George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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of dance music upon the musical character of
composers has become very marked. The dance
which has had the greatest influence of all is
undoubtedly the Waltz, and its ancestor the
Laudler. Beethoven, Weber, Schubert, Schu-
mann, and Brahms have not only written dance
movements of this kind, but show its influence
in movements which are not acknowledged as
dance movements. Even Wagner has written
one dance of this kind in ' Die Meistersinger.'

Many modern composers have introduced bond
jide national dance-tunes into their instrumental
works, as Beethoven did with Kussian tunes in
the RasoumofFsky Quartets. Some go further,
as may be seen by the example of Schubert,
Brahms, and Dvorak, and others of note. For
they accept, as invaluable accessories to their art,
rhythmic and characteristic traits drawn from
the dances of Hungarians, Scandinavians, Bohe-
mians, Sclavs, and Celts of various ilks ; and
subjects which appear in movements of sonatas
and symphonies by famous composers are some-
times little more than figures taken from national
dance-tunes slightly disguised to adapt them to
the style of the composer.

Tlie connection of music with gesture is a
question too special and intricate to be entered
on in detail. But it may be pointed out that a
considerable quantity of the expressive material
of music is manifestly representative of, or cor-
responding to, expressive gestures. The branch
of dancing whicli consisted of such expressive
gestures was one of the greatest importance, but
it has almost entirely ceased to hold place among
modern civilised nations. In music the traces of
it are still to be met with, both in the finest
examples of Sarabandes, and also, more subtly,
in some of the most expressive passages of the
greatest masters. [C.H.H.P.]

DANZI, Fkanz. Add days of birth and
death, May 15 and April 13.

DAEGOMYSKI, A. S. Add day of birth,
Feb. 2.

DAVENPORT, Fkaxcis William, born 1 847
at Wilderslowe, near Derby, was educated at
University College, Oxford. He studied music
under Sir George Macfarren, whose only daughter
he married ; was appointed a Professor at the
Royal Academy of Music in 1879. and subse-
quently Examiner for the Local Examinations
in connection therewith. In 1882 he was ap-
pointed a Professor at the Guildhall School of
Music. Mr. Davenport's compositions include
Symphonies, No. i in D minor (ist prize at the
Alexandra Palace Competition, 1876), No. 2 in
C ; Overture ' Twelfth Night,' Viard-Louis Con-
certs, 1878; Prelude and Fugue for Orchestra,
Crystal Palace, Nov. i. 1S79; six pieces for
piano and 'cello, a selection from which was
given at the Popular Concert, Nov. 24, 1879 >



DAVIES.

four pieces for same ; a Trio in B b, Popu
Concerts, Jan. 31, 1881, and again in 18S2 ; t'
Part Songs — 'Phyllis is my only joy,' and ' Sw(
day, so cool' ; three songs and many works in ]M
He has written two books on music, fi;. 'Elemei
of Music' (1884), and 'Elements of Harmo
and Counterpoint '(1886). [A.(

DAVID, Felicien. Correct date of birth
April 13. P. 43.:? a, 1. 28, add that for sev
years before his death he had held the post
librarian to the Conservatoire.

DAVIDE, GiACOMO. P. 434 a, 1. 10 frt
bottom, add inverted comma after the wc
' Festivals.' P. 434 b, 1. i'J,for 1814 read 181

DAVIES, Faxxt, a distinguished piani;
comes of a musical stock, her mother's fathi
John Woodhill, of Birmingham, having bei
well known in his day as a cello player. S'
was bom in Guernsey. Her early instructi'
on the piano was given her by Miss Welchm:
and Charles Flavell,both of Birmingham. Ha
mony and counterpoint she studied there wi
Dr. Gaul. In 1882 she went to Leipzig for a ye?
and took lessons on the piano with Reinecke ai
Oscar Paul, and in fugue and counterpoint wi
Jadassohn. In September 1S83 she removi
to the Hoch Conservatorium at Frankfort, whe:
she studied for two j'ears in close intercour
with Madame Schumann, and where she acquirt
the accurate technique, the full tone, fine sty!
and power of phrasing, which encourage the hoj
that she may eventually become Madame Sch'
mann's successor as a pianoforte player. A
Frankfort she added to her musical knowledf
by a year's study in fugue and composition undi
Dr. B. Scholz. Her first appearance in Ed(
land was at the Crystal Palace, Oct. 17, 188,
in Beethoven's G major Concerto ; on No'
16 she played at the Monday Popular Concer
(Chi-oniatic Fantasia and Schumann's Quarb
in Eb), and on April 15, 1886, Bennett's '
minor Concerto at the Philharmonic. Thef
were the beginnings of a series of constant M
gagements at all the leading concerts in tow
and country. In Berlin she first played wit
Joachim, Nov. 15, 1887, and at the Gewandhajj
Leipzig, Jan. 5, 1S88. [i|

