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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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h doption of this little figure is especially happy,
i i mind is led on from the successive exposi-
X to the episodes by the same process as in the
■- tatement of subject and counter-subject, and
t by the continuity becomes so much the closer.
. further examples in which the episodes
eoticeable and distinct enough to be studied
it ease, may be quoted the and, 3rd, 5th,
)t and 24th of the first book of the Wohltem-
;i e Clavier, and the ist, 3rd, 12th, and 20th
e second book. They are generally most
)1 sable and important in instrumental fugues
hi have a definite and characteristic or
i\ mically marked subject.
J follows from the laws by which expositions
•e:gulated, that episodes should be frequently
;> tcir modulation. While the exposition is
■i on, modulation is restricted ; but directly it
or, the mind inclines to look for a change
the regular alternation of prescribed centres.
.' over, it is often desirable to introduce the
i ij al subject in a new key, and the episode
1 ipily situated and contrived for the process
: Dting there; in the same way that after
a it ions to foreign keys another episode is
1' ;eable to get home again. In this light,
ojver, episodes are very frequently charac-
r;d by sequences, which serve as a means
. stematizing the steps of the progressions.
:i occasionally makes a very happy use of
(. , by repeating near the end a characteristic
):;le which made its appearance near the
tuning, thereby adding a very eflfective
1 3i;t of form to the movement.

a looser sense the term Episode may be
i]ed to portions of fugues which stand out
iiiealdy from the rest of the movement by
ian of any striking peculiarity; as for in-
a e the instrumental portion near the begin-
ir of the Amen Chorus in the Messiah, or the
31 al portions of certain very extensive fugues
P S. Bach, in which totally new subjects are
6' oped and worked, to be afterwards inter-
11 with the principal subjects.
. the purely harmonic forms of art the word is
ic loosely used than in the fugal order. It is
n times used of portions of a binary move-
it in which subordinate or accessory subjects
ir, and sometimes of the subordinate por-
between one principal subject and another,
'hich modulation frequently takes place,
rves more usefully in relation to a move-
in Aria or Rondo form ; as the central
on in the former, and the alternative sub-
or passages between each entry of the
!ct in the latter cannot conveniently be
i 'second subjects.' In the old form of
lo, such as Couperin's, the intermediate
VOL. IV. PT. 5,

divisions were so very definite and so clearly-
marked off from the principal subject that they
were conveniently described as Couplets. But in
the mature form of Eondo to be met with in
modern Sonatas and Symphonies the continuity
is so much closer that it is more convenient
to define the form as a regular alternation,
of principal subject with episodes. It some-
times happens in the most highly artistic
Rondos that the first episode presents a re-
gular second subject in a new key ; that the
second episode (following the first return of the
principal subject) is a regular development or
* working out ' portion, and the third episode is
a recapitulation of the first transposed to the
principal key. By this means a closer approxi-
mation to Binary form is arrived at. In operas
and oratorios, and kindred forms of vocal art, the
word is used in the same sense as it would be
used in connection with literature. [C.H.H.P.]

EQUAL VOICES. See Unequal, and Voices.

ERARD. P. 491 a, par. 3. The establish-
ment of the London house was not due to the
French Revolution ; Sebastian Erard had already
begun business in London in 1786. [A.J.H.]

ERK, L. C. Add date of death, Nov. 25, 18S3.

ERNST, H. W. Line 9 from end of article,
for Ferdinand Hiller read Stephen Heller.
(Corrected in later editions.)

ESCHMANN, J, C See vol. ii, p, 733 J,
and add that he died at Zurich, Oct. 25, 1882.

ESCUDIER. Add dates of death of Marie,
April 17, 1880, and of Leon, June 22, 1881.

ESMERALDA. Opera in four acts ; words by
Theo Marzials and Albert Randegger, arranged
from Victor Hugo's libretto ' La Esmeralda ' ;
music by A. Goring Thomas. Produced by the Carl
Rosa company, Drury Lane, March 26, i883.[M.]

