George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

. (page 145 of 194)
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He played at the Italian Opera at Drury Lane
in 1 88 7, as Basilio, St. Bris, Mephistopheles, and
Henry the Fowler (' Lohengrin '), and more than
confirmed the reputation previously made as
perhaps the best bass singer and actor on the
lyric stage.

His elder brother, Jean, born at Warsaw, Jan.

14, 1852, was taught singing by his mother, a
distinguished amateur, and at the age of twelve
sang solos in the Cathedral there. He was
taught later by CiafFei, Cotogni, and Sbriglia.
Under the name 'De Reschi ' he made his debut
at Venice as Alfonso (' Favorita ') in Jan. 1874,
according to an eye-witness with success.' He
made his d^but at Drury Lane on April li of
the same year, and in the same part, and played
there two seasons as Don Giovanni, Almaviva,
De Nevers, and Valentine. A contemporary*
spoke of him as one of whom the highest ex-
pectations might be entertained, having a voice
more of a low tenor than a baritone, of delicious
quality ; he phrased artistically and possessed
sensibility, but lacked experience such as would
enable him to turn his vocal gifts to greater
account and to become an effective actor. The
quality of the organ was more of the robust
tenor timbre than a baritone. Under his own
name he made his d(ibut at the 'Italiens ' as Fra
Melitone (' Furza del Destino'), Oct. 31, 1876,
with some success, and as Severe (Donizetti's
'Poliuto') Dec. 5, Figaro (' Barbiere ') Dec. 19.
He made his tenor debut as 'Robert,' at Madrid
in 1879 with great success, and as such was
engaged at the Theatre des Nations in 18S4.
He played there the part of St. Jolm the Baptist
on the production of 'Herodiade' so much to
the satisfaction of Massenet, that he procured
him an engagement at the Acadeuiie to create
the title part of ' Le Cid,' in which he made
his debut on its production, Nov. 30, 1885. He
is still engaged there, and has become a great
favourite. He has played there also as Radames,

1 L«tter of Mr. Michael Williams in Musical World, Jan. SI, 187*.
' Athenffium, April 18 and July 20. lili.



DIAPHONIA.

Vasco de Gama, and John of Leyden, and
Ottavio and Faust in the celebrations mention
above, for the first time in Paris. His next ps
there was that of Bussy d'Amboise in Salvayn
unsuccessful ' Dame de Monsoreau.'

He re-appeared at Drury Lane as Radamt
June 13, 1887, and during the season playi
Lohengrin, Faust, and Raoul with great applau
and worthily fulfilled prediction by the markt
improvement both in his singing and acting, ai
for his ease and gentlemanly bearing, such ir
provement being almost entirely due to his oni
hard work and exertions. He has been almo)
unanimously pronounced to be the best sta;
tenor since Mario.

Their sister, Josephine, educated at the Coi
servatorium, St. Petersburg, attracted the notii
of M. Halanzier at Venice, and was engaged I
him at the Academic, where she made her d^bi
as Ophelia, June 21, 1875, She sang there wil
success for some time, wliere she was the origin
Sita ('Roi de Lahore'), April 27, 1877. £**'
she was very successful at Madrid, Lisbon, etc
sang at Co vent Garden as Aida, April 18, lE
and again in Paris at the 'Nations' as Salon
('Herodiade'), March 13, 1884. She retire
from public on her marriage with M. Leopold (
Kronenburg of Warsaw. [A.C

DERING, RicHAKD. Line 9 of article, ac
the date of his appointment in Brussels, 161
In that year appeared his second work, ' Cai
tiones sacrae quinque vocum,' etc. In 16]
another volume of similar composition appear©
and in 1620 two books of canzonets were pu
lished at Antwerp. Line 14, for about 16;
read early in 1630. It should be added that h
earliest production is probably the first instani^
of the use of figured bass. [W.B.S

