George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

. (page 148 of 194)
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2^'. Serenade in E for Stringed


23. Quartet in D for PF. and


24. Symphony in F (also called

op. 76j.

25. Overture to ' Wanda.'

26. Trio in G minor for PF. and


27. String Quartet in E major.

28. Hymne der Bohmiscbe Land-

leu te , for mixed Chorus with
4-hand accompaniment.

29. Six Choruses for mixed Voices.

30. Die Erben des weissen Berges.'

31. Five Songs.

32. 'Klange aus Mahren." Vocal


33. PF. Concerto.
Si. String Quartet in D minor.

35. Dumka for PF.

36. Variations in A b for PF.

37. Overture to 'Der Bauer ein

3S. Four vocal Duets,

39. Suite for small Orchestra.

40. Symphonic Variations for


41. Scotch Dances for PF. Duet.

42. Two Furiants for PF.

43. Three Choruses with 4-band


44. Serenade for Wind, Violon-

cello, and Double Bass.

45. Three Slavische Bbapsodien

for Orchestra.

46. Slavische Tanze foF PF. Duet

47. Four Bagatellen for Har-

monium (or PF.), two Vio-
lins, and VioloTicello.

48. String Sextet in A.

49. Mazurek for Violin and Or-


1 By the composer's desire, ' Die Erben des weissen Berges ' (
Heirs of the White Mountain), originally published as op. 4, has
reissued as op. 30 by Messrs. Xovello 4 Co. to whom the thanks ol
writer are due for help in the compilation of the foregoing cataloi


51. String Quartet in E b.

52. Impromptu. Intermezzo/
and Scherzo for PF,

53. Violm Concerto.

54. Walzer for PF.

55. Zigeuuerlieder for Tenon
■=«. Mazurkas for PF.

57. Sonata in F for Violin ant

58. Stabat Mater for Solos, CI
and Orchestra.

59. Legenden, for PF. Duel
ranged for Orchestra.

60. Symphony in D.

61. String Quartet in C.

62. Overture. ' Mein Heim.*

63. 'InderXatur.' Five chor

64. Opera, 'Dimitri ' (see bel

65. Trio in F minor for PF.

66. Scherzo capriccioso for

67. Overture, ' Husitzka.'
6)<. 'Aus der BShmer Walde.'


69. 'The Spectre's Bride.'
tata for Soli, Chorus,

70. Symphony in D minor.

71. Oratorio, 'St. Ludmila.'

72. New Slavische Tanze for
chestra (books 3 and 4).

'Im Volkston.' Four Soi
74. Terzetto for two Violins
Bomantiscbe Stiicke.

and PF.
See op. 24.
String Quintet in G.

78. Symphonic Variations

79. Ps. 149 for Chorus and

-0. String Quartet in E.

bl. Quintet for FP. and Strin


' Der KOnig und der KOt

comic opera ; produced

Prague, 1CT4.

• Die Dickschadel.' comic ope'
one act; words by Dr.
Stolba; produced at Pn
l.'<82 (written in 1^74).

'Wanda.' grand tragic oper
five acts : words by Sumav)
from the Polish of Sagyn
produced at Prague, 1876.

* Der Bauer ein Scbelm,' «
opera in two acts; words 1
O. Vessely ; produced at Pn

Dimitrij.' tragic opera (on
same subject as Joncleres'
mitri';; produced at Fn






)TGON, JoHX, the composer of the three-
t motet 'Ad lapidis positionem,' printed in
wkins's History, is described there as Prior
St. Austin's (i. e. St. Augustine's Abbey),
iterbury. The identity of the name with that
,n abbot of this monastery (1497-1 509) has led
everal ingenious conjectures. The only other
henticated circumstance in the composer's
, which has been hitherto published, is that
;ook the degree of Bachelor of Music at Oxford
April 1 51 2, being the only Mus. B. of his
r. The abbot John Dygon was succeeded
'509 by John Hampton, and no doubt died
.hat year ; a second John Dygon was Master
he Chantry of Milton in Kent, in which post
is said to have died in 1524. An examination
the deed of surrender of St. Augustine's
bey, dated July 30, 30 Henry VIII (153S),
W8 that at that time John Essex was abbot

