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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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His work, 'Arte dell' Arco,' 'L'art de I'archet'
— a set of studies in the form of 50 Variations ^
gives a good idea not only of his manner of
bowing, but also of his left-hand technique. In
respect of the latter the advance upon Corelli is
still more striking. Double stops of all kinds,
shakes, and double shakes are of frequent oc-
currence. We remember how CoRELLi (see that
article) was puzzled by the difficulty of a passage
in an overture of Handel's. That could certainly
not have happened with Tartini. In some of his
works there are passages which, even to the
highly developed technique of the present day
afford no inconsiderable difficulty. We will
mention only the famous shake-passage in the
' Trillo.' But at the same time he shows his
appreciation of purity of style by the absence of
mere show-difficulties, which he certainly was
quite capable of executing.

How great he was as a teacher is proved by
the large number of excellent pupils he formed.
The most eminent are Nardini, Bini, Manfredi,
Ferrari, Graun, and Lahoussaye. Some of these
have borne most enthusiastic testimony to his
rare merits and powers as a teacher, to his un-
remitting zeal and personal devotion to his
scholars, many of whom were linked to him by
bonds of intimate friendship to his life's end. Of
the pre-eminently methodical and systematic style
of his teaching, we gain an idea from a most
interesting letter, addressed by him to his pupil
Maddalena Lombardini-Sirmen, and from his
pamphlet 'Trattato delle appogiature.' [See
Violin-plating.] The following characteristic
head is reproduced from a drawing in possession
of Julian Marshall, Esq.




As a composer, not less than as a player, he
stands on the shoulders of the greatest of his pre-
decessors, Corelli. He on the whole adopts the
concise and logical forms of that great master and
of ViVALDT (see that article); but in his hands the
forms appear less rigid, and gain ampler and
freer proportions ; the melodies are broader, the
phrases more fully developed : the harmonies and

1 Recently republished by Ferd. David. Offenbach. Andr«.



62



TARTINI.



modulations richer and more varied. Still more
striking is the progress if we look at Tartini's
subject-matter, at the character of his ideas,
and the spirit of their treatment. Not content
with the noble but somewhat conventional pathos
of the slow movements of the older school, their
well-written but often rather dry fugues and
fugatos and traditional dance-rhythms, he intro-
duces in his slow movements a new element of
emotion and passion; most of his quick move-
ments are highly characteristic, and even in their
' passages ' have nothing dry and formal, but are
full of spirit and fire. In addition to all this we
not rarely meet with an element of tender dreamy
melancholy and of vivid imagination which now
and then grows into the fantastic or romantic
His works bear not so much the stamp of bis time
as that of his own peculiar individuality ; and in
this respect he may well be regarded as a proto-
type of the most individual of all violinists,
Paganini. What we know from one of his
pupils about his peculiar habits in composing,
throws a significant light on the more peculiarly
intellectual bent of his musical talent. Before
sitting down to a new composition, he would
read a sonnet of Petrarch ; under the notes of
his violin-parts he would write the words of a
favourite poem, and to single movements of his
sonatas he would often give mottos, such as
' Ombra cara ' or ' Volgete il riso in pianto o mie
pupille.' The most striking illustration of this
peculiar side of his artistic character is given in
his famous sonata ' II Trillo del Diavolo.' Ac-
cording to Lalande (' Voyage d'un Francais en
Italic 1765 et 66,' torn. 8) Tartini himself used
to relate the circumstances under which he con-
ceived the idea of this singularly fine piece, in
the following manner : ' One night I dreamt that
I had made a bargain with the devil for my soul.
Everything went at my command, — my novel
servant anticipated every one of my wishes. Then
the idea struck me to hand him my fiddle and to
see what he could do with it. But how great
was my astonishment when I heard him play
with consummate skill a sonata of such exquisite
beauty as surpassed the boldest flight of my
imagination. I felt enraptured, transported, en-
chanted ; my breath was taken away ; and I
awoke. Seizing my violin I tried to retain the
sounds I had heard. But it was in vain. The
piece I then composed, the Devil's Sonata,
although the best I ever wrote, bow far below the
one I had heard in my dream ! '