DAVIES, THE Sisters. Add that Marianu'
was born in 1744, and first appeared at Hicl
ford's rooms on April 30, 1751, when she playe
a concerto for the German flute, and a concert
by Handel on the harpsichord, besides singin
some songs. There is no evidence to suppoi
the statement that the sisters were related t
Benjamin Franklin. The date of Cecilia's birt
is certainly later than 1740, and probably 176
is the right date. Her first appearance seen
not to have taken place till Aug. 10, 1767, i
' some favourite songs from the opera of Artaj
erxes and Caractacus.' The date of the pel
formance of the ode mentioned in lines 13, et<
of article, is June 27, 1769. She first appeare
in Italian Opera in England in October, 1773
singing Sacchini's ' Lucio Vero,' on Nov. 20. I:
the following year she sang at the Herefon



DAVIES.



DEGREES.



609



■stival. She sang after her return from
orence at the Professional concert on Feb. 3,
87, and made her first appearance in oratorio

1791 at Drury Lane, soon after which she fell
to great poverty. About 181 7 she published
joUection of songs by Hasse and others. During
e last years of her life she was assisted by
e National Fund, the Royal Society of Musi-
iiis, etc. She died July 3, 1836. (Diet, of
at. Biog.) [W.B.S.]

DAVISON, James William, was born in
mdon, Oct. 5, 1813.^ He was educated with
view to the Bar, but ibrsook that career for
usic, and studied the pianoforte with W. H.
olmes, and composition with G. A. Macfarren.
is early friends were \V. S. Bennett, H. Smart,

A. Macfarren, T. M. Mudie, E. T. Loder, and
her musicians. He composed a great deal for
chestra, piano, and the voice, and will be re-
embered by some elegant and thoughtful
ttings of poetry by Keats, Shelley, and others,
e made the acquaintance of Mendelssohn dur-
g one of his early visits to England, and
;epened it in 1836, when, in company with
.emdale Bennett, he attended the production

' St. Paul ' at Diisseldorf.^ He gradually for-
ok composition for criticism.^ In 1842 he
orted the ' Musical Examiner,' a weekly niaga-
ae which lasted two years; and in 1844 suc-
eded Mr. G. A. Macfarren, sen., as editor of the
Musical World,' which continued in his hands
)wn to his death. Mr. Davison contributed

the ' Saturday Review ' for ten years, and for
ng to the ' Pall MaU Gazette ' and ' Graphic'
ut it was as musical critic of the ' Times ' that
s influence on music was most widely exercised,
^e joined the staff of that paper in 1846, and
s first articles were those on the production of
Elijah ' at the Birmingham Festival of that
iar. But Mr. Davison's activity in the cause
' good music was not confined to newspaper
ilumns. He induced JuUien in 1844 to give
assical pieces in his Promenade Concerts. The
LOnday Popular Concerts, in their present
nn (see vol. ii. p. 352), were his suggestion;
id the important analyses contained in the
•(^amme-books were written by him down to
s death. So were those for Charles Hallo's
:citals, and it is unnecessary to call attention

I the vast range of works which these covered.

II these efforts were in support of the best and
ost classical taste ; so was his connexion with
liss Arabella Goddard, whose studies he di-
•cted from 1850, and who under his advice
•st made the English public acquainted with
eethoven's Sonatas, ops. loi to 11 1 (except-
g op. 106, which had been played by Billet),
id many another masterpiece. He married

H!s mother, n^e Duncan, was an eminent actress, and was chosen
Byron to deliver his monody on Sheridan at Drury Lane theatre.
The overture to the Naiads was slietched in going up the £bine
er the performance.