John Dygon principal of the four priors,
ig, as appears from his position in the list,
f inferior in rank to the abbot. Unfortu-
ely, in the list of pensions granted to the
3ers of this monastery on Sept. 2 following the
iolution, almost all the monks had, apparently
way of precaution, assumed new surnames,
•ather, more probably, resumed their original
aes, so that it is impossible to state with cer-
ity which of the nine Johns was the composer.
ire are, however, strong grounds for believing
t he is to be identified with John Wyldebere;
.for this reason, that the pension of £13 6*. 8d.

marks) granted to the latter was very much
:er than any of the other pensions, except the
ot's. The same difficulty meets us in tracing

history of John Wyldebere as we found in

case of John Dygon, namely the existence
.wo or more persons of the same name. A
n Wyldebore was Master of the Hospital of
Mary's at Strood, in Kent, up to the time of

its surrender in 1531, and could not well be the
late prior of St. Augustine's ; there is, however,
good reason for believing tliat he was the John
Wylbore who was appointed prebendary of
Rochester Cathedral in 1 541, and who died there
in 1553 ; and apart from this the claims of the
head of a monastic establishment like St. Mary's
Hospital would naturally be considered before
those of one in a comparatively subordinate posi-
tion, such as our prior's. John Dygon may per-
haps be recognised in the John Wyldebore who
was vicar of Willesborough in 1542. In 1556,
when Cardinal Pole was appointed by Philip
and Mary head of the commission to inquire
into the state of the pensions due to the monks
of the dissolved monasteries, we find John Wil-
borne, into which form the name has been cor-
rupted, still in receipt of his full pension ; if the
terms of the original grant had been strictly
adhered to, this circumstance would preclude the
possibility of his identity with the John Wilbore,
who was vicar of Minster in Thanet from 1550
till his resignation in 1557. After this time we
lose all trace of the real or supposed John Dygon.
The composition by which his name has been
handed down to posterity is the work of a very
skilful musician, and though there may be some
resemblance in style to the music of Okeghem, as
was very natural, considering how nearly contem-
porary the two composers were, we can hardly
coincide with Ambros' opinion that it was ' alt-
frankisch,' at least when we compare it with
other writings of a similar nature and about the
same period ; indeed some passages bear a com-
paratively modern stamp, and one can detect a
foreshadowing of Giovanni Croce, and even of a
still later style in several places. [A.H.H.]

DYKES, Rev. J. B. P. 478 a, 1. 3 from end
of article, for was joint editor read took an
active part in the compilation.


BEES, C. F. Line 2 of article, /or 20 read

EBERWEIX, T. M. Add day of birth,

j, 27.

ilCCLES. P. 4S1 S, 1. 15, add the productions
'Loves of Mars and Venus ' (with Finger),
16, and ' Macbeth,' 1696. Correct lines 17-19
ji reference to Macbeth Music, vol. ii. 185 a.
e 20, for 1698 read 1705.

KCKEET, C. A. F, Add date of death, Oct.

IDDYjClakence, an excellent and well-known
erican organist, teacher and composer, was
1 at Greenfield, Massachusetts, June 23, 1851.
musical leanings were manifested during his

childhood, when he showed also a notable skill in
improvisation. Such instruction as was pro-
curable in his native town was given to him
until he had reached the age of h<ixteen, when he
was sent to Hartford, Connecticut, and placed
under the care of Mr. Dudley Buck. Within a
year he was appointed organist of the Bethany
Congregationalist Church, Montpelier, Vermont.
In 1 8 71 Eddy went to Berlin, where for two
years and a half he studied under August Haupt
and A, Loeschhorn. His progress was rapid
and thorough, and he afterwards undertook a
successful concert tour through Germany, Austria,
Switzerland and Holland. On his return to the
United States in 1875 he was appointed organist
of the First Congregational Church, Chicago.
He soon took a prominent position in the