DESMARETS, Henri, born in Paris 166
and brought up at the court of Louis XI"'
His first opera, ' Didon,' in five acts, was pe
formed June 5, 1693. It was followed by 'Circi
(1694), 'Thdagfene et Chariclt^e' and 'LesAmou
de Momus ' (1695), 'Vdnus et Adonis' (169;
'Les Fetes Galantes' (1698). About this time)
got into trouble in consequence of a secret ma
riage with the daughter of a dignitary at Senli
and had to escape to Spain, where he became,
1700, maitre demusique to Philip V. In 1704 b
' Iphigenie,' written in collaboration with Car
pra, was given in Paris, but he does not appe;
to have returned from Spain until 1714, wh(
he took up his residence at Luneville, under tl
patronage of the Duke of Lorraine, with who;
help he obtained, in 1722, the ratification of h
marriage. In that year his ' Reuaud, ou
Suite d'Armide' was performed in Paris, and i
1741 the composer died, in prosperous circun
stances, at Luneville. [M

DEUX JOURN^ES. LES. Line 4, ac
other names of German adaptations, 'Die Ta^
der Gefahr,' and ' Graf Armand, oder die zw
unvergesslichen Tage.* Refer to Watee Cabeie

DIAPHONIA (from 8is, twice ; and (pcuuet
1 sound. Lat. Discantus ; from dis, twice, an



DIAPHONIA.

intus, a song. Inexact synonym, Organum).

i term, applied, by Guido d'Arezzo, in his

I icrologus, to a form of composition in which a

Icond Part, called Organum, was added below

g^ven Cantus firmus. Writers, of somewhat

;er date, while generally describing Diaphonia

iderits Latinized name, Discantus, have treated

at word as the exact synonym of Organum.

lido, however, clearly restricts the term, Orga-

•m, to the Part added below the Cantus

*mus ; and not without good reason, since it is

lly to the union of the two Parts that the

Inns, Diaphonia, or Discantus, can be logically

I plied. In its oldest known form, the added

• irt moved in uninterrupted Fourths below the

*intus firmus. Guido disapproved of this, and

|3omraended, as a more agreeable {■mollis)



DIES IRiE.



613



ithod, that the Major Second, and the Major
d Minor Third, should be used in alternation
th the Fourth. When a third Part was added,

doubling the Organum in the Octave above,
e form of composition was called Triphonia.
itraphonia was produced by doubling both the
•ganum and the Cantus firmus, in the Octave
eve. Guido called the third Part, Organum du-
icatum. In later times, it was called Triplum
=Treble), and the fourth Part, Quadruplum.



Diaphonia.






Triphonia.


















)

Ml - se - re - le.


m


- ae - re - re.


E — g ^ :^ ^ g —


1— ^-


— '^ — '^ '-'• — ■s> —


" — r= — «■ -^-<=^- ^





1-^


-' — C«f


Tetraphonia.


















10 - 86 - re - re.



















For Hucbald's treatment of Discantus and
'ganum, see toI. ii. p. 609, and vol. iii. p. 427.

[W.S.R.]

DIBDIN, Charles. Correct statement as to
s being the originator of ' table entertainments '
' a reference to vol. iv. p. 51a.

DICTIONARIES OF MUSIC. For ampli-
ation of first sentence, see TiNCTORis, vol. iv.
1 28a. P. 444 6, bottom line, add a reference to
ftoeSABD, in Appendix. P. 446 a, 1. i, add that
e supplement to Fetis was published in 1878 by
. Arthur Pougin, in 2 vols. Add to second
■ragraph that Mendel's Lexicon has been
mpleted in 1 1 vols., together with a supplemen-
ry volume edited by Dr. August Reissmann,

1883. Mention should also be made of
r. Hugo Riemann's handy ' Musik-Lexicon '
iblished in Leipzig in 1882 (second edition,
87). P, 446 J, I. 13, add that the musical
tides in the Encyc. Brit, have been more
Dently written by Mr. W. S. Rockstro.

VOL. IV. PT. 5.



DIES IR^ {Prosa de Mortuis. Prom cle
Die Judicii. Sequeniia in Commemoratione
Defanctorum. "fi 6p-^f)s tKi'iv' rinipa). The Se-
quence, or Prose, appointed, in the Roman
Missal, to be sung, between the Epistle and
Gospel — that is to say, immediately after the
Gradual and Tractus — in Masses for the Dead.

