George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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ine Gaelic coronach. In ordinary cases of death
this dirge was simply the expression of the
grief of the women of the clan for the loss of a
protector or breadwinner, intensified by the genius
of a poetic and highly imaginative people.

These funeral customs must have prevailed in
Scotland before the advent of the Romans, and
been handed down from pre-historic times, forthey
were confined to the Gaelic-speaking districts,
north of the wall of Antoninus, and Mr. W. F.
Skene has now proved beyond a doubt that the
Picts, the inhabitants of that region, were a Celtic
race, their language being Gaelic with traces of
Cornish. In Scotland in modern times the
rhapsody of the bard and the wail of the women
are no longer heard : the name Coronach has been
transferred to the Cumhadh or musical lament, a
kind of pibroch now played by the pipers who lead
the funeral procession. These pibroch laments
are in a peculiarly weird, wild style, well suited
for the bagpipe, but not capable of being repro-
duced on any other instrument. They begin with
a simple motivo, and this is worked up, with
ever-increasing intricacy and rapidity of notes,
through a number of divisions or variations,
till the same simple wild strain reappears as the
close. Some of these laments have a high re-
putation, such as those of Macintosh, MacLeod,
Mac Rimmon (Cha till mi tuille — I return no
more). The last is often played as the emigrant's
farewell to his country.

In Ireland these funeral rites would seem to
have been celebrated in early times on a much
grander scale than in Scotland. Professor Sulli-
van, in his excellent Introduction to O'Curry's
Lectures on the Manners and Customs of the
Ancient Irish, quoting from the Book of Balli-
mote and other Irish MSS., shows that in many
cases a funeral pyre was erected, the favourite
dogs and horses of the deceased slain and burned
with the body, and that, in one instance at least,
there was an extraordinary addition to the cere-
monial. This took place at the funeral of
Fiachra, the son of Eochad Muidhmeadhan. He
had won a great battle in Munster, and was

Rr 2



returning home to Temar (Tara) with the spoil
and hostages taken from the enemy :

When he reached Terud in Meath Fiachra died of his
wounds there. His Leacht (Stones set up to protect the
urnt was made ; his Fert (mound of earth) was raised ;
his Cluiche Caintech (pyre) was ignited; his Ogham name
was written ; and the hostages which he had brought
from the South were buried alive round the Fert ot
Fiachra, that it might lie a reproach to the Momonians
for ever, and that it might be a trophy over them.

The Cluiche Caintech here used for the pyre
was properly the whole funeral rite, and included
the burning of the body, the enclosing of the
ashes in the urn, the recitation of dirges, and the
performance of games. When in Christian times
burial took the place of cremation, some of these
observances survived, in particular the dirge or
wail, while the lighted candles are supposed to
represent the ignition of the pyre. Much in-
formation of a most interesting nature wiU be
found in Professor Sullivan's work, and not
altogether confined to matters of antiquity.

These observances seem to be a survival of
rites common to the Aryan nations of antiquity.
The funerals of Patroclus and of Hector, as re-
lated in the Iliad, may be taken as descriptions
of a traditionary custom, thousands of years
older than Homer, practised by the progenitors
of these nations before even the earliest swarm
had left its fatherland.

Much interesting matter regarding Celtic cus-
toms will be found in O'Curry's Lectures ;
Walker's Memorials of the Bards; Logan's Gael,
edited by Dr. Stewart, and an admirable chapter
on the ethnology of the country in W. F. Skene's
Celtic Scotland. Mr. George MacDonald is
thanked not only for the Gaelic etymology, but
also for kind hints on the subject. [J.M.W.]

CORRI, DoMENico. Line i of article, add day
of birth, Oct. 4, and for Naples read Rome.
Line 2, for about 1826 read May 22, 1825. Add
that in 1 77 1 he was invited to Edinburgh to conduct
the concerts of the Musical Society, and settled
there as a publisher and singing-master. He went
to London, as stated in the Dictionary, in 1774,
but did not again visit England tiU 1787, when
he joined Mazzinghi and Storace in writing ad-
ditional music to Paisiello's ' Re Teodoro.' The
opera of ' The Travellers ' was produced on Jan.
22,1806. His instruction book, called 'The
Singer's Preceptor' was issued in 18 10, and con-
tains an autobiographical preface. Last line but
two of article, for Antonio read Philip An-
tony, and add that he was one of the original
promoters of the Philharmonic Society. (Diet.
of Nat. Biog.) [M.]

