George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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(i) ; Jo. Vannius [Wannenmacher] (i) ; Vaque-
ras (1) ; Antonius h Vinea (i);. Paulas Wuest
(i) ; Anonymous (9).

The first edition of the AnAEKAXOPAON was
printed at Basle, in i.=47. A second edition,
entitled ' De Musices divisione ac definitione,'
but with the same headings to the chapters, is

1 It win be noticed that the variations affect the later Modes only.
The first eight Modes— the oal.v Modes that can consistently be called
■Gregorian'— are distinguished by tne same numbers in all systems
but one. This exception is to be found in the Table given by Zarlino.
who numbers the Modes thus :— 1. Ionian ; II. Hypoionian ; III.
Dorian ; IV. Uypodorian ; V. Phrygian ; VI. Hypophrygian ; VII,
Lydian ; VIII. Hypolydian ; IX. Mixolydian ; X. Hypomixolydian ;
XI. .aEolian; XU. Hyposeolian. This method is exceptionally con-
fusing, since not one of its numbers corresponds with those of any
other system.

2 Consult, on this point, Baini's 'Life of Paleatrina' (' Memorie,'
etc.) Tom. ii. p. 81.


believed to have been printed, at the same pis
in 1549-^ A small volume, entitled 'Mus
Epitome, sive Compendium, ex Glareani Do
cachordo,' by J, Wonnegger, was published
Basle in 1557, and reprinted in 1559. 1
original work is now very scarce, and cost
though, happily, less so than the ' Syntagn
of PrjEtorius, or the ' Musica getuscht und a
gezogen ' of Sebastian Virdung. Copies of
edition of 1547 will be found at the British IV
seum, and the Royal College of Music ; and
British Museum also possesses the first editioi
Wonnegger's ' Epitome.' [W.S,'

DORFFEL, Alfred, bom Jan. 24, 18
at Waldenburg in Saxony, received his f
musical education from the organist Joh. Tru
In 1835 he entered the Leipzig Conservatory
where he received instruction from Karl Kl
G. W. Fink, C. G. Miiller, Mendelssohn
Schumann. In 1837 1^® made a succes
appearance as a pianist, and soon afterwa
attained to a high position as a musical cri
In the ' Neue Zeitschrift fiir Musik' he wr
some reviews of Schumann's works, which .
ticipated the verdict of posterity, although tl
did not correspond with contemporary opin
concerning that master's greatness. His critic;
of 'Genoveva' gave the compo.ser great pleasi
From 1865 to 1S81 he contributed to the 'Le
zige Nachrichten,' and in 1S60 was appoin
custodian of the musical department of the to
library. In the following year he establisl
a music lending library together with a mu;
selling business, in both of which he was s
ceeded in 1885 lay his son, Balduin Dorffel.
has undertaken much work for the firm of Bn
kopf & Hartel, whose critical editions of
classics, and especially that of Beethoven, hi
been chiefly corrected by him. For the edit
of Peters he has edited the pianoforte works
Schumann, and other compositions, and seve
of the Bach-Gesellschaft volumes have bt
issued under his direction. In 1887 he edited ■
' St. Luke Passion ' for the first-named firm.
the literature of music he has contributed^
edition of Berlioz's treatise on instrumentati'
the second edition of Schumann's 'Gesamme
Schriften,' and has published an invaluable 1:
tory of the Gewanclhaus concerts from 1781
18S1 ('Festschrift zur hundertjahrigen Jub
feier, etc. Leipzig, 1884), in recognition of whi
the University of Leipzig confei-red upon h
the degree of Doctor. [H.l

DOLES, JoHANX Fbiedkich, bom in 1716
Steinbach in Saxe-Meiningen, was educated
the Schleusingen Gymnasium, where he avail
himself of instruction in singing and in playi
on the violin, clavier, and organ. In 1738
went to Leipzig for a course of theology at i
University, and while there pursued his musi
studies under J. S. Bach. His compositio
however, bear little trace of Bach's influem
though fluent and correct, they have none
that great master's depth and grandeur. !)•:

