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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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with silver) which she wore in ' Rodelinda,' and
it became the rage ! She was silly, fantastical,
capricious, ungrateful, and extravagant : with all
her charms she had many faults, by which she
herself was the greatest sufferer, as is usual.

Her face was ' doughy and cross, but her com-
plexion fine.' ^ There are no good portraits of
her ; but she figures in several of the caricatures
of the time, and notably in Hogarth's ' Mas-
querades and Operas,' where she is the singer to
whom the Earl of Peterborough is presenting
£1000. Her portrait in Hawkins's ' History' is
taken from a print by Vander Gucht after
Seeman. [J.M.]

CYCLUS. See Liedeekbeis.

CZAR UND ZIMMERMANN. Line 2 of
article,/or 1854 read 1837.

' Fetis. 8 JIaQCini, Psnsieii, 1774. » Walpole.



604



D.



DA CAPO. P. 427 a, 1. 8, for TenagHa's
opera of * Clearco ' read Cavalli's opera of
'Giasone ' (1655).

DALAYRAC, Nicolas. Add days of birth
and death, June 13 and Nov. 27.

D'ALBERT, Charles Louis Napoleon, son
of Fran9ois Benoit d'Albert, was born at Men-
stetten, near Altona, Hamburg, Feb. 25, 1809.
His father was a captain of cavalry in the French
army. On his death in 18 16 the mother and son
emigrated to England. She was a good musician,
and her son's first musical education — in Mozart
and Beethoven — was due to her. He then had
lessons in the piano from Kalkbrenner, and in
composition from Dr. Wesley, and afterwards
learnt dancing at the King's Theatre, London,
and the Conservatoire, Paris. On his return to
England he became ballet-master at the King's
Theatre, and at Covent Garden. He soon
relinquished these posts, and devoted himself to
teaching dancing and composing dance-music,
in which he was very successful, and achieved
•T. wide reputation. He ultimately settled at
Newcastle-on-Tyne, married there in 1863, ^'■nd
for many years was a resident in the North
of England and in Scotland. He published
'Ball-room Etiquette,' Newcastle, 1835; and
a large number of dances, beginning with the
* Bridal Polka,' 1845 ; all of these were very
great favourites, especially the 'Sweetheart's
Waltz,' ' Sultan's Polka,' and ' Edinburgh Quad-
rille.' In the latter years of his life he removed
to London, where he died May 26, 1886.

His son, Eugene Fkancis Charles, was born
at Glasgow, April 10, 1864. His genius for
music showed itself from a very early age, and
he was carefully taught by his father. In 1876
he was elected Newcastle scholar in the National
Training School, London, where he learnt the
piano from Mr. Pauer, and harmony and com-
position from Dr. Stainer, Mr. Prout, and Sir
Arthur Sullivan. Here his progress in piano play-
ing, counterpoint, and composition, was rapid
and brilliant, and he also occupied himself much
in the study of languages. In 1881 he was
elected Mendelssohn Scholar, which gave him a
year abroad. An overture of his was performed
at a student's concert at St. James's Hall on
June 23, 1879. He played a PF. Concerto of
his own in A at the Richter concert, Oct. 24,
1881, also Rubinstein's Concerto in D minor,
May 3, 1882. In Nov. 1881, at the instance of
R ichter, he went to Vienna, and very shortly after-
wards played the first movement of his own Con-
certo at the Philharmonic Concert there. He then
became a pupil of Liszt's, who called him ' the
young Tausig,' in allusion to his extraordinary
technique. An Overture of his, styled 'Hy-



perion,' was played at a Richter concert, June 8
1885, and a Symphony in F (op. 4) at the sam
on May 24, 18S6. Both these pieces are full o
nobility and beauty, though the work of a younj
composer. A string quartet of his was playet
at Vienna last winter, and a Dramatic Over
ture at the Tonkiinstlerfest at Cologne, in 1887
and he is understood to be engaged on grea
works. [G.