COSI FAN TUTTE. To last line but one
add that it was also produced as 'The Re-
taliation' at the Theatre Royal, English Opera
House (Lyceum), April 14, 1841. Add that ' Tit
for tat' was produced at the English Opera
House, July 29, 1828.

COSTA. Line 22 of article, for Psalm, etc.
read cantata on Is. xii. P. 406 b, line 12, for in
February 1838, read Jan. 14, 1837. Add date
of death, April 29, 1884.

COSTELEY, William. Line 8 of article,




correct the statement that the society found
by him was called 'Puy de Musique, etc.,' tl
title referring to a musical contest establish
by the guild in 1 575, at which Orlando de Lass j]
carried off the first prize, a silver harp. A
day of death, Feb. I. (Diet, of Nat. Biog.) [A
COTTA, Johannes, who died at Willerste
in 1868, is worthy of mention as composer oft
spii'ited music for four male voices to Arnd
patriotic song, which electrified Germany at t
time of the rising against Napoleon in 18:
' Des Deutschen Vaterland,' commencing ' ^^
ist des Deutschen Vaterland.' The same so
was skilfully set, but with undesirable complex!
by G. Reichardt in 1826. But Cotta's tune
the one wedded to the poem from the beginnii
and during the period of enthusiasm for the n
national idea. [^•■'^r

COTTON, John, the author of a treatise
music, dating from the latter part of the elevei
or the beginning of the twelfth century. Tb
e.\ist five copies in MS., at Leipzig, Pai
Antwerp, the Vatican Library, and two
Vienna. A sixth copy, used by Gerbert, \t
published the treatise in 1784, was destroyed
the fire at St. Blasien in 1768. In the Pa
and Antwerp copies the authorship is ascril
to Cotton or Cottonius, two of the others bean
the title ' Joannis Musica.' Gerbert quotes
anonymous work (' De Script. Eccles.'), in wk
reference is made to a learned English musid
known as Joannes ; and the dedication of 1
book, which runs ' Domino et patri suo vene
bili Anglorum antistiti Fulgentio,' bears out I
a^^sumption that its author was English. It 1
been variously proposed to ascribe its authors!
to Pope John XXII, and to Joannes ScholaJ
cus, a monk of the monastery of St. Matthias
Trfeves, but the above theory is probably corre
The treatise is valuable as explaining the h
monic system of the period in which it v
written. (Diet, of Nat. Biog.) [W.B,

COUCHED HARP. An obsolete namej
Spinet, which see.

COUPPEY, LE. See vol.ii.p. 7316, and «|
that he died in 1887.

COURTEVILLE, Raphael. Line 16
article,/o>' 1696 read 1695. Line 19, etc., 1
statement that he died and was succeeded by]|
son in 1735 is without confirmation. Thevesi
registers of the Church of St. James's, Piccadil
show no entry of a change of organists betwe
1691 and 1 771, and as several entries imply tl
Courteville had been for many years before t
latter date unable to perform his duties, it
highly probable, if not actually certain, that
person of the name held the post for eigl
years. He seems to have married in 1735 a la
of large fortune. (Notes and Queries, ser. II.
496.) In 1738 he published ' Memoirs of Lc
Burleigh,' siirning it only with initials,
pamphlet by him on Insolvency was publish
in 1 761, and a satire on his writings appear
in the 'Westminster Journal' of Dec. 4, 17^
bearing his signature, with the appended till




rgan-blower, Essayist, and Historiographer,'
died early in June, 1772, and was buried on
10th of the month. [M.]

:OUSSEMAKEIl, C. E. H. de. Line 20,
10 read 12.