The truth of the tradition which ascribes the
Poetry to Thomas de Celano, the friend, dis-
ciple, and biographer, of S. Francis of Assisi,
seems to be established, beyond all controversy.
F. Thomas was admitted to the Order of the
Friars Minor soon after its formation; enjoyed
the privilege of the closest intimacy with its
saintly Founder ; and is proved, by clear inter-
nal evidence, to have written his ' Vita Sancti
Francisci' between Oct. 4, 1226, on which day
the death of the Saint took place, and May
25, 1230 — the date of the translation of his
Relics. This well-established fact materially
strengthens the tradition that the 'Dies irse'
was written not very many years after the be-
ginning of the 13th century ; and effectually
disposes of the date given by some modern
Hymnologists, who, though attributing the Se-
quence to Thomas de Celano, assert that it was
composed circa 1150. F. Bartholomaeus Pisa-
nus (ob. 1401) says that it was written byFrater
Thomas, who came from Celanum ; and that it
was sung in Masses for the Dead. But, many
years seem to have elapsed before its use be-
came general. It is very rarely found, in early
MS. Missals, either in England, France, or Ger-
many ; and is wanting in many dating as late as
the close of the 15th century, or the beginning
of the 1 6th. It is doubtful, indeed, whether its
use was recognized in all countries, until its in-
sertion in the Missale Romanum rendered it a
matter of obligation.

As an example of the grandest form of mediae-
val Latin Poetry — the rhymed prose ^ which
here attains its highest point of perfection — the
' Dies irse ' stands unrivalled. Not even the
'Stabat Mater' of Jacobus de Benedictis, writ-
ten nearly a century later, can be fairly said to
equal it. For, in that, the verses are pervaded,
throughout, by one unchanging sentiment of
overwhelming sorrow ; whereas, in the * Dies
irse,' wrath, terror, hope, devotion, are each, in
turn, used as a natural preparation for the con-
cluding prayer for ' Eternal rest.' The tender-
ness of expression which has rendered some of
its stanzas so deservedly famous, is contrasted,
in other verses, with a power of diction, which,
whether clothed in epic or dramatic form, is
forcible enough to invest its awful subject with
an all-absorbing interest, a terrible reality, which
the hearer finds it impossible to resist. A great
variety of unfamiliar ' readings ' is to be found
in early copies. The version believed to be the
oldest is that known as the Marmor Mantuanum,
in which, among other variations from the version
contained in the Roman Missal, four stanzas,
each consisting of three rhymed verses, precede
the authorized text.



iSeerol. III. p.465i.



Ss



614



DIES lE^.



Sir Walter Scott's rendering of the opening
stanzas, at the end of ' The Lay of the Last
Minstrel,' is known to every one. A very fine
English paraphrase, by the Rev. W. I. Irons,
B.D., beginning, ' Day of wrath, O day of mourn-
ing!' is inserted, in company with the old Plain
Song Melody, in the Rev. T. Helmore's 'Hymnal
Noted.' Innumerable German translations are
extant, of which the best-known is that begin-
ning, ' Tag des Zorns, du Tag der Fiille.'

The old Ecclesiastical Melody is a remark-
ably fine one, in Modes i. and ii. (Mixed Do-
rian) ranging throughout the entire extent of
the combined Scale, with the exception of the
Octave to the Final. No record of its origin,
or authorship, has been preserved; but we
can scarcely doubt, that, if not composed by
Thomas de Celano himself, it was adapted to his
verses at the time of their completion. Fine as
this Melody is, it has not been a favourite with
the greatest of the Polyphonic Masters ; partly,
no doubt, on account of the limited number of
Dioceses in which the Sequence was s-ung, prior
to its incorporation in the Roman Missal ; and,
partly because it has been a widespread cus-
tom, from time immemorial, to dispense with the
employment of Polyphonic Harmony, in Masses
for the Dead. The ' Dies irss ' is wanting in Pa-
lestrina's ' Missa pro Defunctis,' for five Voices,
printed at the end of the third edition of his
First Book of Masses (Rome, 1591) ; and, in
that by Vittoria, sung in 1603 at the Funeral
of the Empress Maria, wife of Maximilian II.,
and printed at Madrid in 1605. It is found,
however, in not a few Masses by Composers of
somewhat lower rank ; as, for instance, in a
Missa pro Defunctis, for four Voices, by Gio-
vanni Matteo Asola (Venice, 15S6) ; in one for
eight Voices, by Orazio Vecchi (Antwerp, 161 2) ;
in one for four Voices, by Francesco Anerio ;
and in one for four Voices, by Pitoni. In all
these Masses, the old Ecclesiastical Melody is
employed as the liasis of the composition ; but
Pitoni has marred the design of an otherwise
great work, by the introduction of alternate
verses, written in a style quite unsuited to the
solemnity of the text.