ESSIPOFF, Annette, Russian pianist, bora
1850, and educated at the Conservatorium of St.
Petersburg, principally under the care of Theodor
Leschetitzky. After attaining considerable re-
putation in her own country she undertook a
concert tour in 1874, appearing in London at
the New Philharmonic concert of May 16 in
Chopin's E minor Concerto, at recitals of her own,
and elsewhere. She made her debut in the same
concerto in 1875 at one of the Concerts Popu-
laires, and afterwards at a chamber concert
given by Wieniawski and Davidoff. In 1876 she
went to America, where her success was very
marked. In 1880 she married Leschetitzky, and
since that time has not been heard again in Eng-
land. Her playing combines extraordinary skill
and technical facility with poetic feeling, though
the artistic ardour of her temperament leads her
at times to interpretations that are liable to be
called exaggerated. [M,]

ESTE, Thomas. Line 7, add that he was
engaged in printing as early as 1576. P. 496 a,
for 11. 10-18 read He died shortly before 1609,
in which year a large number of his ' copyrights,'
as they would now be called, were transferred to
T. Snodham. [Diet, of Nat. Biog.] [M.J






EVERS, Carl. Line 8 from end of article,
add that be died in "Vienna, Dec. 31, 1875.

EVACUATIO (Ital. Evacuazione ; Germ.
Ausletrung ; 'Eng. Evacuation). A term used
ill the 15th and i6th centuries, to denote the
substitution of a ' void' or open-headed note for
a ' full,' or closed one ; c. <j. of a Minim for a
Crotchet. The process was employed, both with
black and red notes, and continued for some time
after the invention of printing; but, its efi'ect
upon the duration of the notes concerned dif-
fered considerably at different epochs. Jlorlej',*
writing in 1597, says 'If a white note, w'^ they
called blaclce voyd, happened amongst blaclve
full, it was diminished of halfe the value, so
that, a minime was but a crotchet, and a semi-
briefe a minime,' etc. But, in many cases, the
diminution was one-third, marking the difference
between 'perfection' and 'imperfection'; or
one-fourth, superseding the action of the ' point
of augmentation.' For the explanation of some
of these cases, see vol. ii. p. 471. [W.S.R.]

EVOVAE (Edouae vel Eoou^). A technical
word, formed from tlie vowels of the last cLiuse
of the 'Gloria Patri ' — secuZorujH. Amen; and
used, in mediosval Office-Books, as an abbrevia-
tion, when, at the close of an Antiphon, it is
necessary to indicate the Ending of the Tone
ada)ited to the following Psalm, or Canticle.

The following example, indicating the Second
Ending of the First Tone, is taken from an
Office-Book printed at Magdeburg in 1613. An

^ - » - H^ — it— »—■—-— 1


Sa-Iu-ta-re De-i. Euouae.

amufingly erroneous account of the origin of this
word is noticed in vol. ii. 462 a, note. [W.S.R.]

EWER & Co. A firm of music publishers
and importers, originally established by John
J. Ewer about seventy years ago in small
premises in Bow Churchyard. Ewer & Co.
were for many years almost the only importers
of foreign music in this country. Their pub-
lications were chiefly by German composers,
and it was their editions of vocal quartets
with English words, brought out in score and
parts under the title of ' Orpheus,' and also
' Gems of German Song,' that first brought the
firm into notice. On the retirement of Ewer,
the business passed by purchase into the hands
of E. Buxton, who removed it, first to Newgate
Street, and afterwards to No. 390 Oxford Street.
The business, under Buxton's direction, gained
a great importance owing to the acquisition of
tlie copyright for England of all subsequent
works to be composed by Mendelssohn. The inci-
dent that determined Mendelssohn thus to accept
Ewer & Co. is noteworthy. He had offered
Addison & Co., through the mediation of Bene-
dict, the copyright of his Scotch Symphony and

I 'A Plaine and Easie Introduction.' AunotatioD at the end of
the volume, referring to p. 9.

