George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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Society, but his first success was on Feb. 22,
1867, in ' The Creation ' at the Sacred Harmonic.
His new parts in this class include Jacob, on the
production of Macfarren's ' Joseph' at the Leeds
Festival, Sept. 21, 1877, and Herod, on reduc-
tion of Berlioz's L'Enfance du Christ ' under
Hall^ at Manchester, Dec, 30, 1880, and in
London Feb. 26, 1881. He has played in
America, at St. Petersburg, Moscow, Vienna,
etc. In Russia he made a conspicuous uccess
as Caspar, Moses (which part he has sung with
success at the Sacred Harmonic), and as Pietro
in ' Masaniello.* [A.C.]

FORM. P. 543 h, 1. 7 from ottom, for the
former read they. P. 544 a, 1. 11 from bottom,
for 1688 read 1715. P. 545 a, 1. ipfrom bottom,
for 1703-85 read 1706-85.

FORMES, Kael. Add that he visited Eng-
land again in 1888, appearing at Mr. Manns's
benefit concert, April 21, and elsewhere.

FORSYTH BROTHERS, a firm founded at
Manchester for the sale of pianos, by the brothers
Henry and James Forsyth in 1857. They had
been brought up, and represented the third
generation of the name, in the establishment
of John Broadwood & Sons. Forsyth Brothers
began engraving music in 1872, with Mr. Charles
Halle's ' Practical Pianoforte School,' the first
numbers of which were published by them in
Jan. 1873, and at the same time they opened a
London branch of their business in Oxford Circus.
An appendix to the School, entitled the 'Musical
Library ' was commenced some time after, and a
catalogue was formed which includes several
compositions by Stephen Heller as well as import-
ant works by other composers. They have also
added to the instrumental part of their business
an agency for American organs, from the manu-
factory of the Dominion Organ Company, Ontario,
Canada. Mr. Henry Forsyth died in July, 1885.
Mr. James Forsyth has, in connection with the
business in Manchester, maintained an important
share in the management of the leading concerts
of that city. [A.J.H.]



688



FOSTER.



FRANC,



I



* FOSTER, Stephen Collins, an American
composer, of Irish descent, born near Pittsburg,
Pennsylvania, July 4, 1826, entered, in 1S40,
the Academy at Athens, Pennsylvania, and, in
1 841, Jefferson College near Pittsburg. Though
not noted for studious qualities he taught himself
French and German, painted fairly well, and
exhibited a pronounced liking for the -works of
Mozart, Beethoven, and Weber. Before this he
had shown his musical inclinations by teaching
himself the flageolet when seven years old. His
first composition, produced while at Athens,
was a waltz for four flutes. His first published
song, ' Open thy lattice, love,' appeared in 1842.
This song is one of the very few set by him, the
words of which are not his own. In 1845-46
there were published * The Louisiana Belle,'
' Old Uncle Ned,' and ' O, Susanna.' The fol-
lowing are the titles of his ballads : — ' My old
Kentucky Home,' ' Old Dog Tray,' ' Massa's in
de cold ground,' 'Gentle Annie,' 'Willie, we
have missed you,' ' I would not die in spring-
time,' 'Come where my Love lies dreaming,' 'I
see her still in my dreams,' ' Old Black Joe,'

* Ellen Bayne * (which, it has been claimed,
provided the theme of 'John Brown's Body,'
the war-song of the Federal troops 1S61-65),
'Laura Lee,' and ' Swanee Eiber ' (more gene-
rally known as ' The Old Folks at Home ' and
sung all the world over).

Altogether some 175 songs are credited to
him. ' Beautiful Dreamer ' is the title of his
last ballad. In style they are all completely
melodic, with the most elementary harmonies
for the accomjjaniments or in the choral por-
tions. But there is a pleasing manner in them,
and they reflect a gentle, refined spirit. It
will be seen that some of the titles betray the
influence of the African race in the country near
Foster's home, and it has even been said that he
was indebted for some of his themes to the un-
tutored plantation-negroes. But it is more
probable that the negro dialect was adopted in
order to meet the demands of the market which
happened to be open to him — the entertainments
by minstrel companies of the Christy type. The
appearance of the name Christy as author of
'Swanee Eiber' on some publications of that
song is explained by the fact that Foster con-
sented thereto for a stipulated sum — not the first
time that genius has had to sacrifice principle —
though for the first edition only. Foster died
in New York on Jan. 13, 1864, at the American
Hotel, where he had been attacked with fever
and ague. While yet too weak he attempted to
dress himself, and swooning, fell against a pitcher
which cut a small artery in his face. He died
within three days from the consequent loss of
blood, and was buried in the Alleghany Cemetery
at Pittsburg, beside his parents, and within sight
of his birthplace. Probably there is no song-
writer whose works show a larger circulation than
is recorded for Foster's pretty and sometimes
pathetic biillads. The following information con-
cerning the sales of some of these homely lyrics
was published in December, 18S0 :— 'Old Folks