This was humorously embodied In an epigram by his friend
arles Kenny :—

' There was a J. W. D.
Who thought a composer to be:
But his muse wouldn't budge.
So he set up as judge
Over better composers than he.'



Miss Goddard in the spring of 1859, and they
had two sons, Henry and Charles.

Mr. Davison's position naturally brought him
into contact with all musicians visiting England,
and he was more or less intimate with Mendels-
sohn, Rossini, Auber, Spohr, Meyerbeer, Halevy,
HiUer, Berlioz, Ernst, Joachim, Piatti, L. de
Meyer, etc., etc., as well as with Jules Janin,
Th^ophile Gautier, and other prominent members
of the French press. Among his friends, too, he
was proud to number Dickens, Thackeray, Shirley
Brooks, and other English literary men.

While adhering, as we have described, to the
classical school up to Mendelssohn and Bennett,
his attitude to those who came later was fuU of
suspicion and resistance. Of Schumann, Gounod,
Liszt, Wagner, and Brahms, he was an uncom-
promising opponent. In regard to some of them
his hostility greatly changed in time, but he was
never cordial to any. This arose partly from
dislike to their principles of composition, and
partly from jealousy for his early favourites.
He even resisted the advent of Schubert to the
English public on the latter of these grounds,
though he was more than reconciled to him
afterwards. Certainly his opposition did not
proceed from ignorance, for his knowledge of new
music was large and intimate. Whether it be
a good trait in a critic or not, it is a fact that a
nature more affectionate and loyal to his friends
never breathed than Mr. Davison's. His in-
creasing age and infirmities at length made him
give up the 'Times,' and his last articles appeared
Sept. 9-13, 1879. -^^® knowledge was very
great, not only of music, but of literature of all
ages and schools, especially of the mystic and
humorous class ; of Burton's ' Anatomy of Me-
lancholy' he was very fond. Among poets,
Shelley was his favourite. His knowledge and
his extraordinary memory were as much at the
service of his friends as the keen wit and gro-
tesque humour — often Rabelaisian enough —
with which he poured them forth. He was very
much of a Bohemian. An autobiography from
his pen would have been invaluable, but he
could never be induced to undertake it. He
died at Margate March 24, 1885. [G.]

DAY, Alfred. P. 436, 1. 20, add date of
death, Feb. 11, 1849. (Added in late editions.)
Same column, note i, for Novello & Co. read
Harrison & Co., Pall Mall.

DEGREES, MUSICAL. Since the publi-
cation of the early part of the Dictionary the
regulations as to Musical Degrees at Oxford,
Cambridge and Dublin have undergone alter-
ations, and these Degrees have been instituted
at the University of London, The following
rules are now in force : —

At Cambridge no candidate can be admitted
to the examination for the Mus. Bae. degree
unless he (a) have passed Parts I and II of
the University ' Previous Examination ' ; or
(i) have passed one of the Senior Local Exami-
nations in certain specified subjects ; or (c) have
passed one of the ' Higher Local Examinations ' of



610



DEGKEES.



the University; or {d) produce the certificate
of the ' Oxford and Cambridge Schools Exami-
nation Board.' These conditions are not, how-
ever, required of persons holding degrees of any
British University other than those in music.
The musical examination itself remains as before.

At OxFOKD, no candidate can be admitted to
the degree for Mus. Bac. unless he produce either
his Testamur for Responsions (or the ' Previous '
Examination at Cambi-idge) ; or a higher cer-
tificate from the Delegates for the Examination
of Schools ; or a certificate that as a candidate
in the Senior Local Examinations he has shown
sufficient merit to be excused from Responsions ;
or that he has satisfied the Examiners of Senior
Candidates in English, Mathematics, Latin, and
in one of these four languages — Greek, German,
French, Italian, The musical examination re-
mains as before.

At Dublin a similar literary or general ex-
amination is imposed upon candidates for musical
degrees.

