441 read 531441.

COMMER, Feanz. Add date of death, Aug.
17, 1887, and that 14 vols, of 'Musica Sacra'
have now appeared, of which only the earlier
volumes were edited by Commer.

COMMODO, ' easily,' 'at a convenient pace';
a direction of rare occurrence by itself, but gen-
erally used with Allegro, as in the Rondo of
Beethoven's Sonata in E, op. 14, no. i. [M.]

COMPLINE (Lat. Completorium). The last
of the 'Horse Diurnse,' or 'Day Hours,' of the
Roman Ritual.

Compline is sung after Vespers, either with
or without a pause between the two Offices. It
begins with the Versicle, 'Jube domine bene-
dicere ' ; the Benediction, ' Noctem quietam,
etc.'; and the Lectio, 'Fratres, sobrii estote.'
These are followed by the ' Confiteor,' and 'Ab-
solutio,' with the usual alternations between the
Officiant and the Choir; the Versicles and
Responses, * Converte nos, etc.* ; and Psalms
iv, XXX, xc, and cxxxiii (Vulo:. vers.) sung under
the Antiphon ' Miserere mihi.' These Psalms
never change; nor, except in the last verse, does
the Hymn, ' Te lucis ante terminum,' which im-
mediately succeeds them. The Officiant next
sings the Capitulum, ' Tu autem ' ; followed by
the Responsorium breve, ' In manus tiias ' ; the
' Gloria Patri,' and the Versicle and Response,
' Custode nos.' Tliis part of the Office, which
changes with the Season, is followed by the Can-
ticle, ' Nunc dimittis,' sung with the Antiphon,
' Salva nos.' On certain days, the Canticle is fol-
lowed by the Preces, ' Kyrie eleison, etc.,' sung
kneeling. When these are om'tted, the Officiant
proceeds, at once, with the unchanging Prayer,
'Visita, qusesumus, Domine.' Then follows the
Benediction, * Benedicat et custodiat ' ; and the



Office concludes with one of the four Antiphons,
' Alma Kedemptoris Mater,' ' Ave, Regina,'
' Regina coeli,' or ' Salve Eegina,' which change
with the Season. [W.S.R.]

COMTE ORY. Correct statement as to
first performance ia England (last two lines of
article) by adding that it was given at the
King's Theatre (in Italian) Feb. 28, 1829.

CONCENTO, the sounding together of all
the notes in a chord, and thus the exact opposite
of Arpeggio. [^I-]

CONCERT. P. 384 a, 1. 17 from bottom
should run : — were pre-eminent from 1791 to
1795. Ini8i3the (Corrected in late editions).
Last paragraph but one of article, /br 1780 read,

CONCERT SPIRITUEL. Corrections and
additions will be found under Altes, iv. 521 J.

CONCERTINO {i. e. a little Concert).

I. A term applied to the little band of Solo In-
struments employed in a Concerto gkosso —
which see. The title of Corelli's Concertos is,
Concerli grossi con due Violini e Violoncello di
Concertino ohhligati, e due altri Violini e Basso
di Concerto grosso ad arbitrio die si potramo

II. A Concerto on a small scale. See vol. i.
p. 387 a. [W.S.R.]

Concerto ; i.e. a succession of Movements,
played by two or more Solo Instruments; ac-
companied by a fuU, or stringed Orchestra.

Handel's so-called ' Concertante ' is a com-
position of this kind, written for two Solo Vio-
lins, and Violoncello, accompanied by Stringed
Instruments and Hautboys. Eleven out of the
twelve well-known Grand Concertos, by the same
Composer, are written for a similar assemblage
of Solo Instruments, accompanied by Stringed
Instruments and Continuo only ; but No. VII
of this set is of an exceptional character, and
contains no solo passages. Few of these compo-
sitions contain any bravura passages for the prin-
cipal instruments, which are used, for the most
part, like the Wind Instruments in works of
later date, for tlie purpose of producing variety
of instrumentation ; but sometimes, and espe-
cially in the ' Concertante,' long passages of
great constructional importance are assigned to

Handel's six ' Hautboy Concertos ' are Con-
certi grossi, written for a Cimcertino consisting
of two Solo Violins, two Violoncellos, two Haut-
boys, two Flutes, and two Bassoons, with the
addition, in No. t, of two Tenors, and, in No.
VI, of an obbligato Harpsichord ; accompanied,
throughout the entire set, by the Stringed Or-
chestra and Continuo. In some of these, the
solo passages are much more brilliant than in the
Grand Concertos above mentioned.