The number of his compositions is enormous,
r^tis enumerates over 50 Sonatas with bass, 18
(Concertos with accompaniment of stringed orches-
tra, and a Trio for 2 violins and bass, all which
were published in various editions at Paris, Lon-
don, and Amsterdam. In addition to these a
large number of works exist in MS. Gerber
speaks of over 200 violin concertos, F^tis of 48
unpublished sonatas and 127 concertos. He also
composed a Miserere, which was performed during
Holy Week in the Sistine Chapel in the year 1 768 ;
but according to F^tis this was a work of little
importance and has never been performed again.



TASKIN.

It remains to speak of Tartini's writings if - '
the theory of music. During his stay at Ancom *>•
probably in 1716, he discovered the fact that, i JP
sounding double stops, a third or combinati<a s:
sound was produced. He was not content ( B-
utUise this observation by making the appea ch-
ance of this third note a criterion of the perfa t;
intonation of double stops (which do not produ( 2
it at all unless taken with the most absolul :
correctness), but he tried to solve the scientif i^
problem underlying the phenomenon. In tb ik
then undeveloped state of acoustics it was in tt'
possible for him to succeed. It is also highl B>
probable that his knowledge of mathematii Jj
was insufficient for the task. At any rate "
wrote and published an elaborate work on
theory of musical science generally, and on
phenomenon of a third sound in particular,
der the title ' Trattato di Musica secom'
vera scienza dell' Armonia' (Padua, 1754).
theories were attacked in a number of pamj
lets, amongst them one by J. J. Rousi
In 1767 he published a second book, 'Dei prii lA
cipii deir Armonia Musicale contenuta d
diatonico genere,' and towards the end of his li
he wrote a third one on the mathematics of musi
' DeUe ragioni e delle proporzioni,' which ho»
ever has never been published and appears to I
lost. The absolute value of Tartini's theoretic!
writings is probably not great, but there remaii
the fact, that he was the discoverer of an interea
ing acoustical phenomenon which only the ac
vanced scientific knowledge of our days hf
been able to explain (Helmholtz) — a fact whid it
coupled with his serious attempts to solve tl
problem, speaks much for his intellectual attai|
ments and versatility of mind.

Finally he wrote, under the title ' Trattato d^ lO
appogiature si ascendenti che discendenti pa
violino,' etc., a little work on the execution ail
employment of the various kinds of shakes, mo
dents, cadenzas, etc. As giving an authent
explanation and direction for the execution <
these ornaments according to the usage of tl
classical Italian school, this work is most interw
ing. It appears that it has never been publiabl
in Italian, but a French translation exists, und
the title ' Traits des agr^mens de la Musiqu
compost par le c^hhie Giuzeppe Tartini a Padon
et traduit par le Sigr. P. Denis. A Paris chi
M. delaChevardier.'i [P.D

TASKIN, Pascal, celebrated instrumen
maker, and head of a family of musicians, boi
1723, at Theux in the province of Li^ge, migratt
early to Paris, and was apprenticed to Etieni
Blanchet, the best French clavecin-maker of tl
period. Succeeding eventually to the businee
he improved the tone of his spinets and harpB
chords, by substituting slips of leather for j|
crowquills then in use in the jacks (1768). 01
vol. ii. p. 27 a.] In 1772 Louis XV. oflFered HB
the post of Keeper of the Musical Instrumen'
and the Chapel Poyal, vacant by the death <

1 The writer of this article has to acknowledge his obIig«Uii
for much valuable information contained In Wasielewskj's book, 'I
Violine und ihre Meister.'



iT



TASKIN,



TATTOO.