London, The candidate for B. Mus. must
have passed the intermediate examination in
music at least one year previously. He has to
send in an exercise, with five-part vocal counter-
point, canon and fugue, and quintet string
accompaniment. If this is approved, he will be
tested by a further examination in practical
harmony and thorough bass, counterpoint, canon,
fugue, form, instrumentation and a critical
knowledge of some selected classical composition.
The candidate may, if he chooses, offer to be
examined in playing at sight from a five-part
vocal score, and playing an accompaniment from
a figured bass.

Every candidate for D. Mus. must have ob-
tained the degree of B. Mus. and pass two
subsequent examinations, of which the first is
called the Intermediate D. Mus. examination.
This includes the phenomena of sound in general,
and the nature of aerial sound-waves, the special
characteristics of musical sounds, and the more
elaborate phenomena of compound sounds, musical
scales of various nations, temperament, Greek
and church modes, history of measured music,
principles of melodial progression, history of
harmony and counterpoint, theory of chords
and discords and progression in harmony, the
general distinction between physical and aBstheti-
cal principles, as bearing on musical forms and
rules.

The final D. Mus. examination must be pre-
ceded by composition of an exercise with eight-
part harmony with solo and fugue, and ac-
companiment for full orchestra. The exami-
nation comprises practical harmony of more
advanced character, counterpoint, form, in-
strumentation, general acquaintance with the
greatest composers, and critical knowledge of
specified works. Candidates may oflTer playing
at sight from full orchestral score and extempore
composition on a given subject. [CA.F.]

DEHN, S. W. Correct date of birth to Feb.
'5' ^799> and add day of death, April 12.
(i'alobchi,)



DELIBES,

DE LA BORDE, Jean Benjamin, bom
Paris Sept. 5, 1734, became a pupil of D'A
vergne for the violin, and of Rameau for co
position, and ultimately attained great eminei
as an amateur composer. He wrote nearly fi
operas of a more or less trifling kind, many sor
for single voice, and several works on mus
among which the ' Esaai sur la Musique ancier
et moderne' (1780), is the most important. ]
was guillotined July 22, 1794. []V

DELAIRE, Jacques Auguste. See vol.
p. 99 a! note I.

DELIBES, Clement Philibeet Leo, bom
St. Germain du Val (Sarthe), on Feb. 21, ' 18.
came to Paris in 1848, and was admitted into t
Solffege class at the Conservatoire, and at 1
same time sang in the choirs of the Madelei
and other churches. Having obtained a fi
prize for solffege in 1850, he studied pianofor
organ, harmony, and advanced composition unc
Le Couppey, Benoist, Bazin, and Adolphe Ad,
respectively. Through the influence of the la
named, he became accompanyist at the Th^a
Lyrique in 1853, and also organist in 1
church of St. Pierre de Chaillot, and elsewhe
before his final appointment at St. Jean
Fran9ois, which he held from 1862 to 18
He devoted himself from an early period
dramatic composition, and wrote several sh-
comic operas for the Theatre Lyrique — ' Mai
Griflfard ' (1857), ' ^^ Jardinier et son Seignev
(1863) ; and a number of operettas for the Fol
Nouvelles, the BoufFes Parisiens, and the Variet
of which some were very successful — ' De
vieilles Gardes' (1856), ' L'Omelette k la F
lemliftche' (1859), 'Le Serpent a plumes' (186.
'L'^^cossais de Chatou' (1869), etc. He a
wrote a number of choruses for male voices,
mass and some choruses for the school childi;
of St. Denis and Sceaux, where he was inspect
In 1863 Delibes became accompanyist at 1
Opera, and soon afterwards second chorus mas
(under Victor Massd): he kept this appointmf
until 1872, when he gave it up on the occas'
of his marriage with the daughter of Mlle.Dena
a former actress at the Comedie Fran9aise.
his appointment at the Opera a new career v
opened out to him. Having been commissior
to compose the ballet of ' La Source ' (Nov.
1866) in collaboration with the Russian music'
Minkous, he displayed such a wealth of melo
as a composer of ballet music, and so complet'
eclipsed the composer with whom he had as
favour been associated, that he was at oj
asked to write a divertissement called ' Le I
de Fleurs' to be introduced into the ballet of
old master, Adolphe Adam, ' Le Corsaire,'
its revival (Oct. 21, 1867). He was finally <■
trusted with the setting of an entire ballet, ;
the pretty comedy 'Copp^lia' (May 25, 187
which is rightly considered his most charmi'
production, and which has gained for him a f
recognition. He did not wish however to C(
fine himself to the composition of ballets;

> Date Terified by register of birth.