DALLAM. Add to the account of Thomai
Dallam that he came to London from Dallam ir
Lancashire, and was apprenticed to a membe)
of the Blacksmith's company, of which he after
wards became a liveryman. The organs whici
he built for King's College, Cambridge, and foi
Worcester Cathedral, were taken down at th«
time of the civil war ; parts of the former an
said to be contained in the existing instrument
He was in all probability the same Dallam wh(
in 161 5, 1632 and 1637 was employed to repaij
the organ of Magdalen College, Oxford.

Concerning his son Robert, add as follows :—
He was, like his father, a member of the Black-
smith's company. Between 1624 and 1627 h<
built the organ of Durham Cathedral, whici
remained till 1687, when Father Smith, aftei
putting in four new stops, sold the Choir Orgar
for £100 to St. Michael's-le-Belfry, York. It
remained there until 1885, when it was sold foi
A\ to an organ builder of York. It is said thai
Dallam received £xooo for the original organ
but there is no foundation for the statement.
In 1634 he built an organ for Jesus College
Cambridge, in the agreement for which he u
called 'Robert Dallam of Westminster.' He
added pedals in 1635; the organ, after being
taken down at the time of the civil war, was
replaced at the Restoration. In 1635 he buill
an organ for Canterbury Cathedral. The CalcH'
dar of State Papers for the same year contains a
bill of Robert Dallam's, dated Nov. 12, for work
done to Laud's organ at Lambeth. An organ
which he built for St. Mary Woolnoth's was so
much injured in the fire of London, that it was
replaced by a new instrument built by Father
Smith, who, however, used some of Dallam's
stops. (Diet, of Nat. Biog. ; Hopkins and Rim-
bault, ' The Organ,' 3rd ed.) [See vol. ii. pp. 588-
59I-] [W.B.S.]

DALLERY. The eldest of these organ-
builders was Chaeles, born at Amiens about
1 7 10, and was originally a cooper. His ne-
phew PiEEEE, born 1735, after working with his
uncle, was for a few years in partnership with
Clicquot (see vol. i. p. 374). To the union of
these two clever men are due the organs of Notre-
Dame and the Sainte Chapelle in Paris, that
of the Palace of Versailles, and many others



DALLERY.

V destroyed or mutilated by ignorant work-
II.

^ieeee-Feancois, son of Pierre, bom in Paris
'4, worked with his father from 1801 to 1807,
:en the latter retired from business, and
irre-Franfois remained alone. He never had
opportunity of undertaking a large work, but
3 entirely occupied in repairing instruments,
was clever in certain points, but had not
;died his art profoundly, and being a needy
n, often used inferior materials. He died in
•ris in 1833, leaving nothing but his name to
son, Loiris Paul, who was born in 1797 and
.tinued the business. [V. de P.]

i^AMASCENE, Alexandeb. Line 3, for
ae 26, read July 22. Line 5, for Aug. 30,
J I, read Dec 6, 1690.

i)AMOEEAU, L. C. M. P. 428 b, 1. 8 from
!tom, add date of tour in the United States,

DAMROSCH, Leopold, bom at Posen,
Jssia, Oct. 22, 1832. After a preliminary
ication at the gymnasium in his native town,

graduated at the Berlin University in 1854,
.h the degree of Doctor of Medicine. Showing
;ided musical tastes in eaiiy life, he deter-
led, after his graduation, to abandon medicine
1 devote himself to the study of music, which
3 pursued by him with such success, at Berlin,
bt he was permitted to make a public appear-
^e, as solo violinist, at Magdeburg, in 1855.
ter giving concerts in the principal German
ies he was appointed (1857) by Liszt leading
linist in the court orchestra at Weimar, of
ich Liszt was then director. In 1858 Dam-
ch was appointed conductor of the Philhar-
■nic Society of Breslau, where he manifested