63



!quelier, but the life at Versailles would not
/e suited the inventor, who wished to be at
rty to continue his experiments, and he
trived to get his nephew and pupil, Pascal
leph, appointed in his stead. Having thus
ceeded in preserving his independence with-
forfeiting the royal favour, he was shortly
iv elected an acting member of the corporation
musical instrument-makers (1775). He was
ught more before the public by a piano made
the Princess Victoire in the shape of our
sent ' grands,' the first of the kind made in
mce. Other inventions were for using a single
,ng doubled round the pin in his two-stringed
Qos, working the pedal by the foot instead of
the knee, and the ' Armandine' (1789) called
jr Mile. Armand, a pupil of his niece, who be-
ae an excellent singer at the Opera and the
5ra Comique. This fine instrument, now in
museum of the Paris Conservatoire, is like
•and piano without a keyboard, and with gut-
ngs, and is therefore a cross between the harp
I the psaltery. Other specimens of his manu-
,ure are the harpsichord with two keyboards
de for Marie Antoinette and still to be seen
the Petit Trianon, the pretty instrument in
possession of the distinguished pianist Mile.
iphine Martin, and those in the Conserva-
■e, and the Mus^e des Arts ddcoratifs in Paris,
ical Taskin died in Paris, Feb. 9, 1795. His
phew,

?ASCAL Joseph,* born Nov. 20, 1750, at
jux, died in Paris, Feb. 5, 1829, Keeper of the
ig's Instruments and the Chapel Royal, from
a to the Revolution, was his best pupil and
stant. He married a daughter of Blanchet,
1 was thus brought into close connection with
Couperin family. Of his two sons and two
ghters, all musicians, the only one calling for
arate mention here is the second son,
Ienei Joseph, born at Versailles, Aug, 24,
■9, died in Paris, May 4, 1852, learned music
i child from his mother, and so charmed the
irt by his singing and playing, that Louis XVI
ie him a page of the Chapel Royal. Later
itudied music and composition with his aunt,
le. Couperin, a talented organist, and early
le his mark as a teacher, virtuoso, and com-
iT, Three operas were neither performed nor
raved, but other of his compositions were
lished, viz. trios for PF., violin, and cello ; a
rice for PF. and violin ; a concerto for PF.
. orchestra; solo-pieces for PF., and songs.
quantity of Masonic songs remained in MS.
e his father he had four sons ; none of them
.me musicians, but his grandson Alexandre
na to have inherited his talent. This young
;er (born in Paris, March 8, 1853) is a
rough musician, has already created several
lortant parts, and may be considered one of
best artists at the Ope'ra Comique (1883).
lie writer of this article, having had access to
ily papers, has been able to correct the errors
revious biographers, [G.C.]

1 F^tis confuses the uncle and nephew.



TASTO SOLO. Tasto (Fr. towche) means the
part in an instrument which is touched to pro-
duce the note ; in a keyed instrument, therefore,
the key. ' Tasto solo,' the key alone, is in old
music written over those portions of the bass or
continuo pai-t in which the mere notes were to
be played by the accompanyist, without the chords
or harmonies founded on them. [G.]

TATTOO 1 {Eappel; Zapfenstreich), the signal
in the British army by which soldiers are brought
to their quarters at night. The infantry signal
begins at 20 minutes before the hour appointed
for the men to be in barracks, by the bugles in
the barrack-yard sounding the ' First Post ' or
' Setting o£ the Watch.' This is a long passage
of 29 bars, beginning as follows —



^



±



=P^



3t3t=*Z=t3t



_^I1_1.



ti-r



^



EE



^



^



=£3^=r=P



J_JI5-J-



-L^— r



and ending with this impressive phrase : —



i



^



^-



^



^



^



'^



i—Lff— r



:^



This is succeeded by the ' Rolls, '^ consisting of
three strokes by the big drum, each stroke fol-
lowed by a roll on the side -drums ; —



^=



T



T



The drums and fifes then march up and down
the barrack-yard playing a succession of Quick
marches at choice, till the hour is reached.
Then ' God save the Queen ' is played, and the
Tattoo concludes by the 'Second Post' or 'Last
Post,' which begins as follows —




and ends like the 'First Post.' The other
branches of the service have their tattoos, which
it is not necessary to quote.

