George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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etc., as well as the ' Balliol College Musical
Society.' His compositions include ' Christ and
his Soldiers,' oratorio, 1878; a ' Requiem in me-
mory of departed Harrow friends ' ; ' Cinderella,'
a fairy opera 1S82 ; 'Nursery Rhymes Qua-
drilles,' for chorus and orchestra, four sets ;
' Hunting Songs Quadrilles,' for same ; songs, etc.
He has edited ' Hymns and Tunes for High
Schools ' ; the ' Harrow Glee Book,' ' Harrow
School Marches,' ' Harrow School Songs,' etc., as
well as two volumes of Bach for the use of High
Schools. [A.C.]

FARNABY, Giles. Add that he graduated
at Christ Church as Mus. Bac. on July 7, 1592 ;
stating in his supplicat that he had studied
music for 12 years. (Wood's 'Fasti,' ed. Bliss,
i. 257.) There are a number of pieces by him
in the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book (see vol. iv. pp.
308-310), among which is a curious composi-
tion for two virginals. The same volume con-
tains four pieces by his sen, Richard Farnaby,
of whom nothing is known. Giles Farnaby con-
tributed harmonies to some of the tunes in Ra-
venscroft's Psalter (162 1). Wood's statement
that he was a native of Truro is probably correct,
though the name does not occur in the Visita-
tion of Cornwall of 1620. Thomas Famaby's
wife came from Launceston ; he lived most of
his life in London and Sevenoaks, and his de-
scendants remained in Kent, but the early his-
tory of the family is obscure, and the connection
between Giles and Thomas Farnaby cannot be
traced. [W.B.S.]

FARRENC, Aeistide. Line 2 of article,/o»*
Feb. 12, 1869, ?-eac? Jan. 31, 1865.

FAURE, Gabriel Urbain, bom May 13,
1845, at Pamiers (Arifege), studied at Paris with
Niedermeyer, the founder of the ifecole de Musique
religieuse ; also under Dietsch and Saint-Saens,
of whom he has remained the devoted friend.
His first appointment on leaving the school in
1866 was that of organist at St. Sauveur, Rennes;
in 1870 he returned to Paris, and after holding
the posts of accompanying organist at St. Sulpice
and principal organist at St. Honor^, became
maltre de chapelle at the Madeleine, where he
still remains. He became known as a composer
by his touching and original songs, many of
which are very remarkable. A selection of
twenty has been published by Hamelle, and * Le
Pofeme d' Amour ' by Durand and Schoenewerk,
but his compositions in this class are very
numerous. He has also published many piano-
forte pieces, among which are some delightful
nocturnes ; at the Soci^t^ Nationale de Musique,
where all his most important compositions have
been successively given, he produced a Cantique
de Racine, duets for female voices, and a violin
sonata, afterwards played at the Trocade'ro, on
July 5, 1878, which last has become popular in
Germany. Among his most remarkable works,
besides a Berceuse and Romance for violin and
orchestra, a beautiful El^gie for violoncello, two
Quartets for piano and strings (1882 and '87),
and a Violin Concerto, we may mention anOrches-



tral Suite (Salle Herz, Feb. 13, 1874), a pretty
'Chceur des Djinns' (Trocadero, June 27,
1878% a symphony in D minor (Chatelet, March
15. 1SS5), a Requiem (Madeleine, Jan. 16,
1888), and his great choral work, 'La Nais-
sance de Venus.' M. Faure', who is one of the
most distinguished and steadfast of French com-
posers, confines himself chiefly to vocal and
chamber music, in which his remarkable purity
and sincerity of sentiment, and his penetration of
feeling seem to bind him to Chopin and Schu-
mann. In 1885 tlie Prix Chartier, given by the
Academic des Beaux Arts for the best chamber
composition, was with excellent judgment
awarded to hira. [A.J.]

FAURE, J. B. Seevol. i. p. 571.
FAY, GuiLLEEMUs DO (Guilielmus, Gugliel-
mus, or Wilhelnms Dufay, Dufais, or Duffai).