at Home,' 300,000 ; ' My old Kentucky So
200,000 ; ' WilUe, we have missed you,' I50,ci
'Massa's in de cold ground,' 100,000; '£
Bayne,' 100,000 ; ' Old Dog Tray,' 75,000. ■
Susanna ' and ' Old Uncle Ned ' have been j
in immense numbers, but not being copyrig! i
the sales cannot be estimated. The copyri; i
of many of Foster's songs are still valmu
There have been numerous imitators of his st •,
but none have shown his freshness and taste, 1
he stiU stands as the people's composer in A ■
rica, as well as the only American ni'i<:
whose works, simple as they are, have a di^i
tive individuality.

The greater part of the material for
sketch was taken from 'Music in Amer
F, L. Eitter, New York, 1883. [F.H

FOUGT. See Mdsic-Pbinting in Appen

FRANC, or LE FEANC, Gdillaume, the
of Pierre Franc of Eouen, was probably om i
the French Protestants who fled to Geneva an
asylum from the persecution to which those 1
embraced the doctrines of the reformation -sv
then exposed. He settled in that city in 1 =
shortly before the return of Calvin from St
burg, and obtained a licence to estabHsh a sol
of music. In 1542 he became master of
children and a singer at St. Peter's at a sal
of 10 florins. In 1543 the Council of Gen
resolved that ' whereas the Psabns of David
being completed,^ and whereas it is very nei
sary to compose a pleasing melody to them, ;
Master Guillaume the singer is very fit to te:
the children, he shall give them instruction
an hour daily.' His pay was increased from
to 50 florins, and afterwards raised to 100, w
the use of part of a house, but on the refusa;
the Council to grant a further addition to
salary Franc left Geneva in 1545 and joined '
choir of the Cathedral of Lausanne, where
remained until his death about the beginning
June, 1570.

Franc's name is chiefly known in connect
with the Psalter published at Geneva by Cal
for the use of the Eeformed Churches. The fi
edition of this celebrated work appeared
1542, containing 35 psalms, and was enlarf
from time to time until its completion in 15'
Of this Psalter Franc has been generally belie\
to be the musical editor ; but recent research
especially those of M. 0. Douen, show the cla
set up for him to be devoid of foundation, [!•
BouKGEOis, vol. iv. p. 557.] He certainly bad 1
thing to do with the Psalter after leaving Gene
in 1545, and although the resolution of the Coun
quoted above may appear to indicate an intenti
of employing him to adapt melodies to some of t
]3salms then newly translated by Marot, there
no evidence that this intention was ever carri
into eS'ect.

Franc, however, did edit a Psalter. T
church of Lausanne had on several occasic
shown a spirit of independence of that of Gene"
and at the time of Franc's arrival sang t

> This refers to the additional versions then being mitten by Ka



• Copyright 1889 by F. H. Jexk?.



FEANC.



FRANCK.



639



ilms to melodies by Gindron, a canon of the

hedral, which difiFered from those in use at

Qeva. As early as 1552 Franc appears to

,'e been engaged on a new Psalter, for in that

IT he obtained a licence to print one at Geneva,

re being then no press at Lausanne. Xo

y of this book, if it was ever published, is

)wn to exist, but the terms of the licence "^

iw that it consisted of the psalms of Marot

h their original melodies, and the 34 psalms

nslated by Beza the j'ear before, to which

vnc, probably in rivalry with Bourgeois, had

i,pted melodies of his own. At any rate, in

)5, three years after the completion of the

aevau Psalter, that of Lausanne appeared,

ler the following title : — ' Les Pseaumes mis

I rime fran9oise par Clement Marot et Theo-

6 de Bfeze, auec le chant de I'eglise de Lau-

e [.s/c] 1565. Auec privilege, tant du Boy,

! de Messieurs de Geneue.'