An exceptional example, of great interest, by
the same Composer, will be found in the Double
Concerto, performed .at the Handel Festival in
1885. Though unfortunately incomplete, the




autograph copy of this work, in the Library
Buckingham Palace, contains nine movement;
written for two Concertini, each consisting of tw
Hautboys, one Bassoon, and two Horns in I
the whole accompanied by Stringed Orchestr;
and Continuo.

Corelli's Concerti Grossi are written for th C-'
same Instruments as Handel's 'Grand Coe
certos.' Sebastian Bach uses instrumental com
binations of greater variety, and more in accorc
ance with his own peculiar views of orchestra ii
contrast, as in his Concerto for Violin, Flutt |t
and Clavier, with the usual accompaniments.

In form, aU these works bore a close analog
to the ordinary Overture, and Suite, peculiar t j
the middle of the i8th century, the Movement
consisting of a series of Largos, Allegros, an'
Andantes, intermixed, occasionally, with Mi
nuets, Gavottes, and even Gigas. After th
invention of the Sonata-form, the Concerto grosS'
died completely out; for it would be impossibi
to refer to this class of compositions works Uki
]\Iozart's Concertone for two Violins, his Concerti
for Flute and Harp, or even his Serenades

II. A term applied to the Orchestral Accom
paniments of a Grand Concerto, as distinguishec
from the Concertino, or assemblage of principa
instruments. [W.S.R.'

CONCONE, Giuseppe, bom at Turin in 1810
was a professor of the pianoforte and singing. H(
lived for about ten years in Paris, where he gavt
lessons in both branches of music, and broughl
out several compositions for the piano, notably
a set of studies published by Griis. Richault waE
the publisher of his vocal music, which is melo-
dious and well written for the voice. But it if
chiefly by his solfeggi and vocalizzi that Concone
has made a world-wide reputation for usefulness, to '
which the re-publication of these works by Peters
of Leipzig has greatly contributed. Those that
are known consist of a book of 50 solfeggi for a
medium compass of voice, 1 5 vocalizzi for soprano,
25 for mezzo-soprano, and a book of 25 solfeggi
and 15 vocalizzi, 40 in all, for bass or baritone.
This coupling together of bass and baritone is aa
a rule a great mistake, but in the present casdl
the alternative notes given in passages whicn'
run low enable baritone voices to make very'
profitable use of the vocalizzi, and as they do
not run very high, ordinary bass voices can sing
them with sufficient ease. There is also a set of
30 very good florid exercises for soprano.

The contents of these books are melodious and
pleasing, and calculated to promote flexibility OC
voice. The accompaniments are good, and thei^
is an absence of the monotony so often found im
works of the kind. The book of 50 solfeggi ha*'
been re-published by many houses, and latterly
by Curwen, with the Tonic Sol-fa in addition tQ
the ordinary notation.

After the French revolution of 1848, Concone
returned to Turin, and became Maestro di Cap-
pella and Organist at the Chapel Royal. He died
in 1861. [H.C.D.]

CONDELL, Henry. Add date of birth,
1757. He wrote overtures to ' The House to be




' (1802), Dimond's 'Hero of the North'
3), ' Love laughs at Locksmiths ' ; inciden-
iiusic to 'Aladdin,' and Reynolds's 'Bridal
;' (18 10). He died at Battersea, June 24,
, (Diet. ofNat. Biog.)
)NRADI, August, Add day of birth,
I 27, and correct day of death to May 26.
)NSECUTIVE. The last sentence of the
le is to be modified, since the ' later inves-
ions ' prove to be unreliable. There is
e evidence that the Organum was v?hat it
been universally considered to be. [See
iTiON, ii. 469 ; Okgancu, etc.] [M.]

)NSERVATOIRE. P. 392 S, L 4 from
im, /or Toulon read Tulou. (Corrected in

)NSERVATORIO. The dates of the var-
Neapolitan Institutions are more correctly
1 under Naples, ii. 444-6. Line 10 of article,
[ate of the foundation of the first school by
;or is probably much earlier than 1496, as
ft Italy in 1490. [See Tinctoeis, iv. 128.]

>NTI, F. B. P. 395 b, 1. 7,/or Kritische
Historisch-kritische. Line 4 from end of
[e_/br Hof scholar read Hof-compositeur.
>NVICT. The last two sentences of the
le should run : — Its only claim to mention
is the fact that Schubert was educated for
lof-Kapelle in the Convict at no. 45 in the
sten Gasse, Josephstadt, Vienna. That
;he choristers of St. Stephen's is in the
enbaitei. No. 2. (Corrected in late editions.)

)OKE, Benjamin, Mus. D. Add that he
an assistant director at the Handel Com-
oration in 1 784.