Copyright 1889 by F. H. Je\K3.



musical life of the young city, and has ever since
held it. While organist at the church last
named he gave his first series of organ concerts,
twenty-five in number, the programmes of which
included examples of organ music in all reput-
able schools. In 1877 he became general direc-
tor of the Hershey School of Musical Art, and
soon after married its founder, Mrs. Sara B.
Hershey. The institution has been peculiarly
successful in the training of organists and singers.
A series of one hundred weeldy concerts was
given by Eddy on the organ belonging to the
school. In ail, some 500 works were played.
No composition was repeated and no important
composer or style was omitted from represent-
ation. Several famous composers wrote pieces
for the looth concert, June 23, 1879. Eddy has
since given organ concerts in many other cities
of the Union. He translated and published,
in 1876, Haupt's 'Theory of Counterpoint and
Fugue.' He has also published two collections,
'The Church and Concert Organist' (1882 and
J 885). Eddy's compositions for the organ are in
the classic forms, embracing preludes, canons and
fugues. Since 1879 ^^ ^'^^ ^^®'^ organist of the
First Presbyterian Church, Chicago. [F.H. J.]

EDWARDS, H. Sutherland, historian and
litterateur ; born at Hendon, Middlesex, Sept. 5,
1829. His musical works comprise 'History of
the Opera . . . from Monteverde to Verdi ..."
2 vols. (1862); 'Life of Rossini' (1869); 'The
Lyric Drama . . .' 2 vols. (18S1) ; ' Rossini,' a
smaller work , for ' Great Musicians ' series (i 88 1 ) ;
'Famous First Representations' (1887); 'The
Prima Donna' 2 vols. (1888). Mr. Edwards has
passed much time abroad asspecial correspondent,
and his book ' The Russians at Home' (1861) con-
tains many notes on Russian music. Other works
of his are beyond the scope of this Dictionar}-. His
farce ' The Goose that lays the Golden Eggs '
may however be mentioned as the most success-
ful of his writings for the stage. [G.]

EHLERT, LuDwiG. Add date of death, Jan.
4, 1884.

• EICHBERG, Julius, born at Dusseldorf,
Germany, June 13, 1S24, came of a musical
family, and received his first instruction from
his father. When but seven years old he played
the violin acceptably. Regular teachers were
employed for him after he had reached his
eighth year, among them Julius Rietz, from
whom he received lessons in harmony. In
1843 Eichberg entered the Conservatoire at
Brussels, then under the direction of Fetis, and
graduated in 1845 with first prizes for violin-
playing and composition. He was then appointed
a professor in the Conservatoire at Geneva, where
he remained eleven years. In 1857 he went to
New York, and two years later to Boston, where
he has lived ever since. He was director of the
orchestra at the Boston Museum for seven years,
beginning in 1859, ^"^^ ™ 1867 established the
Boston Conservat'iiy of Music, of which he is
still the head (1887% and which enjoys in the
United States a high reputation, especially for


the excellence of its violin school. Mr. Eichbe
compositions are many and in various forms,
solo voices, chorus, violin, string quartet, pia
forte, etc. He has also prepared several t
books and collections of studies for the vie
and collections of vocal exercises and studies
the use of youths in the higher classes of
public schools. [See vol. iv. p. 203 a.]
Eichberg's operettas have been very success
He has produced four — ' The Doctor of Alcants
' The Rose of Tyrol,' ' The Two Cadis,' and
Night in Rome.' [See vol. ii. p. 530 b.] [F.H

EISTEDDFOD. Add that a grand Eistt
fod was held in London at the Albert i
in Aug., 1887, the preparatory ceremony of
Gorsedd, or proclamation, having been g
through one year before in the Temple Gard

EITNER, Robert. Add that he has ed
Sweelinck's organ works and other things
the Maatschappij tot bevordering der T(
kunst. [See Vereeniging, vol. iv. p. 255 a.

ELL See under Naamak, vol. ii. p. 440 .