6, for 1862 read 1856. (Corrected in late
tions.) Line i^^for 1862 read 1861.
yOWARD, James, bom in London, Jan. 25,
;4, entered the choir of Westminster Abbey
in early age. He was given the appointment
,)rganist at the parish church, Lambeth ; and
;he opening of the Crystal Palace at Syden-
a he received a similar appointment there,
ch he retained until his death. He held
ious church appointments in addition to this,
ag at one time or another organist of St.
>rge's, Bloomsbury, and St. Magnus the
rtyr, London Bridge. He was conductor of
VVestern Madrigal Society from 1 864 to 1872,
directed also the Abbey and City Glee Clubs
some time before his death, which took place
lis house in Lupus Street, Jan. 22, 1880. He
i for some time organist to the Sacred Har-
lic Society, and the Grand Lodge of Freemason s.
hough best known by his brilliant transcrip-
is for the organ of operatic melodies, etc., his
dished works show him to have possessed con-
arable musical knowledge and artistic feeling.
ly include an anthem, ' Lord, correct me ' ;
iog unto God,' a canon four in two ; two other
ons ; Ten Glees ; ' Ten Glees and a madrigal,'
Slished 1871 ; besides many pieces for piano-
'.e, organ, etc. He had a remarkable power of
')rovisation, which however, was often turned
account in order to accompany the perform-
'es of acrobats and similar exhibitions. [M.]

bwEN, F. H. To the list of his works add
; oratorio of 'St. Ursuhi' (Norwich, 1881),
i. the cantata 'The Sleeping Beauty' (Bir-
igham, 1885) ; an orchestral suite, 'The
iguage of Flowers,' and a 'Scandinavian'
iphony (No. 3% A 'Welsh' symphony (No. 4)
; played at the Philharmonic in 1884, and a
1, in F, written for the Cambridge University
sical Society, was performed there, and sub-
uently at a Richter concert, in 18S7. An
torio entitled ' Ruth,' the words by Joseph
mett, was given at the Worcester Festival of

same year. In 1888 he was appointed con-
tor of the Philharmonic Society, and was given

post of musical director of the Melbourne
itennial Exhibition. [M.]

!RAMER, P. 413 S, 1. 20, omit the words
.he next. Line 26, add that Franz or Fran-
; Cramer was appointed Master of the King's
iic on the death of Christian Kramer in 1834.
.6 29, after Johann Baptist, add the eldest
. Add that J. B. Cramer's first appearance
s place in 1781. Line ^2, for I'j'j^read 1784.
CREATION, THE. Line 10 of article,/or
read 2.

'REED. Line 12, omit the words but in later
isions the word ' sung ' has been removed.

CRESCENTINL Gieolamo. Line 2 of article,
for in read Feb. 2. Last line but one,/br in
read April 24.

CREYGHTON, Rev. R. Last two lines,
correct date of death to Feb. 17, 1733, and /or
age rend 94.

CRISTOFORL Line 13 of article, /or in 1651
read probably May 4, 16.; 5 (the date given by
Paloschi). Line \6,for Florence read Padua.
P. 418, paragraph 3, add that a second instru-
ment by Cristofori was exhibited at the Festival
of 1876, and at the Trocadero, Paris, 1878, by
the Signori Krauss of Florence. The date of it
is 1726 ; the action is the same as in that be-
longing to the Signora Martelli, but with the
advantage of possessing the original light ham-
mers. The touch is good and very facile. P. 418 a,
1. 9 from bottom, /or in rearZ Jan. 27. [A.J.H.]

CROCE, Giovanni. Line 6 of article, /or in
read in August.

CROCIATO IN EGITTO. Line 4 of article,
for June 30 read July 23.

CROFT, William, Mus. D. Correct date of
birth to 1678; he was baptized on Dec. 30 in
that year. P. 4196, 1. 15, /or 1703 read 1702,
and /or 1704 read 1703. [W.B.S.]

CROSDILL, John. Line 17 of article, for
In 77 he succeeded Peter Gillier read In 78 he
succeded Nares.

CROSS, Thomas. See London Violin
Makers, vol. ii. p. 164 h.

CROSSE, John. Add date of birth, July 7,
17S6, and correct date of death to Oct. 20, 1833.