)OKE, Henbt. Last line of article, for
read 1656. Add that he composed all the
al music for the coronation of Charles II,
L 23, 1661.

)OKE, Robert. Add dates of birth and
I, 1768 and Aug. 13, 1 814.

lOKE, T. S. P. 398 a, 1. 6, add that in
he was called ' director of the music at
y Lane Theatre ' (Quarterly Musical Mag-
), and that from 1828 to 1830 he was one
le musical managers of Vauxhall Gardens.
[, add that he relinquished his post at the
,rian Embassy in 1838. To list of produc-
add 'Abu Hassan' (adapted from Weber),
1, 1825; 'The White Lady' (from Boiel-
, Oct. 1826; 'Isidore de Merida ' (from
ice), 1828; 'Acis and Galatea,' 1842; 'The
es of a Night,' 1845. (Diet, of Nat.
.) [M.]

)OPER, Geobge. Line 21 ofarticle,yor Sir
ge Smart read J. B. Sale (1856).

)PERARIO, John. P. 399 a, 1. 3, for
readi6i2-iz. Line 9, /or 1614 reacZ 1613.
i, for in the same year read in 1613-14.
lied in 1627.

)PPOLA, P. A. Line I of article, /or in
read Dec. 11, 1793. Line 13, add date of
IL. IV. PT. 5.

'La bella Celeste,' 1837. Last line,/or Nov. 14
read Nov. 13.

COPYRIGHT. The following changes hav«
been made since the publication of the first
volume : —

1. Domestic copyright. Certain speculators
having bought up the copyright of popular songs
with the object of levying penalties upon persons
innocently singing them at charitable concerts
and penny readings, an Act was passed in 1882
providing that the proprietor of any musical com-
position who shall be desirous of retaining in his
own hands exclusively the right of public perform-
ance or representation of the same shall cause to
be printed upon the title-page of every published
copy a notice that this right is reserved.

2. International Copyright. By the Conven-
tion of Berne, executed Sept. 9, 1886, the fol-
lowing States entered into an International
Copyright Union : — Great Britain (including all
the Colonies), Germany, Belgium, Spain, France,
Haiti, Italy, Liberia, Switzerland, Tunis. This
treaty will supersede all existing copyright-
agreements between Great Britain and the States
enumerated. The second article of the treaty
is as follows : — ' Authors of any of the countries
of the Union shall enjoy in the other countries
for the works, whether published in one of those
countries or unpublished, the rights which the
respective laws do now or may hereafter grant
to natives.' The term of protection is not, how-
ever, in any case to exceed in length the term of
protection in the country of origin. Thus, a
German who has complied with the formalities
and conditions lequired for copyright in Ger-
many, will possess, in England, the same copy-
right privileges in his work as an Englishman ;
but these will not last longer than the term of
protection which the law of his own country
gives to his work. It is expressly stated that
Article ii. applies to the public representation of
dramatic or dramatico-musical works, and to the
public performance of unpublished musical works,
and of published musical works in which the
author has declared on the title-page that he
forbids the public performance. [C.A.F.]

COR ANGLAIS. The statement in the last
sentence but one, as to Rossini's use of the in-
strument, is to be corrected by a reference to
Oboe di Caccia, vol. ii. p.,489-

CORANTO. See Coubante, vol. i. p. 410.

CORBETT, William. Add that be made
two journeys to Italy ; the first, as stated in the
Dictionary, about 1711, from which he returned
and gave a concert at Hickford's Rooms in 1714
(April 28). It was at this time that he was ap-
pointed to the Royal band, his name appearing
on the Ust of musicians from 1716 to 1747- He
died March 7, 1 747-8. The last sentence should
run : — After his return he published ' Concertos,
or Universal Bizzaries composed on all the new
Gustos in his travels through Italy,' containing
36 concertos, in two books, the first in four parts,
tlie second in seven, professing to exhibit, etc.
(Diet, of Nat. Biog.) [M.]