DELIBES.



72 he published a collection of charming
jlodies, 'Myrto,' 'Les Filles de Cadiz,' *Bon-
ur Suzon,' etc., and on May 24, 1873, he
oduced at the Opera-Comique a work in three
ts, 'Le Roi I'a dit,' which in spite of the
arm and grace of the first act has not had a
sting success, in Paris at least, though it has
3t with considerable favour in Germany,
fter this Delibes returned to the Op^ra, where
produced a grand mythological ballet, * Sylvia,'
une 14, 1876), which confirmed his superiority
dance music. In spite of this fresh success
slibes was still anxious to write a serious vocal
jrk, and produced a grand scena, 'La Mort
Orph^e,' at the Trocadt^ro Concerts in 1878.
le then composed two dramatic works for the
p^ra Comique, 'Jean de Nivelle ' (March 8,
':8o) and 'Lakme' (April 14, 1883). His
abition is certainly laudable, but though his
■usical ability secures him a partial success,
' ese more serious works have not such lasting
■arm as his lighter productions. In spite of
is reservation, Delibes is nevertheless one of
e most meritorious composers of the modern
rench school. In addition to the above works
! has composed incidental music for 'Le Roi
imuse,' on its revival at the Com^die Fran9aise,
ov. 22, 1882, and has published several songs,
most all intended for representations at the
st -named theatre. Among them are ' Ruy Bias,'
A. quoi revent les jeunes filles, 'and 'Barberine.'
1 1877 Delibes was made Chevalier of the
egion of Honour; in Jan. 1881 he succeeded
eber, who had just died, as professor of ad-
iDced composition at the Conservatoire ; and
. Dec. 1884 he was elected a member of the
istitut in the place of Victor Masse. [A. J.]
DEMEUR, Anne Aksenb, nie Charton, was
)rn March 5, 1827, at Saujon (Charente), was
iUght music by Bizot of Bordeaux, and in
542 made her debut there as Lucia. She sang
Jxt at Toulouse, and in 1846 at Brussels. On
aly 18 in the same year she made a successful
$but at Drury Lane as Madeleine in ' Le Postil-
n,' and also played both Isabelle and Alice (' Ro-
2rt'), Eudoxie, on production of' La Juive' in
ngland, July 19, and with great success as An-
,ile (' Domino Noir') with Couderc, the original
orace. On Sept. 4, 1847, she married M.Demeur
:ie flautist.^ In 1849-50 she was first female
nger of Mitchell's French Company at St.
ames's Theatre, and became highly popular in
iirious light parts, many of which were then
.3wto England, viz. Angfele, Henriette (' L'Am-
iissadrice'), Isabelle ('Pr^ aux Clercs'), Zanetta,
;eb. 12, i8^9 ; Laurette (' Coeur de Lion '), and
dfele (Auber's 'Concert k la Cour'), both on
eb. 26, 1849; Lucrezia ('Acteon') March 4,
?49; the Queen of L^on (Boisselot's 'Ne touchez
IS a la Reine'), May 21, 1849; Countess
Comte Ory'), June 20, 1849; Anna ('Dame

Demeuh, Jcles Antoine, born Sept. 03, 1814, at Hodimont-lez
TV iei-s— studied the flute at the Brussels Conservatoire from
hon;— subsequently learnt the Boehm flute from Dorus at Paris;
m ■42 to '47 was first flautist at the Brussels Opera, and as such
lyeti at Drury Lane in '46 ; relinquished that post to accompany
1 nile on all her eugageiuenls.



DE RESZKE.