the fourth Book of the Lieder ohne Worte, ^
some smaller pieces. Addison & Co. were wij
to take the pianoforte compositions, but ^
not disposed to give the amount asked, £25,
the Symphony, intimating that the first S3
phony had not sold well, and that they i
unsaleable copies on hand. They eventui
offered £ 20. Slendelssohn, who disliked barg;
ing, felt hurt, and at the suggestion of Bena
offered the new works to Buxton, who gl^
accepted them, and agreed to publish all II
delssohn's future compositions. Buxton, 1
had a large business of another kind, and
only taken to music publishing from his attt
ment to the art, in i860 sold his prop(
of Ewer & Co. to Mr. "William Witt, who
been the manager of the firm from 1852.
Witt removed the business premises to No.
Regent gtreet, where he added a Musical
braiy that offered for circulation every brand
musical composition. By sparing neither tro;
nor expense his library became one of the r
valuable and extensive in existence. Cheap
complete editions of Mendelssohn's works \
brought out by him before the like couh
done in the composer's own country. Mr. A
retired in 1867, when the firm of Ewer &
went by purchase to Messrs. Novello &
[See Novello, Ewek & Co.] [A.J

EXPOSITION is the putting out or st
ment of the musical subjects upon which
movement is founded, and is regulated b}' vai
rules in different forms of the art. In fugut
process of introducing the several parts or V(
is the exposition, and it ends and passes
episode or counter-exposition when the last
that enters has concluded with the last note oi
subject. The rules for fugal exposition areg
in the article FcGUE. Counter-exposition if
reappearance of the principal subject orsubj
after complete exposition, or such digres;
as episodes. In forms of the harmonic c
the term Exposition is commonly used of
first half of a movement in Binary form, bee
that part contains the statement of the
principal subjects. This use of the wor
evidently derived from the incomplete and si 1
ficial view which was the legacy of thee i
of some generations back, that a Binary n
ment was based on two tunes which for
sake of variety are put into two difi"erent 1
Hence it is not so apt in this sense as it
connection with fugue. But it may be uctV
as less open to objection when it is use 1 as i to Recapitulation, so as to divide Bi "
movements into three main portions, the
position, Develoj^ment, and Recapitulation ;
though it leaves out of count the vital import
of the contrast and balance of key, it is like t
be commonly accepted in default of a bf "■
See also FoEir. [C.H.I

EYBLER, Joseph ton. Correct tli-
statement by adding that Dr. Stainer has e
one movement by Eybler.



Line 8 of article, /or ^olian read Lydian.
Add that one of Beethoven's notes to Steiner
is signed ji. jt

g— — — -H 1—

ACCIO, Feanco, bom March 8, 1840/ at
ona, of parents in humble circumstances, who
'ived themselves almost of the necessaries of
in order to give their son a musical educa-
. In Nov. 1855 he entered the Conserva-
> of Milan, where he made remarkable pro-
3 in composition under Eonchetti. An
•ture by him was played at one of the
lents' concerts in i860. In the following
? he left the institution, and on Nov. 10,
3, he had the good fortune to have a three-
opera, 'I Profughi Fiamminghi,' performed
La Scala. Before this a remarkable work,
tten in collaboration with his friend Boito,
entitled ' Le Sorelle d'ltalia,' had been per-
oed at the Conservatorio. [See vol. iv.
,50.] The same friend, for whom he had
Qed a warm attachment during the time of
r studentship, wrote him the libretto of
nleto,' which was given with success at the
tro Carlo Fenice, at Genoa, on May 30, 1865
t at Florence, as Pougin states), but which
\ unfavourably received at the Scala in Feb.
,1. In 1S66 he fought, together with Boito,
'ihe Garibaldian army, and in 1867-8 under-
it a tour in Scandinavia. A symphony in F
l2s from about this time. In July 1868 he
eeded Croff as professor of harmony in the
iservatorio, and after acquiring great expe-
ice as a conductor at the Teatro Carcano, was
ie conductor at La Scala. A Cantata d'in-
urazione was performed in 1884, and two
1 of songs by him have been published by
ordi. Faccio holds an important position
3ng the advanced musicians of Italy, and as a
iposer his works command attention by their
jinality. It is, however, as a conductor that
is most successful, and he may be considered
the greatest living Italian conductor. He
Bcted the first European performance of
fdi's ' Aida' in 1872, and the production of
' Otello ' in 1 887, both at Milan. [M.]