CORDER, Fbederick, at this date (1888)
one of the foremost of our rising young com-
posers. Bom in London, Jan. 26, 1852, he
showed from infancy a strong aptitude for music,
which he was, however, not allowed to indulge,
being at the age of 18 made to go into business.
From his first situation he was unexpectedly
released by the pecuniary embarrassments of his
employers, and he then persuaded his parents to
let him enter the Royal Academy of Music,
wliere his talent for original composition was
quickly recognised. He only remained there a
year and a half, as, on being elected to the
Mendelssohn Scholarship, he was sent to Cologne,
where he studied bard for four years under Dr.
Ferdinand Hiller, Shortly after his return to
England he was appointed conductor at the
Brighton Aquarium, where by his talents and
energy he raised the musical entertainments
from the very low level at which he found them,
and brought the orchestra to its present state of
efficiency. Mr. Corder's gifts and culture are
wide and varied. During the years when music
proved unremunerative — as for years it must
do to all young composers of high aim and
nncom promising temper — he supported himself
mainly by literary work, in much of which he
had the co-operation and help of his accomplished
wife. His musical star seems now in the as-
cendant. Several of his orchestral works have
been performed at the Crystal Palace, the Phil-
harmonic concerts and elsewhere. His romantic
opera 'Nordisa,' written for the Carl Rosa
company, was produced on Jan. 26, 1887, at
the Royal Court Theatre, Liverpool, with bril-
liant success. It has since been performed in
several provincial towns, and was brought out
at Drury Lane, May 4, 1887. Subjoined is
a complete list of Mr. Corder's compositions.
The words of all the vocal works but the two
last are his own. The works marked with an
asterisk have been published,

1. Evening on the Sea-shore. Idyll for Orchestra. 1876.

2. Im Schwarzwald. Suite. 1876.

3. Morte d'Arthur. Grand Opera, 4 acts. 1877—8.

4. Philomel. Operatic Satire, 1 act. 1880.

5. A Storm in a Teacup. Operetta. 1880.

6. The Cyclops, Cantata. 1881.

♦7. Elver Songs, Trios for Female voices. 1881.

8, Overture. Ossian (written for the Philharmonic Society). 1882.

9. Nocturne for Orchestra, 1882,

10, Dreamland. Ode for Chorus and Orchestra, 1883.
•11, Boumanian Dances. Violin and Piano. 1883.

12. The Nabob's Pickle. Operetta. 1883.

13. The Noble Savage. Do. 1885.
•14. Overture. ' Prospero,' 1885,

15. Orchestral scenes for The Tempest. 188S.
•16. The Bridal of Triermain. Cantata (Wolverhampton Festlvall

•17. 'Nordisa,' Romantic Opera. 1886.
78. Eoumaolan Suite for Orchestra. 1887.
•19. 'The Minstrel's Curse," Ballad for declamation, with orchestral

accompaniment. Crystal Palace, March 10, 1888.
•20. Song, ' O sun, that wakenest all ' (Tennyson). pv AMI

CORFE, Joseph, Line 4 of article, /or 1782
read 1783, and add that he sang in the Handel
Commemoration. Line 9, /or Cathedral reai
Church. Line 10, for eight read eleven. Add
that A, T, Corfe organized a successful festival at
Salisbury on Aug. 19-22, 1828. Last line, /or
18 read was, from 1846 to i S83 ; and add dates of
birth and death, 1814, and Dec, 16, 1883.


Another of his sons, John Davis Corfb, 1
1804, was for many years organist of Br
Cathedral, and died in Jan. 1876. (Did
Nat. Biog.) [

CORNELIUS. Correct date of death to
26, and add that on Oct. 28, 1887, hisopera, '
Barbier von Bagdad,' was reproduced with
cess at Coburg.

CORNELYS, Theresa, born at Venici
1723. was tlie daughter of an actor named Ii
She was the mistress of a senator Malipier
the age of seventeen, and in 1753 bore the s
relation to the Margrave of Baireuth, bein
married to a singer named Pompeati. Al
the same period she was nominated directo
the theatres in the Austrian Netherlands
came to England and sang as second womai
the first rendering of Gluck's opera ' La cac
de' Giganti* at the Haymarket, Jan. 7, i
She sang at Amsterdam as Mme. Trenti,
took the name of Cornelys from that of a
tleman at Amsterdam, M. Cornells de Rigerl
Returning to England, she bought Car
House, Soho Square, in 1760, in order to
a series of public entertainments, to whic
number of ladies and gentlemen subscr
under the name of ' The Society.' On Feb,
1 761, she sang as Mme. Pompeati in the M
Room in Dean Street for the benefit of a Sij
Siprutini. Her eleventh entertainment
advertised to take place on May p, 1763.
first 'grand concert of vocal and instrume
music ' took place on Friday, Feb, 24, 1764,
the first 'morning subscription music' on A
6 of the same year. In spite of opposition
quarrels her rooms became very popular. I
and Abel directed her concerts in 1765; \
appear to have been connected with Car!i
House down to 1773, and periiaps later.
April 1768 Mrs. Cornelys was honoured \k
the presence of some of the Royal Family, |
in August of the same year the King of Ij
mark visited her rooms. In 1769 she gavj
festival and grand concert under the diiectioij
Guadagni. Galas, concerts, and masked bj
followed each other in rapid succession, but j
proprietors of the Italian Opera House felt t
the ' Harmonic meetings ' were becoming d !i
gerous rivals to their own attractions. Ij
Cornelys and Guadagni were fined at Bow Str i
and she was indicted before the Grand Ji
Feb. 24, I77''> fo'' keepin<r 'a common disorde
house.' Goldsmith's ' Threnodia Augusta :
for the death of the Princess of Wales, Wf
music by Vento, was given at the rooms Fs
20, 1772. Her fashionable supporters begarj
leave her house for the Pantheon, and in i^
'London Gazette' for Nov. 1772 appeared i;
name of ' Teresa Cornelys, dealer.' In the i
lowing month Carlisle House and its contei
were sold by auction. On several occasi r
between 1775 and 1777 Mrs. Cornelys is to
heard of as giving concerts and balls at Carl:
House, but after the latter date .she remaineci
retirement under the name of Mrs, Smith, £