Until within the last few years, the personal
identity of the great leader of the First Flemish
School was surrounded by doubts, little less ob-
scure than those which still perplex the biographer
of Franco of Cologne. Neither Burney nor Haw-
kins seem to have troubled themselves, either to
learn the details of his life, or to ascertain his
true place in the History of Art. Since their
day, the authority most frequently consulted has
been Baini, who speaks of Dufay as having sung
in the Pontifical Choir from 1380 to I432. Fetis
and Ambros were content to accept Baini's dates
without verification; and most later writers —
ourselves among the number i— have followed
their example, to the extent of assuming the
learned Abbe"s words to mean even more than
he intended ; for, though he tells us that Guil.
Dufay's connection with the Pontifical Choir
ceased in I432, he does not say that the Master
died in that year— and it is now known that he
lived many years later.

One of the first historians of credit who ven-
tured to throw any serious doubt upon Baini's
dates was Robert Fitner, whose discoveries led
hira to suggest— as Kiesewetter had previously
done, in the case of Franco— the existence of
two Masters of the same name, flourishing nearly
a century apart. This extravagant conclusion
he based upon the evidence aflbrded by three
tumulary inscriptions, lately discovered at Cam-
brai. Tlie first of these, from the tomb of Dufay's
mother, in the Cathedral at Cambrai, runs thus—
Chi devant ghist demiselle JJarie Dufay, mere de me
(juillaurae Dufay, couone [sic) de cOens,- laquelle tre-
passa 1 an mil mie et XLim le jour de St George. Pries
Dieu pour 1 ame. ^

The second mentions Dufay, in connection
with a_ Priest named Alexandre Bouillart of
Beauvais —

Chi gist sire Alexandre Bouillart, pretre, natif de
Beauvais. chapelain de leglise, et de me Guillaume Du-
lay, canone de Cambrai, et trepassa I'an mil cccc LXXllli
le xxe jour d aoust. Dieu en ait les ames.

Uuslf' ^«'- "• P; 226 * ; ""d "i- P- 260 a. Also, ■ A General History of
Jiusic, p. 63. (Lomion, ]!*6.)

karlfed r.^r °"'^- i^""'' "'^nU^'^s here, cr of .his place. But a
otr fn ,h IT" *"" "'i^"''«=" » for <he r.ame of some unknown

i-rcea". 1?'^ ""'■*"""' of Cambrai : and pravely tells us no such
he U acqultut^ d '""""'"^'* '" »»y »'l«s "' guide-book with which


The third is the epitaph of Dufay himself.i
gives his titles, thus —

Hie inferius jacet venerabilis vir matir. guillen
dufay music, baccalareus in decretis oli'm hu' eccli
choriahs deinde canonic' et tee. waldetrudis mont
qui obut anno dni. millesimo quadrin . . . Iio die XXI
mensis novembris.

The hiatus in the date is supplied by an ,
MS. in the Library at Cambrai, which es
blishes the 28th of Xovember, 1474, as the ex
date of Dufay's death. It is upon the difi"ere)
between this and the date given by Baini t)
the argument in favour of the existence of t
Dufays is based. The details of the controve
are too complicated for insertion here ; we the
fore propose to content ourselves with a bi
summary of its results, as influenced by the
cent criticisms and discoveries of Jules Houdo
Vander Straeten,* Eitner,* Otto Kade,« a
Fr. Xav. Haberl.''

Until the labours of these writers were gii
to the world, the general belief was, that Guili
mus Dufay was a native of Chimay, in H.
negau; that he first sang in the Pontifical Ch(
at Avignon ; that he migrated thence to Ro
in 1377, when Pope Gregory XI restored
Papal Court to that city ; and that he died
Rome, at a very advanced age, in 1432.

That he sang at Avignon is in the high
degree improbable ; and neither Baiui nor a
other writer has attempted to verify the si
position. But the rest of the account see
plausible enough, if we can only bring oursel'
to believe that the Master attained the age
104. Haberl rejects this theory, on the gron
that Dufay quite certainly learned to sing, a
Choir-boy, in the Cathedral at Cambrai" a
there formed an intimate and lasting friends]
with another young Chorister— Egidius Bincht
But it is well-known that Flemish chUdren, w:
good voices, were taken to Rome at a very ea
age : and there is nothing unreasonable in 1
supposition that Dufay, having been bom
Chimay in 1370, and taught to sing in 1
Maitrise at Cambrai, formed there his youth
friendship -with Binchois, and was removed
ten years old to Rome, where, as Baini teUs v
on the authority of the Archives of the Cappe
Sistina, he was received into the Pontifical Ch
in 13S0. This date we have had
opportunity of verifying; and it must be a
fessed that it assumes both Dufay and his mot!
to have lived to a very advanced age inde«
Haberl unhesitatingly rejects it; and assua
on this very ground, that Dufay cannot possil
have been born before the year 1400. Bair
assertion that Dufay quitted the Choir in 14;
is open to less objection. The Archives «
clusively prove that he sang in it, as a Laic,
1428 ; and again in 1431, I433, 1435, and ev
1436, in which year his name occupies the ti