-^A FICTUM. In the system of Guide
irezzo, BD, the third sound in the Herachor-
n naturale was called B mi; and Bb, the
rth sound in the Hexachordum molle, B fa.
d, because B fa could not be expressed with-
; the accidental sign {B rotundum) it was
led Fa fictum. [See Hexachokd.] For this
son, the Polyphonic Composers applied the

'aloschi. Pougin gives tlie date as 1S41. Various articles in the
;etta musicale di Milauo ' support either date iudifiereDtlf .

term Fa fictum to the note Bb, whenever it
was introduced, by means of the accidental sign,
into a Mode sung at its natural pitch ; and, by
analogy, to the E b which represented the same
interval in the transposed Modes. The Fa
fictum is introduced, with characteristic effect,
in the ' Gloria Patri ' of Tallis's five-part Re-
sponses, at the second syllable of the word
'without'; and a fine example of its employ-
ment in the fomi of the transposed Eb will
be found in Giaches Archadelt's Madrigal, 'II
bianco e dolce cigno,' at the second and third
syllables of the word 'piangendo,' as shown in
the example in vol. ii. p. 188 b. [W.S.R.]

FAISST, Emmanuel Gottlob Fkiedkich,
born Oct. 13, 1823, at Esslingen in Wiirtemberg,
was sent to the seminary at Schonthal in 1836,
and in 1840 to Tiibingen, in order to study
theology; but his musical talents, which had
previously shown themselves in the direction of
great proficiency on the organ, were too strong,
and, although he received no direct musical in-
struction worth mentioning, he had made such
progress in composition by 1844 that when he
went to Berlin and shewed his productions to
Mendelssohn, that master advised him to work
by himself rather than attach himself to any
teacher. In 1846 he appeared in public as an
organ-player in many German towns, and finally
took up his abode in Stuttgart. Here in 1847 he
founded an organ school and a society for the
study of church music. He undertook the direc-
tion of several choral societies, and in 1857 took
a prominent part in the foundation of the Con-
servatorium, to the management of which he
was appointed two years later. Some time
before this the University of Tubingen bestowed
upon him the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, in
recognition of the value of his 'Beitriige zum
Geschichte der Claviersonate,' an important
contribution to the musical periodical ' Cacilia,'
and the title of Professor was given him a few-
years afterwards. In 1865 he was appointed
organist of the Stiftskirche, and received a prize
for his choral work 'Gesang im Griinen,' at the
choral festival in Dresden. His setting of Schil-
ler's ' Macht des Gesanges ' was equally success-
ful in the following year with the Schlesische
Sangerbund. His compositions are almost en-
tirely confined to church music and choral com-
positions. A cantata ' Des Siingers Wiederkehr '
was recently performed. Several quartets for
male voices, and organ pieces have been published
collectively, and the Lebert and Stark 'Piano-
forteschiile ' contains a double fugue by him.
With the latter he published in 1880 an 'Ele-
mentar-und-Chorgesangschule,' which has con-
siderable value. [M.]