With modern Composers the ' Dies irce ' has
always been a popular subject ; and more
than one great master has adapted its verses to
Music of a broadly imaginative, if not a dis-
tinctly dramatic cliaracter. Among the most
important settings of this class, we may enu-
merate those by Colonna and Bassani, copies of
which are to be found in the Library of the
Royal College of Music ; that in Mozart's Re-
quiem, of which, whether Mozart composed it
or not, we may safely say that it was written by
the greatest Composer of Church Music that the
School of Vienna ever produced : the two great
settings by Cherubini ; the first, in his Requiem
in C Minor, and the second, in that in D Minor ;
the extraordinarily realistic settings in the
Requiems of Berlioz and Verdi ; and finally,
the setting in Gounod's ' Mors et Vita.' For far-
ther information concerning the poem and other



DITSON.

musical compositions on the words, the reac
is referred to a series of articles in ' The Musi
Review' (Novello) for June, 1SS3. [W.S.I

DIETRICH, Albeet Hermann, born A\
28, 1829, at Golk near Meissen, and educated
the Gymnasium at Dresden, from 1842 onwari
While here he determined to devote himself
music, but in spite of this resolution, he we
not to the Conservatorium, but to the U
versity of Leipzig, in 1847, having previoui
studied music with Julius Otto. At Leip;
his musical tuition was in the hands of Rie
Hauptmann and Moscheles. From 1851 he b
the advantage of studying under Schumann
Dusseldorf until 1854, when the ma&ter's men
condition made further instruction impossib
During this time, in the autumn of 1853,
incident occurred which brought Dietrich ii
collaboration with his master and Johani
Brahms. Joachim was coming to Diisseld
to play at a concert on Oct. 27, and Schuma
formed the plan of writing a joint violin-son;
with the other two, by way of greeting. D
tricli's share was the opening aUegro in A min
[See vol. iii. p. 404 a.] In i 854 his first symphc
was given at Leipzig, and a year later he w
appointed conductor of the subscription conce
at Bonn, becoming town Musikdirector in 181
In 1 86 1 he became Hofkapellmeister at Oldi
burg. On his frequent visits to Leipzig, Cologi
and elsewhere, he has proved himself an excellf
conductor, and an earnest musician. Amo
his works may be mentioned an opera in th;
acts, ' Robin Hood' ; pieces for pianoforte, op.
sonws, op. 10 ; a trio for piano and strin
op. 9 ; a symphoiry in D minor, op. 20 ; a cone
overture, ' Normannenfahrt ' ; ' Morgenhymn
' Rheinmorgen'; and ' Altchristlicher Bittgesan
works for choir and orchestra ; concertos for h(
(op. 29), violin (op. 30) and violoncello (op. 3:
a pianoforte sonata for four hands ; etc. [S

DIETSCH, Pierre Louis Philippe.
vol. iv. p. 213 a, note i, and add that in 1863
was dismissed from his post as conductor
M. Perrin, and that hedied Feb. 20, 1865.

DIGNUM, Charles. Line 10 from end
article, /or 96 read 90.

, DITSON, Oliver, & Co. The oldest mus
publishing house in the United States n
engaged in business, as well as the largt
Its headquarters are at Boston, where )
senior partner has followed the business sij
1823, when, at the age of 12, he entered 1
employ of Samuel H. Parker, a book and mu
seller. On reaching his majority in 1832, Ditsi
was taken into partnership by his employer, a
the firm, Parker & Ditson, continued ui
1845, when, on the retirement of Parker, Ij
business was carried on by Ditson in his o
name until 1857, when John C. Haynes m
admitted a partner, and the style, Oliver Dits
& Co., was adopted. Ditson's eldest son, Char
H., was admitted in 1867, and was placed
charge of the New York branch, Charles

• Copyright 1889 by F. H. Jexks.