3 Histoire artistique de la Cathedrale de Cambrai. (Paris, 18SC
* La JIusique aui l*ajs-lias.

5 Jloi.atsliefte fur Jlusik-Geschichte. (Leipzig. 1884. Xro. 2.)

6 Ibid. (Leipzig. ls>.'). Xro. 2.)

7 Eausteine fOx JIusik-geschichte. Sro. L Wilhelm du Fay. (Li
zif. 1^*5.)

8 Jlemorie storico-critlche deila Tita di Giov. Pierluigl du Pa
trina. (Boma, I82s.; i

. FAY.

tee on the list of the twelve Singers. In 1437
> name is omitted, eleven Singers only being
mtioned, without him ; and after this he
iappears from the records. A document has,
wever, been discovered, in which mention is
ide of his release from his engagements, in
37 ; and M. Houdoy's researches at Cambrai
)ve, beyond all doubt, that between that year
d 1450 he spent seven years in Savoy; that
took his degree of Magister in artibus, and
.ccalareus in decretis, in Paris, at the Sorbonne,
tore 1442 ; that he entered the service of
dlippe le Bon, Duke of Burgundy, as music-
Mr to his son Charles, Comte de Charolais ;
it he obtained a Canonry in the Cathedral of
mbrai, in I450 ; and that he died there in 1474.
In his wiU, which is still in existence at
mbrai, Dufay bequeaths to one of his friends
; books which had been given to him by the
mte de Charolais ; to another, a portrait of
'uis XI, who, when Dauphin, spent some time
ithe Court of Burgundy ; to a tliird, a portrait
iRe'ne of Anjou, who was Philippe's prisoner
r a long time ; and to a certain Pierre de Wez
livres, in return for seven years' use of his
iuse in Savoy. He also desires that, when he
!3 received the Last Sacraments, and is in
ticulo mortis, eight Choristers of the Cathedral
ill sing, very softlj', by his bedside, the hymn
[agno salutis gaudio ' ; after which, the altar-
ys, with their master, and two choristers,
ill' sing his motet, 'Ave Eegina coelorum.'
is pious duty was, however, performed, not at

bedside, but in the chapel, after his death,
>rpore presente.'

rhe will is printed entire by Haberl, who also
es a woodcut of the tombstone, with the
cription given above, and a representation
bold relief of the master, kneeling, with
led hands, in the dexter comer, in front of
Waltrudis and her two daughters, the re-
.inder of the stone being occupied with a
>resentation of the Resurrection of Our Lord,
ile the four corners are ornamented with a
flallion, or rebus, in which the name, Dufay,
;ncircled by a Gothic G. The stone is now in
h collection formed by M. Victor de Lattre, of

The archives of the Cathedral of Cambrai
litain a record of 60 scuta, given to Dufay as
j gratification,' in 1451. And the text of a
iter, written to Guil. Dufay by Antonio Squar-
|lupi, a Florentine Organist, and dated i Mag-
, 1467, is given, by Otto Kade, in the Monats-
te for 1885.

jruil. Dufay is mentioned, by Adam de Fulda,
the first Composer who wrote in regular form
agnum initium formalitatis). This statement,
vever, can only be accepted as correct, in
ar as it concerns the Continental Schools, since

Reading MS. proves regular form to have
n known and used in England as early as the
r 1226, Nevertheless, though he was not,
has so long been supposed, the eldest, but the
ingest of the three great Contrapuntists of his
: — Dunstable, Founder of the Second English