CROTCH, W, P. 420 h, 1. 16, for the spring
of 1780 read Oct. 1779. Line 19 from bottom,
for About 1820, etc., read He lectured at the
Royal Institution in 1804, 5 and 7, and again
from 1820 onwards.

CROUCH, Mks. a. M. Line 8, /or in the
winter 0^ read on Nov. 11. Line 3 from end of
article, /or About 1800 read In 1801, and add
that on May 14 of that year she appeared as
Celia in 'As You Like It,' for Kelly's benefit.

CRWTH. Line 7 of article should run : —
about 609, by Venantius Fortunatus, Bishop, etc.
(CoiTected in late editions.)

CUDMOEE, Richard. Correct date of death
to Dec. 29, 1840.

CQI, Cesar Antonovitoh, born Jan. 6, 1835,
at Wilna, was educated at the School of Engineer-
ing in St. Petersburg, where he ultimately
became Professor of Fortification, and published
several books on the art of war. He received a
tliorough musical education from Moniuszko and
Balakirew, and from 1864 to 1868 contributed
musical articles to one of the St. Petersburg
papers, in which he warmly advocated the cause
of modern music, and in particular of Schumann,
Berlioz, and Liszt. In 1 878-9 he contributed a
series of articles entitled ' La Musique en Russie '
to the Paris 'Revue et Gazette musicale.' Of
his four operas, ' Der Gefangene im Kaukasus,'
' Der Sohn des Mandarins,' ' William Ratcliflf,'



and ' Angelo ' (the last on Victor Hugo's play),
the two latter have been published with Russian
aiulGerman words. Two scherzos and a tarantelle
for orchestra, a suite for piano and violin, and up-
wards of fifty songs, are mentioned by Rieniann,
from -wliose lexicon the above notice is taken.
A very effective Polonaise in C was played by
Rubinstein in London in iS86, and has lately
been published by Stanley Lucas & Co. [M.J
CUMMINGS, W. H. Add that he is editor
of the publications of the Purcell Society, and
that he contributed a life of that master to the
' Great Musician ' series. He was appointed con-
ductor of the Sacred Harmonic Society in 1882,
CURWEN, John, the founder of the ' Tonic
Sol-fa' method of teaching singing, was born
Nov. 14, 1816, at Heckmondwike, Yorkshire.
For an account of the main work of his life, see
Tonic Sol-fa and Tonic Sol-fa College. He
came from an old Cumberland family, and was
educated (at University College, London) for
the profession of his father, a Nonconformist
minister. It was at a conference of Sunday-
school teachers held in Hull ini84l that he was
commissioned to make enquiry as to the best and
simplest way of teaching to sing by note, and the
investigations thus begun led him to make the
spreading of music among the people the great
object of his life. Ini843 his 'Grammar of Vocal
Music ' appeared. In 1 S53 he founded the 'Tonic
Sol-fa Association,' and in 1S79 the ' Tonic Sol-fa
College.' In 1S64 he gave up ministerial work,
and devoted his whole time ' to the direction of
the large organisation ' which had grown up under
his care. He died at Manchester June 26, 18S0.
A biograjihy published in 18S2 by his son, John
Spencer Curwen (Principal of the Tonic Sol-fa
CoUege), under the title of 'Memorials of John
Curwen,' gives a picture of a very full and useful
life, as well as of a signally fine character. Since
the article Tonic Sol-fa was written, the method
has been more and more widely adopted, and it
is now the most generally accepted means, in
England and the Colonies, of teaching the
elements of music for sight-singing purposes.

The following is a list of Mr. Curwen's educa-
tional works, omitting the large number of
smaller instruction- books, etc., prepared for the
use of classes of different kinds : —

'The Standard Course of Lessons and Exercises on
the Tonic Sol-fa Method.' [First edition, ISOl ; issued m
a new form, 1872, as the 'New Standard Course,' the
most complete class book of the method for general use,
includes Harmony, Musical Form, Composition, etc.].

'The Teacher's Manual of the Art of Teaching in
General, and especially as applied to Music,' ISio. [A
hook designed fir the teaching of teachers, with full
explanations and discussions of theoretical points, hints
ou the management of classes, and on the art of teach-
ing generally. This hook superseded an earlier hook of
a similar character— ' Singing for Schools and Congre-
gatious,' 184:JJ.