DITSON.



DODECACHORDOK



615



tson & Co. In 1875 another son, J. Edward,
came a member of the firm, and the head of
e Philadelphia branch, J. Edward Ditson
Co. In i860 a branch was established in
)ston for the importation and sale of band and
jhestral instruments and other musical mer-
andise, under the name of John C. Haynes &
). A further branch has existed in Chicago
ice 1864, styled Lyon & Healy, who transact
general business in music and musical mer-
andise with the growing country that lies to
e westward. The catalogue of sheet music
Wished by the house and its four branches
ibraces over 51,000 titles. Some 2000 other
les — instruction books, operas, oratorios,
jsses, collections of psalmody and of secular
oral music, in fact every variety of music and
it book known to the trade — are also included
the list of publications bearing the imprint of

3 firm. [F.H.J.]

DOCTOR OF MUSIC. Line 20 of article,
d following, correct date of Bull's degree to
92, that of Callcott to 1800, and that of Bishop
1853. Line 10 from bottom, correct date of
ires' degree to 1 756. Refer to Oxford, vol. ii.

4 h, for a further list of names, and see
2GEEES in Appendix.

DODECACHORDON (original Greek title,
lAEKAXOPAON, from dcoStKa twelve, and
pdrj, a string). A work, published at Basle,
September, 1547, by the famous mediasval
eorist, now best known by his assumed name,
areanus, though his true patronymic was
jinrich Loris, latinized Henricus Loritus. [See
I. i. p. 598.]

The Dodecachordon owes its existence to a
ipute, which, at the time of its publication, in-
Ived considerations of great importance to
mposers of the Polyphonic School ; and the
arness and logical consistency of the line of
jument it brings to bear upon the subject
(ider it the most valuable treatise on the
i:clesiastical Modes that has ever been given
the world.

In the time of S. Ambrose, four Modes only
iTe formally acknowledged. S. Gregory in-
!ased the number to eight. Later students,
ding that fourteen were possible, advocated
>3 use of the entire number. In the opening
lars of the 9th century, the controversy grew
hot, that the question was referred to the
nperor Charlemagne, who was well known to
one of the most learned Musicians of his age.
larlemagne, after long deliberation, decided
it twelve Modes were sufficient for general
3 : and his dictum was founded on an indis-
table theoretical truth ; for, though fourteen
odes are possible, two are rendered practically
sless, by reason of their dissonant intervals.
The decision of Charlemagne was universally
:epted, in practice ; but, in process of time, an
iment of confusion was introduced into the
3ory of the Modes, by certain superficial stu-
nts — prototypes of the party which now tells
that ' Plain Song ought always to be sung in



unison ' — who, unable to penetrate beyond the
melodic construction of the scale, imagined that
certain Modes were essentially identical, because
they corresponded in compass, and in the posi-
tion of their semitones. It is quite true that
every Authentic Mode corresponds, in compass,
and in the position of its semitones, with a cer-
tain Mode taken from the Plagal Series ; just as,
in the modern system, every Major Scale cor-
responds, in signature, with a certain Minor
Scale. But, the intervals in the two Modes are
referable to, and entirely dependent upon, a
diS'erent Final; just as, in the Relative Major
and Minor Scales, they are referable to a differ-
ent Tonic. For instance, the Authentic Mixoly-
dian Mode corresponds, exactly, in its compass,
and the position of its semitones, with the Plagal
Hypoionian Mode. The range of both lies
between G and g ; and the semitones, in both,
fall between the third and fourth, and the sixth
and seventh degrees. But, the Final of the
Mixolydian Mode is G, and that of the Hypo-
ionian, C ; and, though Palestrina's Missa Papse
Marcelli, written in the Hypoionian Mode, ends
every one of its greater sections with a full close
on the Chord of C, and bases every one of its
most important Cadences on that Chord, there
are critics at the present day v/ho gravely tell us
that it is in the Mixolydian Mode, simply because
the range of its two Tenors lies between G and
g. Glareauus devotes pages 73-74 of the Dodeca-
chordon to an unanswerable demonstration of the
fallacy of this reasoning ; and all the great
theorists of the 1 6th century are in agreement
with him, in so ^far as the main facts of the
argument are concerned, though they differ in
the numerical arrangement of their ' Tables.' To
prevent confusion on this point, it is necessary to
consider the system upon which these ' Tables '
are constructed.