1 The word is derived by Johnson from the French tapotez «o<i»;
and its original form seems to have been 'tap-to' (see Count Mans-
field's ■ Directions of Warre." 1624), as if it were the signal for the
tap-rooms or bars of the canteen to put-to or close. Curiously
enough, however, 'tap' seems to be an acknowledged term for
the drum — 'tap of drum.' Tupoter Is probably allied to the
German zap/en, the tap of a cask, and zapfenstreich, the German
term for tattoo ; this also may mean the striking or driving home
of the taps of the beer-barrels. The proverbial expression ' the devil's
tattoo '—meaning the noise made by a person absorbed in thought
drummiug with foot or fingers, seems to show that the drum and not
the trumpet was the original instrument for sounding the tattoo.

2 For details see Potter's ' Instructions for the Side Drum.'



64



TATTOO.



Since the time of Wallenstein the Zapfen-
streich in Germany has had a wider meaning,
and is a sort of short spirited march played not
only by drums and fifes or trumpets but by the
whole band of the regiment. It is in this sense
that Beethoven uses the word in a letter to
Peters (1823 ?) : — 'There left here last Saturday
three airs, six bagatelles, and a tattoo, instead
of a march . . . and to-day I send the two tattoos
that were still wanting . . . the latter will do for
marches.' [See Zapfenstbeich.] [G.]

TAUBERT, Kael Gottfried Wilhelm, one
of those sound and cultivated artists who
contribute so much to the solid musical repu-
tation of Germany. He was the son of a
musician, and was born at Berlin March 23,
1 81 1. Though not actually brought up with
Mendelssohn he trod to a certain extent in the
same steps, learned the piano from Ludwig
Berger, and composition from Klein, and went
through his course at the Berlin University
1827-30. He first appeared as a PF. player;
in 1 83 1 was made accompanyist to the Court
concerts, and from that time his rise was steady.
In 1834 he was elected member of the Academy
of Arts, in 1841 became music-director of the
Royal Opera, and in 1845 Court Kapellmeister —
a position which he held tiU his retirement from
the Opera in 1869 with the title of Oberkapell-
meister. Since that time he has conducted the
royal orchestra at the Court concerts and
soirees, in which he has distinguished himself
as much by very admirable performances as by
the rigid conservatism which has governed the
programmes. In 1875 he was chosen member
of council of the musical section of the Academy.
Among his first compositions were various small
instrumental pieces, and especially sets of songs.
The songs attracted the notice of Mendelssohn,
and not only drew from him very warm praise
and anticipation of future success (see the letter
to Devrient, July 15, 1831), but led to a corre-
spondence, including Mendelssohn's long letter
of Aug. 27, 1831. In these letters Mendelssohn
seems to have put his finger on the want of
strength and spirit which, with all his real
musicianlike qualities, his refined taste and
immense industry, has prevented Taubert from
writing anything that will be remembered.

The list of his published works is an enormous
one : — 3 Psalms and a Vater unser ; 7 Operas, of
which the last, 'Macbeth,' was produced Nov.
16, 1857; Incidental music to 8 dramas, in-
cluding 'The Tempest' (Nov. 28, 1855) ; 4 Can-
tatas; 294 Solo-songs, in 52 nos., besides Duets
and Part-songs ; 3 Symphonies and a Festival-
overture for full orchestra ; 2 Trios for PF. and
strings ; 3 String-quartets ; 6 Sonatas for PF.
and violin ; 6 Sonatas for PF. solo ; and a host
of smaller pieces. The complete catalogue, with
full details of Taubert's career, will be found in
Ledebur's ' Tonknnstler-Lexicon Berlins.'
In this country Taubert is almost unknown. [G.]

TAUDOU, Antoine, composer of the modern
French school, bom at Perpignan, Aug. 24,



ki
» lloi



TAUSIG.

1846, early evinced such aptitude for music
he was sent to Paris and entered at the Com
vatoire, where he carried off successively the
prizes for solfeggio, violin (1866), harmony (1
fugue (68), and finally, after two years' stud;
composition with Reber, the Grand Prix de
(69). The subject of the cantata was 'Franci
da Rimini,' and the prize score was distinguii
for purity and elegance.