admiration for Wagner's theories and for
J new school of musical art in Germany. His
)grammes presented, together with the com-
iitions by the older masters, works by Wagner,
izt, and Berlioz — music not then widely ad-
red or appreciated. In i860 numerous en-
jements as solo violinist compelled him to with-
kw from the Philharmonic Society. In 1861
established the Orchester-Verein of Breslau,
which he remained director until 1871, when
went to New York on the invitation of the
ion Society. On the organization of the
atorio . Society (1873) and of the Symphony
3iety (1878) he was elected conductor of each,
iitions held by him, with that of conductor of
! Arion (male voices) until his death. During
! season 1876-77 he oflBciated as conductor of
i Philharmonic Society's concerts.
Dr. Damrosch was mainly instrumental in the
ablishment of German opera at the Metro-
itan Opera House, New York, and was its
ector-in-chief from Aug. 1884 until his
ith, Feb. 15, 1885. His last appearance in
blic was at a performance of ' Lohengrin,'
b. 9. A son, Walter Damrosch, succeeded him
the direction of the Oratorio Society and Sym-
ony Society, and was continued in the service of
5 opera company as assistant director. The

' Copyrigbt 16S9 by F, H. Jenks.



DANCE RHYTHM.



605



following compositions
G ennany : —

Op.

1. Idylle and Mazurka ; Via. and

PF.

2. Stimmungen ; 3 pieces, VIn.

and PF.

3. Improvisation on theme by

Schumann ; Vln.

4. Two Romanzas ; Vln. and PF.
6. Five Songs.

6. Three Songs.

7. Three Songs.

8. Twelve Son^s.

9. Concertstiick, In form of sere-

nade, four movements ; Vln.

Without opus number :-



have been published in



Op.

and Orch. or PF.
10a. Romanza; Vln. and PF.
b. Six Songs.

11. Twelve Spanish Songs.

12. Boroanza; Vln. and Orch.
orPF.

13. Three Songs.

14. Three Songs.

15. Festival Overture ; Orch.

16. Five Songs.

17. Five Sont'S.

18. Six Choruses ; male voice*.

19. Patriotic Songs.



Concerto ; Vln. and Orch. or PF.
Nachlgesang; Vln. and Orch. or



Capricietto ; Vln. andOrcb. orPF.



BrautgesangfUhlandl; Tenor and
Baritone Solos, Male Chorus,
Orchestra.



Published in the United States, without opus
number : —



Ruth and Naomi ; Oratorio.

Saint Cecilia; collection of An-
thems and other Church 3Insic.

*TeU me where is Fancy bred*;
Glee, Male voices.

Siegfried's Sword ; Tenor Solo and
Orchestra or PF.

' Thou, Who art God alone ' ; Ma-



sonic Song. Baritone Solo, Male

Chorus and Orchestra.
Lexington BatUe-Hymn ; mixed

chorus.
Two duets : Tenor and Baritone.
The Fisher-Boy (Schiller; ; Song,

Soprano.

[F.H.J.]



DANCE RHYTHM and dance gestures have
exerted the most powerful influence on music
from prehistoric times till the present day. The
analogy of a similar state of things among un-
civilised races still existing confirms the inherent
probability of the view that detiniteness of any
kind in music, whether of figure or phrase, was
first arrived at through connection with dancing.
The beating of some kind of noisy instrument as
an accompaniment to gestures in the excitement
of actual war or victory, or other such exciting
cause, was the first type of rhythmic music, and
the telling of national or tribal stories and deeds
of heroes, in the indefinite chant consisting of a
monotone slightly varied with occasional ca-
dences, which is met with among so many bar-
barous peoples, was the first type of vocal music.
This vague approach to musical recitation must
have received its first rhythmic arrangement
when it came to be accompanied by rhythniio
gestures, and the two processes were thereby
combined, while song and dance went on together,
as in mediaeval times in Europe.