supported by a son, who pre-deceased her.
bort time before her death she sold asses'

at Knightsbridsre and unsuccessfully tried
range some public breakfasts. She died in
Fleet Prison Aug. 19, 1 797, at the age of 74,
ing a daughter who called herself Miss
iams. The merits of Mrs. Cornelys as a
er were small, but the 'Circe of Soho Square,'
le was styled, organized during twelve years
nost fashionable series of entertainments in
Ion. She was an able woman of business and
sughly understood the art of advertising,
isle House passed through various fortunes.
780 the ball-room was used by a debating
ity, and in 1 785 the property was sold afresh,
isle House was pulled down about 1788 and
present houses, 21A and 2 IB, built on the
St. Patrick's (Roman Catholic) Chapel in
3n Street, consecrated in 1792, was the
er banquetting- or ball-room. (See Life in
. ofNat. Biog. vol. xii.) [H.R.T.]

)RN'ET. Line 3 of article, add reference to
:e, vol. iv. p. 511,

)RNYSHE, William. Lines 3, 4,/orGil-
Banestre about the year 1490 read William
ark in 1509. Add that he went with the
to the Field of the Cloth of Gold, where he
ed the pageants at the banquet. He died
e November, 1524. For further infoima-
the reader is referred to the Diet, of Nat.

)RONA. A synonym for Fermata or Pause,
mewhat rare occurrence; a familiar instance

use is in the 'Virgo virginum' of Dvorak's
3at Mater,' in which Senza Corona is placed
the last note of the movement in the vocal
, to emphasize the fact that the instruments
: hold out the pause. [M.]

IRONACH ( Gaelic, a funeral cry, from Co,
ither' — analogue of the Latin con — and
?h, 'a shrieking or weeping' : root ran, 'a
i or cry'). This was the dirge chanted in
T times in Celtic Scotland by the Bard or
lachie on the death of the chief or other

personage of a clan. In some degree it
ibled the song of praise composed and led
)ecial bards : the genealogy, the virtues,
;he great deeds of the deceased were re-
.ed in pathetic verse to plaintive wild music,
ard giving vent to his own grief, while the
Is of the harp and the wailings of women
3d that of the hearers. However rude, it to have been rhythmical, and was chanted
ntative. Although the great funeral cere-
il, of which the dirge was only a part, must
been confined to persons of distinction, yet
. cases the coronach was indispensable, as
ut it, according to popular belief, the spirit
jondemned to wander forlorn, bewailing its
able fate that this rite had been denied
These ceremonies had, however, no reli-

significance ; the virtues, heroism, and
irements of the dead were alone their sub-
and the rite continued thus to be observed
iland and the Highlands of Scotland long



after the conversion of the people to Christianity.
Dr. Stewart of Nether Lochaber — perhaps the
highest living authority on such matters —
writes : —

Our oldest Gaelic Laments are to this day to be chanted
rather than sung ; and I can recollect an old seannachie
in the Braes of Lochaber, some thirty-five years ago,
chanting Macintosh's Lament to me, in a style of reci-
tative that impressed me greatly ; his version of the well-
known and beautiful air being in parts very different
from that printed in our books ; and if ruder and wilder,
all the more striking because of its naturalness.

Sir Walter Scott mentions the coronach as a
part of the funeral rite when the body of the
chief of clan Quhele was borne to an island in
Loch Tay (Fair Maid of Perth, chap, xxvii.) ; and
again in ' The Lady of the Lake' (canto iii.) he in-
troduces the coronach in the beautiful verses : —

He is gone on the mountain,
He is lost to the forest,
Like a summei'-dried fountain
When our need was the sorest.

In a note he also gives a translation of a genu-

Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 141 of 194)