Tt 2



FALCOX, Mabie Cobnelie, born Jan. 28,
181 2, at Paris, received vocal instruction at the
Conservatoire from Henri, Pellegrini, Bordogni,
and Nourrit, and gained in 1830-31 first prizes
for vocalization and singing. On July 20, 1832,
she made her debut at the Opera as Alice in

* Robert,' with brilliant success. ' Her acting,
intelligence, and self-possession give us promise
of an excellent actress. In stature tall enough
to suit all the operatic heroines, a pretty face,
great play of feature. ... Her voice is a well-
defined soprano, more than 2 octaves in compass,
and resounding equally with the same power '
(Castil-Blaze). She remained there until 1838,
when ill-health and loss of voice compelled her
to leave for Italy. Her parts included Donna
Anna on the production of ' Don Juan,* March
10, 1834, Julie in 'La Vestale' at Nourrit's
benefit May 3, 1834, the heroines in 'Moise'
and ' Sifege de Corinthe.' She also created
the parts of Mrs. Ankarstroem (' Gustave III.'),
Kachel ('La Juive'), Valentine ('Huguenots'),
her best part, the heroine in Louise Bertin's
'Esmeralda,' and in Niedermeyer's ' Stradella.'

* Richly endowed by nature, beautiful, possessing
a splendid voice, great intelligence, and profound
dramatic feeling, she made every year remark-
able by her progress and by the development of
her talent.' (Fetis.) [See vol. iii. p. 357 I,
note 3.] After an absence of two j-ears, and
under the impression that her voice was restored,
on March 14, 1840, she re-appeared at a benefit
given on her behalf in the first two acts of 'La
Juive,' and in the fourth act of the ' Huguenots.'
But her voice had completely gone, and it was
with diSiculty she could get through the first
part — indeed she fainted in the arms of Duprez.
(Clement, Histoire de Musique, p. 749.) After
this she retired altogether from the Opera, where
her name still survives to designate dramatic
soprano parts. Mme, Falcon afterwards married
M. Malan9on, and we believe that she is still
living in Paris. [A.C.]

FANCIES, or FANTASIES, the old Eng-
lish name for Fantasia, which see. In the
various collections catalogued under the head of
ViBGiNAL Music all three words occur. The
name seems to have been confined to original com-
positions as opposed to those which were written
upon a given subject or upon a ground. [M.]

FANING, Eaton, the son of a professor
of music, was born at Helston in Cornwall,
May 20, 1850. He received his first instruction
on the pianoforte and violin from his parents,
and performed at local concerts before he was
five years old. In April, 1870, he entered the
Royal Academy of Music, where he studied
under Sir Sterndale Bennett, Dr. Steggall, Signor
Ciabatta, and Messrs. Sullivan, Jewson,Ayl ward,
and Pettitt, and carried off successively the
bronze medal (1871), silver medal for the Piano-
forte (1872), Mendelssohn Scholarship (1873),
bronze medal for Harmony (1S74), and the
Lucas silver medal for Composition (1876). In
1874 Mr. Faning was appointed Sub-Professor of
Harmony, in 1877 Assistant-Professor of the


Pianoforte, and Associate, and in 1S78 Profess
of the Pianoforte. He also played the violo
cello and drums in the orchestra. On July i
1877, Mr. Faning's operetta, 'The Two Major
was performed at the Royal Academy, whi
event led to the establishment of the Opera'
Class at the institution. An operetta, 'T
Head of the Poll,' was successfully produced
the German Reeds' Entertainment in 1882. j
the same date Mr. Faning occupied the posts
Professor and Conductor of the Choral Class
the National Training School, and Professor
the Pianoforte at the Guildhall School of Musi
the latter post he resigned in July 1885, wh
he was appointed Dii-ector of the Music
Harrow School. From the opening of the Roj
College of Music until July 1885 he taug
the Pianoforte and Harmony, and until East
18S7 also conducted the Choral Class at tb
institution. Mr. Faning is also conductor of t
Madrigal Society. His compositions include t'
operettas, a symphony in C minor, two quarte
an overture, a Magnificat and Nunc Dimit
for full orchestra (performed at St. Paul's at t
Festival of the Sons of the Clergy), besic
anthems, songs, duets, and part-songs, arao
which the ' Song of the Vikings,' for four-pi
chorus vnih. pianoforte duet accompaniment, 1
attained wide popularity. [W.B.i