The process in the development of modem
music has been similar. The connection between
popular songs and dancing led to a state of
detiniteness in the rhythm and periods of secular
music long before the times which are commonly
regarded as the dawn of modern music ; and in
course of time the tunes so produced were not
only actually used by the serious composers of
choral music, as the inner thread of their works,
but they also exerted a modifying influence upon
their style, and led them by degrees to change
the unrhythmic vagueness of the early state of
things to a regular definite rhythmic system.
The fact that serious music was more carefully
recorded than secular makes the state of the art
in the time of Dunstable, Tinctor, De Muris,
and the Francos to appear more theoretical than
effective. Serious musicians were for the most



606



DANCE EHYTHM.



part very shy of the element of rhythm, as if it
was not good enough company for their artistic
purposes. Consequently the progress of serious
art till the i6th century was confined to the
development of good part-writing and good pro-
gressions of harmony. The result is a finely
continuous mass of tone, and expressive effects
of harmony, in the works of these old masters up
to the early years of the i6th century, but a
conspicuous absence of definiteness in both the
rhythms and phrases ; as may be observed in the
' Chansons mondaines ' of Okeghem, Josquin de
Prez, and Hobrecht, as well as in their sacred
music. But while these composers were pro-
ceeding on their dignified way, others whose
names are lost to fame were busy with dance
tunes which were both sung and played, and
may be studied in the ' Orchesographie ' of
Thoinot Arbeau, and Stafford Smith's ' Musica
Antiqua,' the ' Berliner Liederbuch,' the ' Wal-
ther'sches Liederbuch,' and elsewhere. And
quite suddenly, within the space of less than a
generation, the rhythmic impulse of this choral
dance music passed into serious music, and
transformed the vague old-fashioned 'Chanson
mondaine' into a lively rhythmic tune; and at the
same time gave the development of the art in
the direction of modern harmony a lift such as it
never could have got by continuing in its old
path. In fact, the first change of the Chanson
mondaine into the typical madrigal seems to
have been greatly helped by the progress in
artistic merit of the forms of the dance tunes,
fcucli as were sung in paits by voices, and by the
closely allied Fruttole and Villanellas. As early
tis Arcadelt and Festa rhythmic definition of a
dance kind is found in works which are univer-
sally recognised as madrigals ; and as it is
possible that composers did not keep steadily
in view the particular class to which after ages
would refer their works, they wrote things
which they intended to be madrigals, but
which were in reality pervaded by a dance
impulse almost from beginning to end, inasmuch
as the harmonies move often together, and
form rhythmic groups. But, on the other hand,
the most serious masters of the great pei'iod of
madrigal art evidently resisted the influence of
regular dance rhythms, and in the richest and
maturest specimens of Marenzio, Palestrina,
Vecchi, and our greatest English masters, it
would be difficult to point to the distinct rhyth-
mic grouping which implies a connection with
dance motions. But nevertheless even these
great masters owed something to dance influ-
ence. For it was the independence from artistic
responsibility of the early dance writers which
enabled them to find out the elementary princi-
ples of chord management, by modifying the
conventional modes as their instincts led them ;
■while their more serious and cautious brethren
were being incessantly thwarted in their efforts
by their respect for the traditions of these modes.
And hence dance music reacted upon serious
music^ in a secondary as well as direct way,
Bince its composers led the way in finding out



DANCE RHYTHM.

the method of balancing and grouping chc
in the manner which in modern music
familiar in the inevitable treatment of Tc
and Dominant harmonies, and in the sim]
branches of modulation of the modern ki
Q'his secondary influence the great madri
writers were not directly conscious of, howe
much they profited by it; and the growth ;
popularity of the independent forms of Frott
Villanella, Balletto, and so forth, helped to k
their art form free from the more obvious i
tures of dance music. When the madrigal
came to an end, it was not through its subc
ting openly to the seductive simplicity of da;
rhythm, but by passing into part songs wit:
definite tune, such as were early typified in
best days by Dowland's lovely and finis!
works; or into the English glee ; or through
being corrupted by the introduction of an al
dramatic element, as by Monteverde.