3 See vol. 1. p. 598 a.


ulJ seem to have been more affected by tlie
lian Opera, with which he became familiar

constant attendance at performances given
the Saxon court at Hubertsburg. His light,
asing, and melodious compositions, together
;h the charm of his manners, rapidly brought
1 populai-ity at Leipzig. In 1743 he
3 appointed conductor of the first Gewasd-
as CoxcEETS;^ and on March 9, 1744,

was commissioned to write a Festival
itata in celebration of the anniversary of
ir foundation. In that same year he was
)ointed Cantor at Freiburg, where he wrote,
1 748, on the occasion of the hundredth anni-
sary of the Peace of Westphalia, the Sing-
3I, out of which arose the famous dispute
ween Biedeimann, Mattheson, and Bach. ^
1755 he succeeded Gottlob Hasser as Cantor
he Thomasschule and also as director of the
» principal churches, which posts he held
ill 1789, when old age and failing health
ipelled him to resign them. In the spring
1789 Mozart visited Leipzig, and on April

he played on the organ at St. Thomas's
arch, and made his well-known remark to
les about Bach's music. [See Mozaet, vol. ii.
92 5.] It was probably on the same occasion
t J. C. Barthel played before Mozart at
les's house. [See Bakthel, J. C] And in

foUowing year Doles published his cantata
jrellert's words, ' Ich komme vor dein Ange-
it ' (Leipzig, 1 790), dedicated to his friends
zart and Naumann. Special interest attaches
.his work, because its preface records Doles's
oions as to the way in which sacred music
uld be treated, and those opiaions have little
common with the traditions of J. S, Bach,
is plain, indeed, that although Doles was
ud of having been Bach's pupil, and there-
j unwilling to depreciate him openly, he
k no pains whatever, during his directorship
Leipzig, to encourage and extend the taste

his great master's works. Bach's church-
ric was almost entirely neglected both by
I and his successor, J. A. Holler. Doles died
Leipzig on Feb. 8, 1797.
[is compositions consist principally of cantatas,
|;ets, psalms, sacred odes and songs, and cho-
ps, many of which have been printed, including
;ie sonatas for the clavicembalo. His ' Elemen-
f Instruction in Singing ' had, in its day, con-

irable reputation as a useful practical method,
long his many unprinted works may be men-
led two oratorios (the Passion-music accord-
to St. Mark and St. Luke), two masses, a
tie, a Gloria, a Salve, and a German Mag-
cat. [A.H.W.]

)OMMEPv, Aeket von, born Feb. 9, 1828,
Dantzig, was brought up to theology, but in
I went to Leipzig and learnt composition
n Eichter and Lobe. After some time passed

hey were then called ' das grosse Concert ' and were held in a
te hoase ; but almost immediately after their commencement
were interrupted by the outbreak of the Seyen Years War. [See
. p. 592, 3.]

;e Bitter's J. 8. Bach. ill. 229, and Spitta's J. S. Bach, ill. 255 f,
1. ed.)


as a teacher of music, he forsook Leipzig for
Hamburg, where he spent seven years as a
musical critic and correspondent, and in 1873
was made secretary to the Hamburg city library,
a post which he stiU holds (1887). In 1865 he
published an enlarged edition of H. C. Koch's
Musikalisches Lexicon of 180 2, which is a sterling
work, perhaps a little too sternly condensed. Be-
sides thishisHandbook of Musical History(i867,
2nd ed. 1878) is highly spoken of by Eiemann,
from whom the above is chiefly obtained. [G.]
DON CARLOS. Line 4 of article, for
Demery read Mery. Line "J, for Her Majesty's
read Covent Garden.

DONIZETTI. For date of birth read Nov.
^5) 1797- (Partially corrected in late editions.)
P. 453 a, 1. 10 from bottom, /or 1834 read 1833.
Page 454 a, 1. 38, add day of death, April 8.
In lines 39 and 40, read he was disinterred on
April 26, and reburied on Sept. 12, 1S75, in
Santa Maria Maggiore, Bergamo. The following
corrections are to be made in the list of works : —
The title of No. 4 is ' Zoraide di Granata.'
That of No. 13 is 'Alahor in Granata.' The
date of 'Otto mese in due ore' is 1827; the
works of 1828 begin with No. 20. The date of
' L'Esule di Roma ' is 1828 ; the works of 1829,
omitting ' L'Elisire d'amore,' which belongs to
1832, begin with No. 25, 'II Paria.' The title
of No. 30 is ' Isnelda di Lambertazzi.' The
date of 'Anna Bolena ' is 1830, and that of
' Fausta ' 1832, among the works of which year
' L'Elisire d'amore ' is to be included. No. 40,
' L'Assedio di Calais' is identical with No. 22,
'"Gianni di Calais ' ; the date here given is that
of its production in Paris. The date of ' Lucrezia
Borgia' is 1833, and the works of 1834 begin
with ' Rosamonda.' The date of ' Genoma di
Vergy ' is 1834, the works of 1835 beginning with.
' Marino FaUero.' 'Roberto Devereux ' belongs
to 1837. The title of No. 51 is ' Pia di Tolomei.'
The works of 1S43 begin with ' Maria di Rohan,'
not with ' Don Pasquale.'