FARANDOLE. A national Provengal dan
No satisfactory derivation has been given of t
name. Diez (' Etymologisches Worterbuch c
Romanischen Sprachen') coimects it with t
Spanish Farandula, a company of strolling pit
ers, which he derives from the German /a/^re«'
A still more unlikely derivation has been si
gested from the Greek cpdXay^ and SoCAoy, I
cause the dancers in the Farandole are link
together in a long chain. The dance is ve
probably of Greek origin, and seems to be
direct descendant of the Cranes' Dance, the :
vention of which was ascribed to Theseus, w
instituted it to celebrate his escape from t
Labyrinth. This dance is alluded to at the e
of the hymn to Delos of Callimachus : it is st
danced in Greece and the islands of the Mgei
and may well have been introduced into the Sou
of France from Marseilles. The Farandole cc
sists of a long string of young men and womt
sometimes as many as a hundred in numb
holding one another by the hands, or by ribbc
or handkerchiefs. The leader is always
bachelor, and he is preceded by one or mt
musicians playing the galouhet, i.e. a sm
wooden flute-a-bec, and the tambourin. [i~
vol. iv. p. 55.] With his left hand the lea
holds the hand of his partner, in his right
waves a flag, handkerchief, or ribbon, \vh;
serves as a signal for his followers. As t
Farandole proceeds through the streets if t
town the string of dancers is constantly recruit
by fresh additions. The leader (to quote t
poet Mistral) ' makes it come and go, turn ba(
wards and forwards . . . sometimes he forms
into a ring, sometimes winds it in a spiral, th
he breaks oS from his followers and dances


nt, then lie joins on again, and makes it pass
)idly under the uplifted arms of the last cou-
..'* The Farandole is usually danced at all
i great feasts in the towns of Provence, such as
; feast of Corpus Domini, or the ' Coursos de
Tarasquo,' which were founded by King E^n^
A]iril 14, 1474, ^^^ take jjlace at Tarascon
lually on July 29. In the latter the Farandole
preceded by the huge effigy of a legendary
•nster — the Tarasque — borne by several men
i attended by the gaily dressed ' chevaliers de
Tarasque.' The music of the Farandole is in
) time, with a strongly accentuated rhythm,
e following is the traditional ' Farandoulo dei
rascaire ' of Tarascon : —
:N: Moderato. «









— ph



P 'p ■

— i—




k uljI


i 1 1

CC; ■'•



The Farandole has occasionally been used for
IS innocent purposes than that of a mere dance :
1815 General Eamel was murdered at Tou-
jse by the infuriated populace, who made use of
eir national dance to surround and butcher him.
The Farandole has been introduced on the
ige in Gounod's ' Mireille,' and in Daudet's
i'Arlesienne ' (with Bizet's music), but the
nee is not suited for the purposes of a ballet,
irther information concerning it will be found
b race in Larousse's Dictionary, in Vidal's 'Lou
imbourin,' Desanat's ' Coursos de la Tarasquo,'
istral's 'Mireille,' 'Fetes de la Tarasque,' and
production to Mathieti's ' La Farandoulo,' and
the works of Hyacinthe Morel. A good de-
ription of the dance occurs in Daudet's ' Numa
)umestan.' [W.B.S.]

FARINELLI (second article tinder that
ading). Line 2, omit the words ' either a
other or.*

FARMER, John, bom Aug, 16, 1836, at
ottingham, received his musical education at
e Leipzig Conservatorium, and subsequently
ider Andrae Spaeth at Saxe-Coburg. He was
teacher of music at Zurich, and subsequently
usic master at Harrow School from 1862 to
85, where he obtained great popularity. He
.s been organist at Balliol College since 1885,
aere he has recently instituted in the College
all a series of Sunday and Monday Evening
mcerts for the performance of glees, part-songs,

Arfiume HathieO. La Farandoulo, published ivitb a transUi-
Q and notes b; F. Uistral, AvigDOU, 1862.

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