All such music, however, was deposed from
position it occupied prior to the year 1600 by
growth of new influences. Opera, Oratorio, ;
many other kinds of accompanied song, a
above all, instrumental music, began to occ
most of the attention of composers.

In the first beginnings of Opera and Orat
the importance of dance rhythm is shown
negative as well as positive evidence. In
parts in which composers aimed at pure de
matory music the result, though often express
is hopelessly and inextricably indefinite in fc
But in most cases they submitted either opt
or covertly to dance rhythm in some pari '
other of their works. In CavaHere's one orat
the connection of the chorus ' Fate fest; .
Signore ' with the ' Laudi spirituali ' is as ol^v 1
as the connection of the said Laudi witli pop 1
dance songs. For in the Italian movement, •■
tered by Neri, as in the German movemen n
favour of the Chorale, to which Luther gave t
impetus, the dance principle was only two g ^
rations off. Both Chorales, and Laudi Spirit' '
and the similar rhythmic attempts of the e
French Protestants were either adaptation
popular songs, or avowedly modelled on th
and, as has been already pointed out, the pop '
songs attained their definite contour thrc li
connection with the dance. But besides ■■
implication, in CavaHere's work distinct inst -
tions are given for dancing, and the same is e
case with Peri's opera * Euridice,' which c e
out in the same year (1600). As a matte >£
fact. Peri seems to have been less susceptib. •o
the fascination of clear dance rhythm than is
fellow composers, but the instructions he ^ |a
are clear and positive. The last choru la
headed ' Ballo a 3,' ' Tutto il coro insieme 1-
tano e ballano.' Similarly Gagliano's ' Da ■■
(printed at Florence in 1608) ends wit ■
'Ballo.' Monteverde's 'Orfeo' (1609) ooni i
a chorus headed ' Questo balletto fu cantal a'
suono di cinque Viole,' etc., and the whole \i
with a ' Moresca ' which is preceded by a ch .
that is to the utmost degree rhythmic in a d
sense. To refer to the works of Lulli for ei 1



DANCE RHYTHM.

!S of the influence is almost superfluous, as
ij are so full of dances and gesticulation
it the sum total of his operas is more terpsi-
Drean than dramatic, and this does not only
ply to the actual dances so called, but also to
3al pieces. Handel, Rameau, and Gluck used
jir dance effects with more discretion and
inement, and in the later development of Opera
} traces of dance and rhythm fade away in the
imatic portions of the work ; though it cannot
said that the influence has ceased even in
)dem times, and positive independent dance
,)vements persist in making their appearance,
th complete irrelevance in many cases, as much
the annoyance of people of sense as to the
light of the fiishionable tiiflers to whom opera-
uses are dear because it has been the fashion
• a century or so for similar triflers to frequent
2m.

In Oratorio the dance influence maintained its
ice, though of course not so prominently as in
lera. Next after Cavaliere, Carissimi sub-
tted to its influence. He was, in fact, cne of
e first Italians who frequently showed the
wer of a definite rhythmic figure, derived from
e dance, in giving go and incisiveness to both
oruses and solos. As instances may be quoted
6 song of Jephthah's daughter when she comes
t to meet him — ' Cum tympanis et Choris ' —
ter his victory, and the solo and chorus de-
ribing the king's feast at the beginning of
Jalthazar' — 'Inter epulas canori, exultantes
nent chori.' In Handel's oratorios the intro-
iction of artistic tlance music was common, and
e influence of it is to be traced elsewhere as
all. But in modern times the traditional con-
ction of dance and religion has ceased, except
the Easter dances in the Cathedral of Seville,
:d oratorios no longer afford examples of minuets
djigs. But the influence is still apparent. In
e first Baal Chorus in ' Elijah ' Mendelssohn
lowed a rhythm of a solemn dance order to
pear, and the same quality is to be discerned
( the Pa-an Chorus in 'St. Paul,' '0 be
acious, ye immortals ' ; while he permitted
imself to drift into a dancing mood, with less
(ivious reason, in the middle movement of the