ELIJAH. Line 14, for full ones read b

ELLA, John. Line 13 of articlej/br I
read 1827. For lines 18-19 read He dire(
the Musical Union uninterruptedly for thi
five years. The concerts came to an end in iJ
[See Analysis in Appendix, vol. iv. p. 521 i

ELLIS (formerly Sharpe), Alexander Jo
born at Hoxton in 18 14, educated at Shre
bury, Eton, and Cambridge ; Scholar of Tri:
College, Cambridge, 1S35 ; B.A. and 6th Wra
ler 1837; F.R.S. 1864; F.S.A. 1870; Presic
of the Philological Society 1 8 73-4, and af
iSSo-i. Mr. Ellis has turned his attentioi
Phonetics from 1843; his chief work on Early I
lish Pronunciation, begun in 1865, is still (if
in progress. He studied music under Profe
Donaldson of Edinburgh. After vainly enc
vouring to get a satisfactory account of the :
sical scale and nature of chords from Chla
Gottfried Weber, and other writers, Mr. E
following a suggestion of Professor Max Mtil
began in 1863 to study Helmholtz's 'Tonemf
dungen,' with special bearing on the physiol
of vowels. In that work he found the exp
ation of his musical difficulties, and beci
ultimately the English translator of the '
German ed. 1870, under the title of 'On tlie .' ■
sations of Tone, as a physiological basis ior «
Theory of Music' (London 1875). To H: -
holtz's work, with the author's consent, '.
Ellis added many explanatory notes and a ) >
appendix, in which were rearranged four pa] a
published in the Proceedings of the R( 1
Society, ' On the Conditions, Extent and Re: -
ation of a Perfect Musical Scale on Instrunn a
with Fixed Tones' (read Jan. 21, 1864 : ' '
the Physical Constitution and Relations l
Musical Chords' and 'Ou the Temperamen '
Instruments with Fixed Tones' (June 16, i8(
and ' On Musical Duodenes, or the Theory •'
Constructing Instruments with Fixed Tone: •

» Ctopyright 1889 by F. H. Jesks.


; or Practically Just Intonation' (Nov. 19,
J.) ; also several new theories, tables, etc.
Ellis has since published, in the Proceedings
he Musical Association, 1876-7, pp. 1-32, a
;r ' On the sensitiveness of the ear to pitch
change of pitch in Music,' being an exposi-

and re-arrangement of the interesting ex-
ments of Professor Preyer of Jena ; and some
inal works, 'The Basis of Music,' 1877;
munciation for Singers,' 1877; and 'Speech
long,' 1878. Mr. Ellis's devotion to the
itific aspect of music has led him into search-
snquiries concerning the history of Musical
h, the varieties and uncertainty of which
>o productive in the present day of disturb-

of the musical ear and vexation to musical
'ument makers. The results of those en-
ies have been read before the Society of
, May 23, 1877, and March 3, 1880, and
ied in their journals May 25, 1877, March
180, with subsequent appendix and correc-

(ibid. April 2, 1880 ; Jan. 7, 1881) also re-
;ed by the author for private issue. Silver
lis were awarded by the Society of Arts for

paper : the second essay may be appro-
;ely described as exhaustive. Mr, Ellis
equently turned liis attention to the deter-
ition of extra-European musical scales. His
lod was by means of a series of tuning-forks
scurately determined pitches, and with the
tance of the present writer, to determine
pitch of the actual notes produced on native
•uments, and then to calculate the intervals
'een those notes in terms of hundredths of
qual semitone. The results are given in his
x on ' Tonometrical Observations on some
;ing non-harmonic scales' (Proceedings of
al Society for Nov. 20, 1884), and, more at
th, in his paper ' On the Musical Scales of
ous Nations,' read before the Society of Arts,
. 25, 1885, and printed with anAppendix in
' Journals for Mar. 27 ^nd Oct. 30, 1885.

this paper a silver medal was awarded.
11 abstract of his History of Musical Pitch
Musical Scales is given in his Appendix to
2nd enlarged and corrected ed. of his Trans-
Q of Helmholtz (1885), which also contains
itest views upon most of the subjects which
the scientific basis of Music. [Pitch ;
'.IBLER.] [A.J.H.]