DORN, Heineich. L. E. Line 20 from
bottom of page, /or 47 read 49.

house was erected upon the garden of a mansion
belonging to the Earl of Dorset, situate upon the
bank of the Thames at the bottom of Salisbury
Court, Fleet Street. Sir William (then Mr.)
Davenant had obtained a patent for its erection
in 1639 and another in 1662, but from various
causes the building was not erected in his life-
time. His widow, however, built the theatre,
from the designs of Sir Christopher Wren ; and
the Duke's company, removing from Lincoln's
Inn Fields, opened it Nov. 19, 167 1. It became
celebrated for the production of pieces of which
music and spectacle were the most prominent
features, amongst which the most conspicuous
were Davenant's adaptation of Shakspere's
'Macbeth,' with Lock's music, 1672; Shad-
well's adaptation of Shakspere's ' Tempest,' with
music by Lock, Humfrey, and others, 1673;
Shad well's 'Psyche,' with music by Lock and


Draglii, Feb. 1673-4; Shadwell's 'Libertine,'
with Purcell's music, 1676; Dr. Davenant's
'Circe,' with Banister's music, 1677; Shad-
well's alteration of Shakspere's ' Timon of
Athens,' with Purcell's music, 1678; and Lee's
' CEdipus ' and ' Theodosius,' both with Purcell's
music, in 1679 and 1680 respectively. In 16S2
the King's and Duke's companies were united,
and generally performed at Drury Lane ; but
operas and other pieces requiring a large space
for stage effects were stiU occasionally brought
out at Dorset Garden, amongst them Dryden's
'Albion and Albanius,' with Grabu's music,
1685 ; and Powell and Verbruggen's 'Brutus and
Alba,' with Daniel Purcell's music, in 1697.
In 1699 the house was let to William J03', a
strong Kentish man styled ' The English
Samson,' and for exhibitions of conjuring,
fencing, and even prize-fighting. It was again
opened for the performance of plays in 1703,
and finally closed in Oct. 1706. After the
demolition of the theatre the site was succes-
sively occupied as a timber yard, by the New
River Company's offices, and the City Gas
Works. An engraving showing the river front
of the theatre was prefixed to Elkanah Settle's
' Empress of Morocco," 1673, another, by Sutton
Nicholls, was published in 1710, and a third in
theGentleman'sMagazine, July, 1814. [W.H.H.]

DOT. It should be added that Handel and
Bach, and other composers of the early part
of the 1 8th century, were accustomed to use
a convention which often misleads modern
students. In 6-8 or 12-8 time, where groups
of dotted quavers followed by semiquavers occur
in combination with triplets, they are to be
regarded as equivalent to crotchets and quavers.
Thus the passage


is played

not with the semiquaver sounded after the third
note of the triplet, as it would be if the phi-ase
occurred in more modern music. E^I-]

DOTZAUER, J. J. F. Line 3 of article./oj-
Jan. read June. Line 6 from bottomybj- 9 read 6.

DOUBLE BASS. Line 14, add that the
notes sound an octave lower than they are
written. In the musical example, the first
note of (6) should be E. (Corrected in late
editions.) Omit foot-note i.

DOWLAND, John. Line 5 from bottom of
page, ^or 1602 read 1603. The following ana-
gram on his name is given by Camden at the
end of his ' Remaines' : —

Joannes Doulandus.
Anno3 ludendo hausi.

DRAGHL G. B. P. 461 h, 1. 15, for com-
posed read published ; the opera was performed
in 1673.