' How to observe Harmony.' First edition 1S61 ; re-
issued in a new form 1S72. [The text book used for
teaching Harmony on the T. S. F. method. The musical
illustrations are printed in both notations].

'A Tonic Sol-fa Primer' ^No. 18 of the series of
Primers edited by Dr. Stainer, and published by Messrs.
NovelloK [Written 'to explain the letter T. S. F. nota-
tion and metbod of teaching to those already familiar
with the established mode of writing mvisic by means of
the Staff.']


' Musical Theory,' 1879. [Mr. Curwen's latest wc
Musical examples given in the two notations. In i
main divisions. Common Scale and Time, Minor M.
and Transition, Musical Form, Expression, and H

' Musical Statics : an attempt to show the bearing|»i
the recent discoveries in Acoustics on Chords, Disco
Transitions, Modulations, and Tuning, as used by modi
musicians.' 1S74.

'Tonic Sol-fa Reporter.' Published monthly (1
Begun 1851 : nearly 900 numbers since issued :
number gives articles and essays, together with so
pages of part music, choruses, part songs, madrigals, e
by old and living composers. The list of pieces tl
published shows about 3000 titles.

Various Hymn and Tune Books, Collections of P
Music, School Songs, etc., including' Modern Part Son
in 96 numbers (by contemporary composers, Sulliv
Macfarren, Pinsuti, Smart, Barnby, and others.

Mr. Curwen also edited in Sol-fa a large numl
of classical works (oratorios and other compositic
by Handel, Haydn, Mozart, Rossini, etc.), a
works by modern composers (Macfarren,Mende ^
' =,). [See also vol.ii. 428 a.] [R.B.l ^


sohn, and others)

CUSHION-DANCE. Omit theivords{i.e.^
sibly ' kissing-dance '). The false derivation wjj
probably suggested by some too ingenious &•
man, and rose from the similarity of the woi
Kissen and Kiissen. A full description of tt
danceisgivenintheHarmonicon.vol.ix.iQi. [iK ^

CUSINS, W. G. Line 21 of article, add tb
he resigned the Philharmonic appointment

CUTLER, W. H. Add that he is last hea
of as giving a gTand concert at the Opera Hot:
on July 5, 1824. The date of his death is w

CUZZONI, Francesca, born at Parma, ^
Modena,^ about 1 700,^ received her first instrt
tion from Lanzi, a noted master, and became
of the most famous singers of the last century. S
made her debut at Venice with Faustina, 171
in M. A. Gasparini's 'Lamano,' being describ
as ' Virtuosa di Camera' of the Grand Duch<
of Tuscany ; and she appeared again with Fa»
tina and Bernacchi in the ' Pentimento Gei
roso,' in the same year and at the same plai
After singing on most of the principal stages
Italy she came to England. On her first arri^
here she married Sandoni, a harpsichord-masi
and composer of some eminence.^ Her first s
pearance in London was on Jan. 12, 1722,
Teofane in Handel's 'Otho.' Her singing
her first air, a slow one, ' Falsa immagine,' fix
her reputation. A story is told about this so;
which illustrates her character as well as that
Handel. At rehearsal she took a dislike to t
air, and refused to sing it; whereupon Hanci
seized her by the waist, and swore he would thn
her out of the window if she persisted. S
gave way, and in that very song achieved one
her greatest triumphs. Success followed her
' Coriolano,' in ' Flavio,' and in ' Farnace ' ; a
she became a popular favourite.

In the following year she sang in 'Vesj
siano' and 'Giulio Cesare.' Meanwhile Ci
zonis popularity had diminished that of Dur;
tanti, who left England, and had eclipsed that
poor Anastasia Robinson, who soon after retirt

1 Bumey. s HawkUu. ' F«l«.


: azzoni continued her triumphal career in ' Cal-
i mia,' ' Tamerlane,' and ' Artaserse ; * and in
lodelinda' (1725) she created one of her most
ccessful parts, gaining great reputation by her
nder singing of the song * Ho perduto il caro
oso.' Fresh applause met her in * Dario,'
lUpidia,' ' Elisa,' ' Scipio,' and finally in ' Ales-
ndro ' (Handel), when she first encountered, on
le English stage, the redoubtable Faustina. In
ds opera her style and that of her rival were
alfully contrasted by the composer ; but the con-
st was the first of a series which did the Italian
pera much harm.