So far, no work of M. Taudou's has been
duced on the stage, but his chamber-music Vif! *
orchestral pieces have been well received. Thai •"
include a trio for flute, alto, and cello ; anotl
for PF., violin, and cello ; a vtolin-iconcerto pla]J
at the Society des Concerts du Conservatoire
which M. Taudou is one of the best violinii fe
a string-quartet in B minor, often heard in Pal
and for orchestra a ' Marche-BgiUet,' a ' Ch( K
d'automne,' and a ' Marche-Noctume.* He J
published songs and pieces for PF., but a can* l»J
written for the inauguration of a statue to An ^
(1879) at Perpignan, is still in MS. In Januj i-
1883 he was chosen pi'ofessor of harmony i
accompaniment at the Conservatoire.

TAUSCH, Julius, born April 15, 1827,
Dessau, where he was a pupil of F. Schneid
In 1 844 he entered the Conservatorium of "
zig, then in the second year of its existei
and on leaving that in 1846 settled at Diisseli
Here he gradually advanced ; on Julius Ri
departure in 1847 taking the direction of
artists' Liedertafel, and succeeding Schu
as conductor of the Musical Society, tempon
in 1853, and permanently in 1855. He
associated in the direction of the Lower Rl
Festivals of 1863, i866 (with O. Goldschmii
1869, 1872, and 1875. In the winter of t
he conducted the orchestral concerts at
Glasgow Festival.

Tausch has published a Fest-overture, mi
to Twelfth Night, various pieces for voices
orchestra, songs, and pianoforte pieces, solo tti
accompanied. His last publication is op. 17. [G

TAUSIG, Carl (1841-1871), 'the infalliU
with his fingers of steel,' as Liszt described Ml
was, after Liszt, the most remarkable pianist
his time. His manner of playing at its H'
was grand, impulsive, and impassioned, yet will
out a trace of eccentricity. His tone was supel liu
his touch exquisite, and his manipulative dfl il\
terity and powers of endurance such as to astoDl i Hi
even experts. He made a point of executil sin
his tours de force with perfect composure,.* tsj
took pains to hide every trace of physical effa iil
His repertoire was varied and extensive, and lii
was ready to play by heart any representati £■»(
piece by any composer of importance from Sci iiiji
latti to Liszt. A virtuoso par excellence, he w I '4
also an accomplished musician, familiar wi i tii
scores old and new, a master of instrumentatw : 1 1|
a clever composer and arranger. i fe

Carl Tausig was bom at Warsaw, Nov. i |!;;t!
1841, and was first taught by his father, Al'i Ijti,
Tausig, a professional pianist of good repU; ii;.,.
When Carl was fourteen, his father took him 1 i-



TAUSIG.