DRAGONETTI, Domenico. The date of

birth should probably be altered to April 7, 1 763.




pianoforte music attributed to Beethoven, ai
piablished by Cramer & Beale. It consists
the third of Beethoven's six sacred songs (op. 4
transcribed for the PF., and followed by
arrangement of the Welch air ' Merch ]Me<Tai
also for the piano. The piece derived its exi
ence from the demand created by the mention
* Beethoven's Dream of St. Jerome ' in Tliacl
ray's ' Philip,' that again being a mistake
' St. Jerome's Love,' a poem adapted by Thoro
j\Ioore, in his ' Sacred Songs,' to the melody
the theme of the opening movement of Beetl
ven's Sonata, op. 26. The story is told in 1
Times of June 16 and 28, 18S6.

DRECHSLER, Karl. Add date of dea
Dec. I, 1873.

DROUET, L. F. P. Add day of dea!

SejDt. 30.

DRUM. P. 464 I, for second line after fi
musical example reaif Meyerbeer uses four drui,
G, C, D, and E. P. 465 b, 1. 5 from bottom, ;
that Pieranzovini wrote a concerto for the drui

DRURY LANE. Line 12 from end of artii
for 1869 read 1870.

DUBOIS, Clement Feancois Theodo
born at Rosney (Marne), Aug. 24, 1837, ^^
to Paris at an early age, and entered upoi
brilliant course of study at the Conservatoi
where he gained successively first prizes
harmony, fugue, and organ, and finally, in 18
under Ambroise Thomas, the Pi-ix de Roi
On his return from Italy in 1866 he devo
himself to teaching, and was appointed ma\
de chapeUe of Ste. Clotilde, where, on G<
Friday, 1867, he produced an important
carefuUy written work, ' Les Sept Paroles
Christ,' afterwards performed at the Conc(
Populaires in 1870. It has since been gi'
in other churches on Good Friday, and pj
of it have been performed at the Conci
du Conservatoire. Being unable to force
entrance into the gTeat musical theatres,
contented himself with producing, at
Athen^e, a pleasing little work, ' La Guzla
TEmir ' (April 30, 1873). In 1 8 78 he carried
together with B. Godard, the prize at
Concours Musical instituted by the city of Pa
and his 'Paradis perdu' was perfonned, firs'
the public expense (Nov. 27, 1878), and agair
the two following Sundays at the Concerts
Chatelet. His other dramatic works for
stage are, ' Le Pain bis ' (Op^ra-Comit
Feb. 26, 1S79) ; 'La Faiandole,' ballet (Op
Dec. 14, 1883) ; and ' Aben-Hamet,' a gr
opera (Theatre Italien de la place du Chat*
Dec. 16, 1884). The above are his chief wo
but Dubois is a fertile composer, and has ]
duced many important compositions at var
concerts, not to mention his numerous pieces
piano, his single songs, and his church
chamber music. We may refer to his ' Di
tissement ' and ' Pifeces d'Orchestre ' (Con
national, April 6 and Dec. 14, 1873% a * S
d'Orchestre ' (Do. Feb. 8, 1874), ' Scfenes S


oniques ' (Concerts du Chatelefc, Nov. 25,
77), and his Overture ' Fritiof (Do. Feb. 13,
81). The last of these, a work full of life and
3ent, ranks, together with his two small operas,
long his best compositions. He possesses a full
owledge of all the resources of his art, but
tie originality or independence of style. For
ne time he was maitre de chapelle at the
adeleine, and is now organist there, having
placed Saint-Saens in 1877. He succeeded
wart as professor of harmony at the Conserva-
re, in 1 87 1, and in 1883 was decorated with
i Legion of Honour. [A. J.]

DUBOURG, G. Add that he died at Maiden-
ad, April 17, 1882.

DULCIMER. P. 468 b. Add that English
Icimers have ten long notes of brass mre in
ison strings, four or five in number, and ten
jrter notes of the same. The first series,
uck with hammers to the left of the right-
ad bridge, is tuned


3 F being natural. The second series, struck
the right of the left-hand bridge, is

I — » » * ' — L I —

3 F being again natural. The remainder of
3 latter series, struck to the left of the left-
,ud bridge, gives



lis tuning has prevailed in other countries and
old. Cliromatic timings are modern and ap-
rently arbitrary. [A.J.H.]