LiSNER, Joseph. Add that lie was Chopin's

MPEROR CONCERTO. Line 4 of article,
>p. 75 read op. 73.

MPEROR'S HYMN. Last line of article,
v'^enice read, Vienna.

WORE. Line 5 of articleyb)' Italian read
n. An anonymous ballad, circa 1740, en-
i ' Encore,' and beginning ' When at my
ph's devoted feet,' shows the term to have
in use much earlier than is implied in the

STFANT PRODIGUE, L'. Add that it
given in English as ' Azael the Prodigal '



at Drury Lane, on Feb. 19, 1S51. [See Pro-
digal Son.]

ENGEL, Carl, an eminent writer on musical
instruments, was born at Thiedenwiese, near
Hanover, July 6, 1818. His attainments as a
musician, his clear insight into books in many
languages, his indefatigable perseverance in re-
search, and the exercise of a rare power of j u-
dicious discrimination, made him one of the first
authorities on his subject in Europe. When a
student he received piano lessons from Hummel,
and after adopting music as a profession, he for
some time remained in the family of Herr von
Schlaberndorf, a nobleman in Pomerania. About
1844-5 Engel came to England and resided at
first at Manchester, where he gave lessons on
the piano. He removed soon after to London,
and settled in Kensington. He began by read-
ing in the British Museum to prepare himself
for those studies in musical history on whicli
his reputation is founded, and became a col-
lector when opportunities were more frequent
than they are now for acquiring rare instru-
ments and books. He thus formed a private
museum and library that could hardly be rivalled
except by a few public institutions. The change
in the direction of his musical activity did not
however divert him from pianoforte-playing ;
he became as familiar with the works of Schu-
mann, Brahms, and other modern composers,
as he was with those of the older masters.
He wrote and published a Pianoforte Sonata
(Wessel, 1 85 2), the 'Pianist's Handbook' (Hope,
1S53), and a ' Pianoforte School for Young
Beginners' (Augener, 1855). He also wrote
' Reflections on Church Music ' (Scheuermann,
1856). The first fruits of his archseological
studies were shown in the publication of ' The
Music of the Most Ancient Nations, particularly
of the Assyrians, Egyptians and Hebrews '
(Murray, 1864), whicli was followed by 'An
Introduction to the Study of National Music'
(Longmans, 1S66). About this time his connec-
tion with the South Kensington Museum began,
to which he gave valuable advice respecting the
formation of the rich collection of rare musical
instruments which is an important branch of
that institution. His first public essay in con-
nection with it was the compilation in 1869 of a
folio volume entitled 'Musical Instruments of
all countries,' illustrated by twenty photographs ;
a work now rarely to be met with. He compiled
the catalogue of the Loan Collection of ancient
musical instruments shown there in 1872; and
followed it by a 'Descriptive Catalogue of the
Musical Instruments in the South Kensington
Museum,' published in 1S74, a masterpiece of
erudition and arrangement, and the model for
the subsequently written catalogues of the Paris
and Brussels Conservatoires, and of the Kraus
Collection at Florence. He resolved to complete
this important work by an account of the musi-
cal instruments of the whole world, and wrote
a book which, in manuscript, fills four thick
quarto volumes, and is illustrated by upwards of
800 drawings. It remains in the hands of his



executors and is still (1888) unpublished. While
however this, his magnum opus, was in progress,
he wrote a contribution to ' Notes and Queries '
on Anthropology, pp. 110-114 (Stanford, 1874),
'Musical Myths and Facts' (Novello, 1876),
and articles in the ' Musical Times,' from which
' The Literature of National Music ' (Novello,
1879) is a reprint. Among these articles the
descriptions of his four Clavichords possess an
unusually lasting interest and value. They were
published in July — Sept. 1879, and were followed
by 'Music of the Gipsies,' May — Aug. 1880, and
' ^olian Music,' Aug. and Sept. 1SS2. A post-
humous publication of considerable importance
is ' Researches into the Early History of the
■^^iolin Family ' (Novello, 1S83). There remain
in manuscript, besides the great work already
mentioned, ' The Musical Opinions of Confucius '
and ' Vox Populi ' (a collection of National Airs).
After the death of his wife in 1881, he thought
of living again in Germany, and sold his library
by public auction, while the more valuable
part of the musical instruments (excepting
his favourite harpsichords, clavichord and lute,
now in the possession of Mr. Herbert Bowman
and the present writer) was acquired by South
Kensington Museum. But, after a short visit
to Hanover he returned to England, and died
at his house in Addison Road, Kensington, Nov.
17, 1882. [A.J.H.]