School having died in London in 1458, and Bin-
chois at Lille in T460 — his title to rank as the
Founder of the First Flemish School is rather
strengthened, than invalidated, by the recent
discussion to which we have alluded : for, his
contributions towards the advancement of Art
were of inestimable value. If not actually the
first, he was one of the first Composers in whose
works we find examples of the Second, Fourth,
and Ninth, suspended in Ligature : and he was
also one of the first of those who availed them-,
selves of the increased facilities of contrapuntal
evolution afforded by the then newly-invented
system of white notation — the 'blacke voyd' of
the English theorists. So highly was his learning
esteemed by his contemporaries, that, when on
a visit to Besan9on, in 1458, he was asked to
decide a controversy concerning the Mode of the
Antiphon 'O quanta exultatio angelicis turmis,'
his decision that it was not, as commonly sup-
posed, in Mode IV, but in Mode II, and that the
mistake had arisen through a clerical error in the
transcription of the Final, vras accepted by the
assembled savants as an authoritative settlement
of the question.

Besides the collection of Dufay 's MS. Com-
positions among the Archives of the Cappella
Sistina, and the Vatican Library, Haberl has
identified 62 in the Library of the Liceo filar-
monico, at Bologna ; 25 in the university of the
same city ; and more than 30 in other collections.
j\Iany will also be found in the rare Part-Books
printed, at the beginning of the i6th century, by
Petrucci,andintheDodecachordonof Glareanus.^
The ' Ave Eegina coelorum ' is given, by Haberl,
in the original notation of the old Part-Books,
and also in the form of a modernized Score;
together with a Score of a ' Pange lingua, a 3 ' ; and
some important examples are given among the
posthumous Noten-Beilagen at the end of Am-
bros's ' Geschichte der Musik.* A short
quotation from his ' Missa I'omme arme ' will be
found in vol. iii. p. 260 a. [W.S.R.]

FELIX MERITIS. Add that the society
ceased to exist in 1888.

FERNAND CORTEZ. Line 5 of article,
for 1808 read 1S09.

FESTIVALS. Line 28 of article, /or 1767
read 1764. Same column, line 17-18 from
bottom, for Thurinsfian Musical Festival, etc.,
read a Festival at Frankenhausen in 1804, and
refer to Spohr s Autobiography, i. 151. P. 516 5,
1. 2, for 1709 read 1698. For other festivals,
consult, beside the articles referred to, Beatjlieit
and Cecilia, St.

f£TIS, Feancois Joseph. Add that in
1829 he came to England for the purpose of
giving a course of lectures on musical history.
The season was too far advanced to allow of his
doing so, and the plan was abandoned, a single
lecture being given at Sir George Warrender's,
on May 29, when illustrations were given by
Camporese, Malibran, Mme. Stockhausen, Don-

1 A German translation of this work is now ia course of publica-
tion, under the editorship of Kobert Eitner,



zelli, Begrez, Labarre, De Beriot, etc. In 1828
lie had been for three months in England. See
the Harmonicon for July, 1829. [M.]

FIBICH, Zdenko, born Dec. 21, 1850, at
Seborschitz, near Tschaslau in Bohemia, re-
ceived his musical education at Prague from
1865 onwards, at the Leipzig Conservatorium,
and from Vincenz Lachner. In 1876 he was
appointed second conductor at the National
Theatre at Prague, and in 1878 director of the
choir at the Russian church. Riemann's Lexi-
con, from which the above is taken, gives the
names of the following compositions: — Symphonic
poems, 'Othello,' ' Zaboj und Siavoj,' 'Toman und
die Nymphe,'two symphonies, several overtures,
two string quartets, a ballad for chorus ('Die
"Windsbraut '), a three-act opera ('Blanik,'
given at Prague Nov. 26, 1881), besides songs,
pianoforte pieces, etc. The only work of his
that has yet been heard in England is an ex-
ceedingly beautiful and original quartet in
E minor for pianoforte and strings (op. ii"), given
by Mr. Charles Hall^ on June 8, 1883, and
repeated several times since. L^^-]

FIDELIO. Line 20, aAZ (3,) After the death
of Guardasoni, the Italian Director of the Prague
opera in 1806, and the appointment of Liebich,
and the adoption of the German opera there,
Beethoven, with the view to a probable perform-
ance of ' Fidelio,' wrote the overtcie known as
'Leonora, no. I,'as an 'easier work than either
of the two preceding. The performance, however,
did not come off, and the overture remained in
MS. and unknown till after Beethoven's death,
■when it was sold in the Sale of his effects and
published in 1832 (Haslinger) as 'Overture in C,
op. 138' {Aut. ' Characteristische Ouverture').
See Seyfried, p. 9 ; Thayer, iii. 25.