DULCKEN, MiTE. Line 3, correct date of
rth to March 29.

DUN, FiNLAT, bom in Aberdeen, Feb. 24,
95, viola player, teacher of singing, musical
itor and composer, in Edinburgh ; studied
iroad under Baillot, Crescentini, and others.
e wrote, besides two symphonies (not published)
jlfeggi, and Scale Exercises for the voice
829^, edited, with Professor John Thomson,
iterson's Collection of Scottish Songs, and took
•rt also with G. F. Graham and others in writing
.8 pianoforte accompaniments and symphonies
r Wood's Songs of Scotland ; he was editor also
other Scotch and Gaelic Collections. Dun
as a master of several living and dead languages,
id seems altogether to have been a very ac-
■mplished man. HediedNov.2S, 1853. [W.He.j
DUNSTABLE,^ Johx, musician, mathemati-
an, and astrologer, was a native of Dunstable,
Bedfordshire. Of his life absolutely nothing
known, but he has long enjoyed a shadowy
Jebrity as a musician, mainly owing to a pas-
-ge in the Prohemium to the ' Proportionale ' of
ohannes Tinctoris (1445-15 11). The author,

1 The name is spelt by earlj authors Dunstaple.

after mentioning how the institution of Royal
choii-s or chapels encouraged the study of music,
proceeds : ' Quo fit ut hac tempestate, facultas
nostrse musices tam mirabile susceperit incre-
mentum quod ars nova esse videatur, cujus, ut
ita dicam, novae artis fons et origo, apud Anglicos
quorum caput Dunstaple exstitit, fuisse perhibe-
tur, et huic contemporanei fuerunt in Gallia
Dufay et Binchois quibus immediate succes-
serunt moderni Okeghem, Busnois, Regis et
Caron, omnium quos audiverim in compositione
prffistantissimi. Hsec eis Anglici nunc (licet
vulgariter jubilare, Gallici vero cantare dicun-
tur) veniunt conferendi. Illi etenim in dies
novos cantus novissime inveniunt, ac isti (quod
miserrimi signum est ingenii) una semper et
eadem compositione utuntur.' (Coussemaker,
' Scriptoies,' vol. iv. p. 154.) Ambros (' Ge-
schichte der Musik,' ii. pp. 470-1) has shown
conclusively how this passage has been gradually
misconstrued by subsequent writers, beginning
with Sebald Heyden in his ' De Arte Canendi'
(1540), until it was boldly affirmed that Dunsta-
ble was the inventor of Counterpoint ! Ambros
also traces a still more absurd mistake, by which
Dunstable was changed into S. Dunstan ; this
was the invention of Franz Lustig, who was fol-
lowed by Printz, Marpurg, and otl'.er writers.
It might have been considered that the claim of
any individual to be the ' inventor ' of Counter-
point would need no refutation. Counterpoint,
like most other branches of musical science, can
have been the invention of no single man, but
the gradual result of the experiments of many.
Tinctoris himself does not claim for Dunstable
the position which later writers wrongly gave
hmi. It will be noticed that the ' fons et origo '
of the art is said to have been in England, where
Dunstable was the chief musician ; and though
Tinctoris is speaking merely from hearsay, yet
there is nothing in his statement so incredible as
some foreign writers seem to think. So long as
the evidence of the Rota ' Sumer is y-cunien in '
is unimpeached, it must be acknowledged that
there was in England, in the early T3th century,
a school of musicians which was in advance of
anything possessed by the Netherlands at the
same period. Fortunately the evidence for the
date of the ' Rota ' is so strong that it cannot be
damaged by statements of historians who either
ascribe it to the 15 th century or ignore it alto-
gether. Within the last few years an important
light has been thrown upon the relation of
Dunstable to the Netherlands musicians Dufay
and Binchois, by the discovery (Monatshefte fiir
Musikgeschichte, 1SS4, p. 26) that Dufay died
in 1474, and not, as had been hitherto supposed,
some twenty years before Dunstable. Binchois
did not die until 1460, so it is clear that, though
the three musicians were for a time contem-
poraries, yet Tinctoris was right in classing the
Englishman as the head of a school which actually
preceded the Netherlanders and Burguiidians.