ENGLISH OPERA. P. 488 I, 1. 24 from
bottom, add the name of Christopher Gibbons as
collaborating with Lock in the music to 'Cupid
and Death.' P. 489 a, lines 25-29 to be cor-
rected by a reference to Macbeth Music, vol.
ii. p. 184, and Pdrcell in Appendix. Line 30,
for 1677 read 1676. Line 40, add the date of
' King Arthur,' 1691, Line io,for 1760 read

ENHARMONIC. See Change I. 3, Diesis,
Modulation, Temperament.


Line 5 of article, ^or July 12 read July 16.

ENTR'ACTE. See Divertissement, Inter-
mezzo, Nocturne, Tune (Act-).

EPINE, Francesca Margherita de l'.
Line 5 from end of article, ybr appears read is
said. Add that she frequently signed herself
Fran9oise Margudrite. In May, 1703, she
received ' 20 jrgs for one day's singing in y® play
call'd the Fickle Shepherdess.' (MS. in the
writer's collection.) At end of article add ' It
appears from a JMS. diary (in the writer's pos-
session) kept by B. Cooke (i.e. Dr. Cooke), a pupil
of Dr. Pepuscb, that Mme. Pepusch began to be
ill on July 19, 1746, and that, on the loth August
following, in the afternoon he (B. Cooke) went
to Vaux-Hall with the Doctor, Mrs. Pepusch
being dead. She was "extremely sick" the day
before.' [J.M.]

EPISODES are secondary portions of musical
works, which stand in contrast to the more
conspicuous and definite portions in which the
principal subjects appear in their complete form,


through the appearance in them of suborc
subjects, or short fragments only of the prii

Their function as an element of form is
easily distinguishable in the fugal type of]
ment. In the development of that form »
composers soon found that constant reitei
of the principal subject had a tendency to be
wearisome, however ingenious the treai
might be ; and consequently they often i
spersed exposition and counter-exposition
independent jjassages, in which sometimes
ideas, and more often portions of a cou
subject, or of the principal subject, were us
a free and fanciful way. By this means the
tained change of character, and relief fron
stricter aspect of those portions in which the
plete subject and answer followed one anoth
conformity with certain definite principles,
connection with fugue therefore, episode mj
defined as any portion in which the prin
subject does not appear in a complete form.

There are a certain number of fugues in ¥
there are scarcely any traces of episode, b
the most musical and maturest kind epii
are an important feature. It is most con
to find one beginning as soon as the last
which has to enter has concluded the prin
subject, and therewith the exposition. (
sionally a codetta in the course of the expos
is developed to such dimensions as to have al
appearance of an episode, but the more fan
place for the first one is at the end of the er
tion. As an example of the manner in which
contrived and introduced,. the Fugue in F :
No. 12 of the first book of J. S. Bach's Vi
temperirte Clavier may be taken. Here
subject is clearly distinguishable at all t
from the rest of the musical material by its
and steadily moving crotchets. The coui
subject which at once follows the first stater
of the subject, as an accompaniment to the
answer, introduces two new rhythmic fig
which afford a marked contrast to the princ



w w ^




J-j gs L

and out of these the various episodes of
movement are contrived. The manner in wi
it is done may be seen in the beginning of
first episode, which begins at bar 16, and
which the former of the two figures is clo

—^ m-m^ ^^





3 r^« . g


:s -j_



Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 148 of 194)