611



Blanche'), Camille (' Zampa '), Jan. 4, 1850;
Rose de Mai ('Val d'Andorre'), Jan. 17; Vir-
ginie (' Le Caid '), Feb. 1 1 ; Catarina (' Les
Diamans '), etc. She sang at the Philharmonic
Concert of March 18, 1850; in 1852 she ap-
peared in Italian at Her Majesty's on July 27,
as Amina; and on Aug. 5, in the Duke of
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha's ' Casilda.' ' She made an
impression when singing in French comic opera
by her pleasing voice and appearance and by a
certain cosiness of manner which was very charm-
ing.' (Chorley.) Mme. Charton-Deraeiir having
sung with little success in 1849 and 1853 at the
Opera Comique, adopted the Italian stage, and
won both fame and fortune in St. Petersburg,
Vienna, in North and South America, and in
Paris at the Italiens as Desdemona in 1862. On
Aug. 9 of that year she played the heroine on
the production of Berlioz's ' Beatrice et Benedict '
so much to the composer's satisfaction that he
requested her to play Dido in ' Les Troyens k
Carthage,' produced at the Lyrique Nov. 4, 1863.
Berlioz has commemorated in his Memoirs her
great beauty, her passionate acting and singing
as Dido, although she had not sufficient voice
wholly to realise his ideal heroine, and last, not
least, her generosity in accepting the engage-
ment at a pecuniary loss to herself, a more lucra-
tive offer having been made her for Madrid. On
the conclusion of the run of the opera she sang at
Madrid, but afterwards returned to the Lyrique,
where, on May l, 1866, she played Donna Anna
with Nilsson (Elvira) and Carvalho(Zerlina). For
many years past Mme. Charton has been living
in retirement, but has occasionally appeared at
concerts, viz. at the Berlioz Festival at the Paris
Opera, with Nilsson in the Duo Finale to the
1st act of 'Beatrice et Benedict,' March 22, 1870 ;
at the Pasdeloup concerts with Monjauze in the
finale to the 2nd act of Reyer's ' Sigurd,' per-
formed for the first time, March 30, 1873 ; and
made her last appearances at the same concert
as Cassandra in the first production of Berlioz's
' Prise de Troie,' Nov. 23 and 30, and Dec. 7,
1879. [A.C.]

DEMONIO, IL. Opera in three acts ; the
words by Wiskowatoff, after Lerin on toff's poem,
music by Anton Rubinstein. Produced at St.
Petersburg, Jan. 25, 1875, and at Covent Garden,
June 21, 1 88 1. [M,]

DE RESZKE, Edouabd, born at "Warsaw,
Dec. 23, 1855, was taught singing by his
brother Jean, CiafFei, Steller, and Coletti, and
made his ddbut April 22, 1876, as the King in
* Aida,' on its production at the Italiens, Paris.
He sang there with success for two seasons, and
afterwards went to Italy, where, in 1880, at
Turin, he made a success in two new parts — the
King in Catalani's 'Elda,' Jan. 31, and Charles V.
in Marchetti's 'Don Giovanni d' Austria,' Mar.
II, and appeared at Milan on the production of
Ponchielli's ' Figluol Prodigo,' Dec. 26. From
1880 to '84 he was engaged with the Royal
Italian Opera, until its collapse. He made
his debut on April 13, 1880, as India (' Roi de



612



DE EESZKE.



Lahore '), but his success as a foremost lyric
aitist was established by his admirable perform-
ances of St. Bris, the Count in ' Sonnambula,'
Basilic, and later as Walter ('Tell'), Peter the
Great, Prince Gudal('Demonio'), June 21, 1881;
S^non (Lenepveu's ' Velleda'), July 4, 1S82;
Almaviva ; Mephistopheles ; Alvise, on produc-
tion of 'La Gioconda,' May 31, 1883; Hagen,
on production of Reyer's 'Sigurd,' July 15,
1884 ; etc. In 1883-84 he reappeared in Paris
at the Italian Opera (Theatre des Nations),
with great success, in ' Simone Boccanegra,' in
Massenet's ' Herodiade,' on its production in
Paris, in Dubois' ' Aben Hamet,' Dec. 16, 1884,
and in favourite operas. He is now engaged at
the French Op^ra, where he first appeared April

13, 1885, as Mephistopheles, which part he
played at the 500th performance of * Faust,'
Nov. 4, 1887. He appeared as Leporello in the
centenary performance of * Don Juan,' Oct. 26,
1887, and has played parts in two operas re-
cently produced there, viz. *Le Cid' and ' Patrie.'



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