In 1727 she created a great eSect in the song
sen vola' ('Admeto'), which displayed her
arbUng style ; and an enthusiast in the gal-
ry was so far carried away by the charm that
3 exclaimed, ' D — her ! she has a nest of
ghtingales in her belly ! ' Her next part was
. 'A^tyanax.' The violence of party feeling
id now become so great that, when the ad-
irers of Cuzzoni applauded, those of Faustina
issed ; and vice versa. This culminated during
le performance of ' Astyanax,' when shrill and
iscordant noises were added to the uproar, in
Dite of the presence of the Princess Caroline,
ady Pembroke headed the Cuzzonists, and was
impooned in the following epigram ^

Upon Lady Pembroke's PROMOirNG the oat-calls OF
Old poets sing that beasts did dance

Whenever Orpheus play'd,
So to Faustina's charming voice
Wise fembroke's asses bray'd.

luzzoni's chief supporters, among the men, are
ammemorated in the following ^

Epigram on the Miracles wrought bt Cuzzosl

Boast not how Orpheus charm'd the rooks,
And set a-dancing stones and stocks,

And tygers rage appeas'd;
All this Cuzzoni has surpassa,
Sir Wilfred 2 seems to have a taste,
And Smith* and Gage^ are pleas'd.

In 1728 Cuzzoni appeared in 'Siroe' and
Tolomeo ' with unabated success, in spite of the
Beggar's Opera ' and all these heart-burnings.
Lt the close of the season, however,' the direc-
ors, troubled by the endless disputes of the
ivals, decided to offer Faustina one guinea a
ear more than the salary of Cuzzoni. The latter
lad been persuaded to take a solemn oath that
he would not accept less than her enemy, and
.0 found herself unengaged. About this time^
he yielded to the invitation of Count Kinsky,
ind went to Vienna. She sang at court with
;reat eclat ; but her arrogant demands pre-
ented her from getting an engagement at the

1 Hart. MSS. 7316. pp. 3H, S19.
3 Simon Smith, £s<l.
6 BankiDS.

2 Sir W. Lawson.
4 Sir William Gage.
e Fetis.


At Venice she next sang at one theatre, while
Faustina performed at another. In London again,
a few years later (1734), she appeared in Por-
pora's 'Ariadne;' and, with FarineUi, Senesino,
and Montagnana, in ' Artaserse ' as Mandane,
and also in other operas.

Hawkins says that she returned again in
174S, and sang in ' Mitridate;' but this is not
recorded by Bumey, who puts her third visit in
i75o> when she had a benefit concert (May 18).
She was now old, poor, and almost voiceless.
The concert was a failure, and she disappeared
again. She then passed some time in Holland,
where she soon fell into debt, and was thrown
into prison. Gradually she paid her debts by
occasional performances given by the permission
of the governor of the prison, and returned to
Bologna, where she was obliged to support her-
self by making buttons. She died there in
extreme poverty and squalor in 1770.^

It was difficult to decide whether she excelled
more in slow or in rapid airs. A ' native warble '
enabled her to execute divisions with such faci-
lity as to conceal their difficulty. So grateful
and touching was her natural tone that she ren-
dered pathetic whatever she sang, when she had
the opportunity to unfold the whole volume of
her voice. Her power of conducting, sustaining,
increasing, and diminishing her notes by minute
degrees acquired for her, among professors, the
credit of being a complete mistress of her art. Her
shake was perfect : she had a creative fancy, and
a command of tempo rubato. Her high notes
were unrivalled in clearness and sweetness, and
her intonation was so absolutely true that she
seemed incapable of singing out of tune.* She had
a compass of two octaves, C to c in alt. Her style
was unaffected, simple, and sympathetic. As an
actress she was cold, dressed badly, and her figure
was short and ungraceful. Yet the fine ladies
imitated the costume (brown silk, embroidered

Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 142 of 194)