Subsequent numbers (3.) (4.) (5.) to be altered
to (4-) (5-) (6.). [G.]

FIERRABRAS, Add that the full score has
lately been printed by Breitkopf & Hartel, as
one of the earliest volumes of their complete
edition of Schubert's works.

FILTSCH, Chaeies. Add date of birth,
July 8, 1830. Omit the parenthesis in lines
7-8, as several of the artists there mentioned
had either been in London before, or came

FINGER, GOTTFEIED. P. 525 a, 1. 8, for
same read previous.

FINK, Christian, bom Aug. 9, 1S31, at
Dettingen in Wiirtemberg, studied music until
his fifteenth year with his father, who combined
the oflBces of sclioolmaster and organist. In
1846 he was sent to the Waisenhaus-Seminar
at Stuttgart, where he remained for three years,
his musical education being in the hands of Dr.
Kocher. Appointed in 1S49 assistant music
teacher in the seminary at Esslingen, he pur-
sued his studies with such success that he was
able in 1853 to pass the examination for the
upper class of the Leipzig Conservatorium, After
a year and a half he went to Dresden to study


the organ under Schneider. From 185^
i860 he appeared as organist at many coi
and oratorio performances in Leipzig, and
1S63 was appointed head of the seminary at Ei
lingen and organist of the principal church of th
place. Two years afterwards he was given t
title of Professor. He has published many excelle
works for organ, some of which have appear
in the Organist's Quarterly Journal (Novelh
besides psalms for chorus and orchestra, son{
choruses, etc. (Mendel's Lexicon). [H

FIORAVANTI, Valentino. Line 8
article, ^or 1806 read 1803. Add the product!
of ' Adelaida' at Naples in 1817. Last two lir
of axtic\e,for born 18 10 read bom April 5, lyc
died March 28, 1S77.

FISHER, J. A. Add to the list of ]
writings for the stage, the music to Cradoc!
tragedy 'Zobeide' (Covent Garden, 1771).

FLAUTO MAGICO. See Zauberflote,\
iv. p. 503 h, in the last line but one of which^
1883 read 1833.

FLEMMING, Fbiedeich Ferdinand, be
Feb. 28, 1778, at Neuhausen in Saxony, stud
medicine at Wittenberg from 1796 to 1800, a
subsequently at Jena, Vienna and Triest.
practised in Berlin, where he took a keen inter
in all musical matters, composing many
songs, especially for male voices, for the socii
founded by Zelter. His claim to notice in t
Dictionary is based upon his excellent setting
Horace's ode beginning ' Integer vitae,' which
still universally popular in English schools a
universities, as well as in Germany. The curi(
resemblance in style and .structure between t
and Webbe's * Glorious Apollo ' is certau
fortuitous, since the latter was written in 17I
and Flemming can hardly have become :
quainted with the Englishman's work. [1

FLIGHT, Benjamin. Add that Meat
Gray & Davison bought Robson's share of i
business after the dissolution of the partnersh

FLORIMO, Francesco, born Oct. 12, 181
at San Giorgio Morgeto, Calabria, was tau{
music at the Royal College of Music at Napl
where he learnt counterpoint and compositi
from Zingarelli. He was appointed in li
Librarian of the College of Music (afterwai
incorporated with that of San Pietro di Majell
where finding the ai-chives in a state of chi
and disorder, by his energy and perseverance
gradually made the Library one of the most
teresting and valuable in Europe. He addec
number of important works, besides a collect:
of autographs and manuscripts, of all the mast
of the Neapolitan School. Florimo's compositic
include a Cantata, op. i, in honour of the Di
of Noja, Director of the College of San Seb
tiano ; a Dixit ; a Credo ; a Te Deum ; Fune
Symphony composed on the death of Belli
afterwards performed at ZingareUi's funeri
a Choius and Fugal Overture on the unveiling
ZingareUi's portrait at the College ; ' Ore mi
call,' a setting of 10 songs, vocal duet a