The most comprehensive and reasonable system
of classification is that which presents the com-
plete series of fourteen possible Modes, in their
natural order, inserting the impure Locrian and
Hypolocrian forms, in their normal position,
though rejecting them in practice. The complete
aiTangemeut is shown in the following scheme.

JX. JEolian.
X, HyposeoHan.
XL Locrian {or Bt/per-

ceoliiin).
XIL Hi/polocrian {orHyper-



^^ phri/gian)
Xm. loniaii (or lastianl.
XIV. Hyi;>oioiiiau (,or Hy-
poiastian).



I. Dorian,
n. Hypodorian.

III. Phrygian.

IV. Hypophrygian.
V. Lydian (or Hyper-

phrygian).
VI. Hypolydian.
VII. Mixolydian (or Hy-

perlydian.)

Vm. Hypomixolydian.

The system most widely opposed to this recog-
nises the existence of eight Modes only — Nos.
I-VIII in the foregoing series ; and represents
the iEolian, Hypoieolian, Ionian, and Hypoio-
nian forms, as replicates of Modes II, III, VI,
and VII — or, still less reasonably. Modes I, II,
V, and VI — with the substitution of different
Finals.

In all essential points, Glareanus follows the
first-named system, though he describes the
Ionian, and Hypoionian forms, as Modes XI and

Ss3



616



DODECACHORDON.



XII, and simply mentions the rejected Locrian
and Hypolocrian scales by name, without assign-
in(r them any definite numbers.

"Zacconi's Table agrees with that of Glareanus.
Fux generally describes the Modes by name, and
takes but little notice of their numerical order.
In later times, the editors of the Mechlin Office-
Books have endeavoured to reconcile the two
conflicting systems by appending double numbers
to the disputed Modes. Dr. Proske, in his
' Musica divina,' follows the first-mentioned
system, describing the Ionian and Hypoionian
Modes, as Nos. XIII and XIV ; and the same
plan has been uniformly adopted in the present
Dictionary. The want of an unvarying method
of nomenclature is much to be ^ regretted ; but
it no way afiects the essence of the question, for,
since the publication of the Dodecachordon, no
one has ever seriously attempted to dispute the
dictum of Glareanus, that twelve Modes, and
twelve only, are available for practical purposes ;
and these twelve have found pretty nearly equal
favour among the Great Masters of the Poly-
phonic School.^

The Dodecachordon enters minutely into the
peculiar characteristics of each of the twelve
Modes ; and gives examples of the treatment of
each, selected from the works of the best Masters
of the early Polyphonic School. The amount of
information it contains is so valuable and ex-
haustive, that it is doubtful whether a student
of the present daycould ever succeed in thoroughly
mastering the subject without its assistance.

The text, comprised in 470 closely printed
folio pages, is illustrated by 89 Compositions, for
two, three, and four voices, with and without
words, printed in separate parts, and accompanied
by directions for deciphering the Enigmatical
Canons, etc., by the following Composers : —
Antonio Brumel (4 compositions) ; Nicolaus
Craen (i) ; Sixt Dietrich (5) ; Antonius Fevin
(i) ; Adam de Fulda (i) ; Damianus h, Goes
Lusitanus (i) ; Heinrich Isaac (5) ; Josquinus
Pratensis [Josquin desPrfes] (25) ; Listenius (i) ;
Adam Luyr Aqusegranensis (i) ; Gregor Meyer
(10) ; Joannes Mouton (4); Jac. Obrechth (3) ;
Johannes Okenheim (3); De Orto(i); Petrus
Platensis [Pierre de la Rue] (3) ; Richafort (i);
Gerardus k Salice Flandri (i); Lutvichus Sen-
flius (3); Andr. Sylvanus (i) ; Thomas Tzamen



Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 145 of 194)