;t, who was then at "Weimar, surrounded b}'
ry remarkable set of young musicians. It will
ce to mention the names of Btilow, Bronsart,
idworth, Pruckner, Cornelius, Joseph Joachim
certmeister), Joachim Raff (Liszt's amanu-
3) to give an idea of the state of musical
gs in the little Thuringian town. During
interval from 1 850-1 858 Weimar was the
re of the 'music of the future.' Liszt, as
illmeister in chief, with a small staff of singers
a tolerable orchestra, had brought out ' Tann-
ier ' and ' Lohengrin,' Berlioz's ' Benvenuto
i.ni,' Schubert's 'Alfonso and Estrella,' etc.
was composing his ' Pofemes symphoniques,'
nng his pianoforte works, writing essays and
les for musical papers. Once a week or oftener
pianists met at the Alte Burg, Liszt's re-
ice, and there was an afternoon's 'lesson'
iis of course). Whoever had anything ready
ay, played it, and Liszt .found fault or en-
aged as the case might be, and finally played
elf. Peter Cornelius used to relate how Liszt
[his friends were taken aback when young
tiig first sat down to play. 'A very devil of
low,' said Cornelius, ' he dashed into Chopin's
iPolonaise, and knocked us clean over with
lictaves.' From that day Tausig was Liszt's
irite. He worked hard, not only at piano-
playing, but at counterpoint, composition,
nstrumentation. In 1858 he made his debut
iblic at an orchestral concert conducted by
w at Berlin. Opinions were divided. It
admitted on all hands that his technical
were phenomenal, but sober-minded people
d of noise and rant, and even those of more
Isive temperament who might have been
' to sympathise with his ' Lisztian eccen-
ies,' thought he would play better when his
1 of 'storm and stress ' was over. In 1859
60 he gave concerts in various German
s, making Dresden his head-quarters. In
he went to reside at Vienna, when, in
tion of Billow's exertions in Berlin, h©
)rchestral concerts with very 'advanced' pro-
nes. These concerts were but partially suc-
1 in an artistic sense, whilst pecuniarily they
failures. After this, for some years, little
aeard of Tausig. He changed his abode
?ntly, but on the whole led the quiet life of
lent. The ' storm and stress '' was fairly at
d when he married and settled in Berlin,
Opinions were now unanimous. Tausig was
I as a master of the first order. He had
,ed self-possession, breadth and dignity of
whilst his technique was as 'infallible ' as
At Berlin he opened a school, ' Schule des
enClavierspiels,' and at intervals gave piano-
recitals, of which his ' Chopin recitals ' were
est successful. He played at the principal
an concert-institutions, and made the round
Russian towns. He died of typhoid fever, at
ig, July 17, 1871.

irtly before his death Tausig published an
I, — ' Deux Etudes de Concert.' With this
ant to cancel various compositions of pre-
»i!date, some of which he was sorry to see in
OL. IV. PT. I.



TAVERNER.



65



the market. Amongst these latter are a piano-
forte arrangement of ' Das Geisterschiff, Syni-
phonische Ballade nach einem Gedicht von
Strachwitz, op. i ,' originally written for orchestra ;
and 'Reminiscences de Halka, Fantaisie de
concert.' A pianoforte concerto, which contains
a Polonaise, and which, according to Felix Drae-
seke was originally called a Phantasie, several
' Pofemes symphoniques,' etc., remain in manu-
script. Tausig's arrangements, transcriptions,
and fingered editions of standard works deserve
the attention of professional pianists. They are
as follows : —

Wagner: Die Meistersinger von Nlirnberg, vollstan-
diger Clavierauszug.

Bach : Toccata und Fuge fUr die Orgel in D moll ;
Choral -Vorspiele fiir die Orgel • Praeludium, Fuge, unci
Allegro ; ' Das wohltemperirte Clavier,' a selection of the
Preludes and Fugues, carefully phrased and fingered.

Berlioz : Gnomenreigen und Sylphentanz aus 'La Dam-
nation de Faust.'

Schumann : El Contrabandista.

Schubert : Andantino und Variationen, Eondo, Marche
militaire, Polonaise mdlancolique.

Weber : Aufforderung zum Tanz.

Scarlatti : 3 Sonaten, Pastorale, und Capriccio.

Chopin : Concerto in E minor ; score and PF. part dis-
creetly retouched.

Beethoven : 6 Transcriptions from the string quartets,
op. 59, 130, 131, and 135.

' Nouvelles soirees de Vienne— Valses caprices d'apr^s
Strauss.' 1-5. (These are pendants to Liszt's 'Soirees de
Vienne ' after Schubert.)

'Ungarische Zigeunerweisen' (fit to rank with the
best of Liszt's ' Rhapsodies hongroises ').

Clementi : Gradus ad Pamassum, a selection of the
most useful Studies, with additional fingering and
variantes.

Tausig's ' Tagliche Studien ' is a posthumous
publication, consisting of ingeniously contrived
finger exercises ; among the many ' Indispensables
du Pianiste,' it is one of the few really indispens-
able. [E.D.]

TAVERNER, John, was organist of Boston,
Lincolnshire, and afterwards (about 1530), of



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