jrtet (Girard, Naples) 1835 ; 1 2 songs published
ler the same title by Boosey (London, 1845)
JDf which were included in the first collection ;
j>pular Neapolitan songs in a collection pub-
bd by Lonsdale, 1846; 24 Songs (Ricordi,
Ian) etc. He has written a Method of singing
bordi), 3rd edition 1866; a ' History of the
i.poUtan School of Music,' Naples, 2 vols,
J9-71 ; a 'History of the College San Pietro,'
lies, 1873 ; a second edition of the above with
History of Music in Italy, Naples, 4 vols.
0-82 ; ' Wagner and the Wagnerites,' Ancona,
3, with a supplement containing letters from
di and Biilow, from Frau Wagner ' to the
t amiable of librarians, and the juvenile oc-
3narian,' expressing the satisfaction of herself
her husband at a performance of a Miserere
jeo by the students of the College on the occa-
i of their visit there in 1880; also a litho-
ph copy of a letter from Wagner himself to the
Se of Bagnara the President, from the Villa
ngri, Naples, dated April 22, 1880. [A.C.]

'LOTOW. P. 535 a, line 12, for 1869 read
o. Line i3,yo?" Flor reatZFiore. Add that
lied at Wiesbaden, Jan. 24, 18S3.

i'LTJD, or FLUDD, Robert, the son of Sir
)mas Flud, treasurer of war to Queen Elizabeth
'Vance and the Low Countries, bom at Milgate,
he parish of Bearsted in Kent, 1574. At the
of 1 7 he became a student of St. John's College,
'ord, where he studied physics. After a short
e of residence he went abroad for six years, at
end of which time he returned and took the
umulated degrees of Bachelor and Doctor of
;s. In 1605 he was made a Fellow of the
lege of Physicians. From 1616 until his
th he was engaged in the composition of
ious philosophical treaties, in which he
ited the theories of Kepler and Mersennus,
I advocated those of the Rosicrucian and other
sties. In the history of philosophy his name
f some importance, since his writing exercised
owerful influence over Jacob Behmen. In
Itsical literature he holds a far less prominent
ition, his chief connection with the art being
nd in a treatise printed at Oppenheim in 16 1 7,
itled 'Utriusque cosmi majoris scilicet et
loris metaphysica, physica atque technica
toria.' The following sections treat of musical
jnomena : Tract I. Book iii. and Tract II.
rt i. Book vi. and Part ii. Book iv. His
onochordiim mundi symphoniacum,' written
reply to Kepler (Frankfort, 1622) contains
urious diagram of the universe, based on the
isions of a string. He died at his house
Coleman Street, Sept. 8, 1637, and ^^'^^ buried
Bearsted. [M.]

?OLI, SiGNOE, whose real name is Allan
MES Foley, was born at Cahir, Tipperary, and
early life went to America. He was taught
ging at Naples by the elder Bisaccia (father
Gennaro Bisaccia the pianist), and in Dec.
)2 he made his debut at Catania as Elmiro in
tello.' He played successively at Turin,
)dena, Milan, and in 1S64 at the Italiens,

Paris. On .June 17, 1S65, Signer Foil made a
successful debut at Her Majesty's as St. Bris
(' Huguenots'); on July 6 as the Second Priest
on the revival of ' Zauberflote,' and on Oct. 28
as the Hermit in ' Der Freischiitz.' From that
time he has simg frequently in Italian at the
three ' patent ' theatres in upwards of 60 operas,
viz. as Sarastro, Commendatore, Marcel, Caspar,
Mephistopheles, Sparafucile, Basilic, Assur and
Oroe (' Semiramide '), Rodolfo (' Sonnambula '),
Bide the Bent ('Lucia'), Bertram, and Daland
on the production of 'Der Fliegende Hollander,'
at Drury Lane, July 23, 1870, etc., in addition
to the parts previously named in which his fine
voice — a rich powerful bass of more than two
octaves from E below the line to F — has been
heard to full advantage.

Signer Foli is equally well known as an orato-
rio and concert singer at all the important festivals.
He made his first appearance in the former on
April 25, 1866, in 'Israel' at the National Choral

Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 150 of 194)