imphony to the ' Lobgesang,' and in the chorus
low lovely are the messengers ' in ' St. Paul.'
The obligations of instrumental music to dance
(lythm are far greater than that of any re-

ectable form of choral music. Almost all

odern instrumental music till the present time
,ay be divided into that in which the cantabile
(■ singing element predominates, and that in
jhich the rhythmic dance principle is paramount.
.1 fact, dance rhythm may be securely asserted
i have been the immediate origin of all instru-
rental music. The earliest definite instrumental

eces to be found are naturally short dances.
; step in the direction of artistic effect was

ade when two or more dances, such as a Pavan
,id a GalUard, were played one after another for
le sake of the contrast and balance which was
lereby obtained. The result of such experi-

ents was the Suite form, and in the article on



DANCE RHYTHM.



607



that subject the question of the direct connec-
tion of the form of art with the Dance is dis-
cussed at length.

When the more mature form of the Sonata
began to develop, other forms of art were ma-
turing also, and had been imitated in instru-
mental music. Madrigals having been 'apt for
voices or viols' were imitated for instruments
alone. Movements for solo voices with accom-'
paniment were also being imitated in the shape
of movements for instruments, and were rapidly
developing into a distinct art form ; and again the
movement, consisting of a succession of chorda
interspersed viith. Jioriture, such as singers used,
had been developed by organists such as Claudio
Merulo, partly by instinct and partly by imita-
tion. Most of these forms were combined with
dance forms in the early stages of the Sonata ;
and in the articles on that subjecf, and on FoRM
and Symphony, the question is discussed in de-
tail. Here it is not necessary to discuss more
than the general aspect of the matter. Com-
posers early came to the point of trying to
balance movements of a singing order with dance
movements. In the early Violin Sonatas, such
as those of Biber and Corelli, dance principles
predominated, as was natural, since the type of
the movements which were sung was not as yet
sufficiently developed. But the special fitness
of the violin for singing speedily complicated this
order of things, and the later representatives of
the great Italian violin school modified the types
of dance forms with cantabile and highly expres-
sive passages.

The Clavier Sonata, on the other hand, in-
clined for a time towards a rhythmic style. The
harpsichord was not fitted for cantabile, and the
best composers for the instrument fell back upon
a clear rhythmic principle as their surest means of
eifect. When the harpsichord was displaced by
the pianoforte a change naturally followed. The
first movement came to occupy a midway posi-
tion, sometimes tending towards dance rhythms,
and sometimes to cantabile, and sometimes com-
bining the two. The central slow movement
was developed on tlie principle of the slow
operatic aria, and adopted its form and style.
The last movement continued for a long time to
be a dance movement, often actually a gigue, or
a movement based on similarly definite rh} thms ;
and when there were four movements the third
was always decisively a dance movement. In the
old style of Operatic Overture, also known as a
Symphony, there was at least one distinct dance
movement. This kind of work developed into
the modern Orchestral Symphony, in which
at least one decided dance movement has main-
tained its position tiU the present day, first
as the familiar minuet and trio, and then in the
scherzo, which is its offspring, and always im-
plies a dance rhythm. But the fitness of a dance
movement to end with is palpable, and composers
have constantly recognised the fact. Haydn has
given a strong example in the last movement of
the fine Symphony in D minor. No. 7 of the
Salomon set ; and many others of his Rondos are



608



DANCE RHYTHM.



absolute dance movements. Among Mozart's
the last movement of the Eb Symphonj' may be
pointed to ; among Beethoven's the wild frenzy
of the last movement of the Symphony in A
minor, No. 7. In modern times the influence



Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 143 of 194)