Dunstable's fame was certainly great, though
short-lived. He is mentioned in a manu-
script preserved in the Escorial (c. iii. 23),



written at Seville in 1480 (J. F. Eiano, 'Notes
on Early Spanish Music,' p. 65), in two other
passages in the Treatises of Tinctoris, in the
' Dialogus in Arte Musica ' of John Hothby
(Coussemakei', * Scriptores,' iii. xxxi.), in ' Le
Champion des Dames' of Martin Le Franc
(d. 1460), and more than once by Franchinus
Gaforius, who in Book ii. cap. 7 of his 'Practica
Musicae ' (Milan, 1496) gives the tenor of a
setting of ' Veni Sancte Spiritus ' by the English
composer.^ Yet he was — in his own country at
least — so soon forgotten, that his name does not
occur in Bale's ' Scriptores Britannise' (1550), and
Morley (' Introduction,' ed. 1597, p. 178) quotes
a passnge from his motet 'Nesciens virgo mater
virum,' in which he has divided the middle of the
word ' Angelorum ' by a pause two Long rests
in lengtli, as an exmaple of* one of the greatest
absurdities which I have seene committed in the
dittying of musick.' The passage is doubtless
absurd to modern ideas : but Dunstable's fault
was not considered such at the time he wrote.
Similar passages occur so late as Josquin's days.
The main difBculty of determining what
ground there was for Dunstable's fame lies in
the fact that so little of his work is now ex-
tant. Gaforius evidently was acquainted with a
treatise by him, and the same work is quoted by
Eavenscroft, from a marginal note in whose
'Briefe Discourse' (1614) we learn that Dun-
stable's treatise was on ' Mensurabilis Musice.'
Until comparatively recent days it was thought
that the fragments printed by Gaforius and Mor-
ley were all that remained of his works. But a
little more than this has been preserved. A
three-part song, ' O Rosa bella,' was discovered
in a MS. at the Vatican by MM. Danjou and
Morelot ('Eevue de la Musique Eeligieuse,'
1S47, p. 244, and another copy was subse-
quently found in a MS. collection of motets,
etc., at Dijon. This composition has been
scored by M. Morelot, and printed in his mono-
graph ' be la Musique au XV« Sifecle.' It
may also be found in the appendix to the 2nd
volume of Ambros' ' Geschichte der Musik.'
Its effect in performance, considering the period
when it was written, is really extraordinary, and
quite equal to anything of Dufay's. Besides
these compositions the British Museum possesses
two specimens of Dunstable's work. The first
is an enigma which has not yet been deciphered.
It occurs in a MS. collection of Treatises on
Music (Add. MS. 10,336), transcribed by John
Tuck at the beginning of the i6th century.
Owing to its being written at the end of fol. 18,
and signed ' Qd. Dunstable,' an idea has arisen
that it forms part of the precetling treatise,
which has therefore been sometimes alleged to
be the lost treatise ; but this is not the case, for
the treatise, as Coussemaker has shown, is that
which is nearly always ascribed to John de
Muris, and Dunstable's enigma is evidently
written in to fill up the page. In a similar and
almost identical MS. at Lambeth, transcribed
by William Chelle of Hereford, the treatise of

1 See also Book III, cap. 4 of the same work.


de j\Iuris and enigma of Dunstable occur in
same juxtaposition. The other composition
Dunstable's in the Bi-itish Museum is to
found in a magnificent volume which forme
belonged to Henry VIII. (Add. MS. 31,92
It is a three-part composition of some leng
without words : the tenor consists of a sh
phrase which is repeated in accordance w
the Latin couplet written over the part,
addition to these may be mentioned a MS. c
lection of 15th-century Astronomical Treati
in the Bodleian at Oxford, which contains
p. 74) ' Longitudo et latitude locorum praecipe
Anglia, secundum aliam antiquam scriptur
de manu Dustapli.' At the bottom of the m
gin of the page the date occurs : ' Anno Gra
143S die mensis Aprilis.'

The Liceo Filarmonico de Bologna also p
sesses an early 15th-century MS., which conta
four of Dunstable's compositions, viz. a ' ]
trem,' a 'Eegina cceli laetare,' and two mot
— ' Sub tua protectione,' and ' Quam pulchra
(Ambros, vol. iii. p. 441.)

Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 146 of 194)