n the pi'eface Franc disclaims any idea of

ipetition with those ' who had executed their

k with great fidelity,' or even of correcting

lat had been so well done by them.' He

no intimation that he had himself taken

part in that work, and states, with respect

lis own book, that in addition to a selection

he best tunes then in use in the church of

sanne as well as in other Reformed Churches,

lad supplied new ones to such of the psalms,

recently translated, as had not yet been set

nusic, and were consequently sung to the

odies of psalms in the older editions of the

Iter. He adds that his object was that each

m should have its proper tune and confusion

hereby avoided.

tress has been laid by some writers who

ibuted the Genevan melodies to Franc, on a

T written to Bayle by David Constant, pro-

)r of theology at Lausanne at the end of the

century, in which he states that he had

a certificate bearing date Nov. 2, 1552, and

n by Beza to Franc, in which Beza tes-

that it was Franc who had first set the

ms to music. Constant adds that he himself

eased a copy of the psalms in which the

e of Franc appeared and which was printed

eneva under the licence of the magistrates of

city. Baulacre, however, writing in 1745

he Journal Helv^tique, after investigating

iccuracy of Constant's statement, shows that

tocount he sent to Bayle of Beza's letter was

leous, as that letter contained no reference

,e authorship of the melodies. Even had it

so, we liave seen above that in that very

Franc had obtained a licence to print a col-

Jn of psalms for Lausanne, and the psalter

Is important document, which has only lately been discovered
registers of the Council of Geneva, deserves to be quoted in

JeudS 28 iuillet 1552.
ur ce qui le dit maistre Jacques, minlstre de Lausanne, a pro-
le k Lausanne ilz ne se sont peult estre d'accord de chanter les
mes changes icy par maistre Loys Bour^'ois, ny ceul.^ qu'il a
n Chans du sieur de Beze. ilz sont en propos de faire imprimer
iulmes Iranslatez par jMarot eu leur premier chant, et aussy
■ . translate le sieur de Beze en vng chant que y a mis le
! Lausanne pour les chanter, ce qu'ilz n*hout aus6 faire
%nce. Pourquoy 11 a requis perraettre les imprimer icy. Ar-
e, attendu que c'est chose raissonable, il leur suit permys.



to which Constant refers is that of 1565, also
compiled for local use.

In this latter collection 27 melodies are com-
posed or adapted by Franc to the psalms left
without them in the Geneva Psalter of 1562,
(51=, 53, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 70, 71, 76,
77, 78, 82, 95, 98, 100, loS, 109, III, 116, 127^,
139, 140, 142, and 144), nineteen are selected from
the tunes previously in use at Lausanne, and the
rest are taken from the Genevan Psalter.

Before long, however, Lausanne followed the
example of the other Reformed Churches, and
the Psalter of Franc was superseded by that of
Bourgeois.

Franc's tunes are of small merit, Some speci-
mens of them are given by Douen in his ' Cle-
ment Marot et le Psautier Huguenot,' 2 vols.
Paris 1878-79, from which the materials for this
article are chiefly derived. See also Bovet,
' Histoire du Psautier des ^glises reform^es,'
Neuchatel et Paris, 1872; G. Becker, 'La
Musique en Suisse,' Genfeve et Paris, 1874;
Riggenbacli, ' Der Kiichenge.sang in Basel ' ; and
six articles by the present writer in the Musical
Times, June-November, 1881. [G.A.C.]

FRANCHOMME. For Christian names read
AUGUSTE-JosEPH, and add that he died in Paris
Jan. 22, 1884.

FRANCK, Cesar Auguste Jean Guillaume
HtJBERT, pianist, organist, and composer, be-
came a naturalized Frenchman in 1873, having
been born at Lifege, Dec. 10, 1822. He began
his musical studies at the Conservatoire at his
native place, and at the age of fifteen was ad-
mitted to the Conservatoire at Paris, where
in 183S he gained a first prize for piano under
Zimmermann, in 1839 •'■^^l 1840 a second and
first prize for counterpoint and fugue under
Leborne, and in 184I a second prize for organ
under Benoist. He did not compete for the
Prix de Rome, owing to his father's wish that
he should devote himself to the organ and piano.
Having completed his musical education, Franck
settled in Paris, devoting himself entirely to
teaching and composition; in 1S46 he produced
at the Conservatoire his oratoi-io ' Ruth,' which
passed unnoticed at the time, but which, twenty-
five years later, served to bring his name before
the public. The career of this modest and enthu-
siastic artist has been one of assiduous work
and of attention to his profession of organist,
first at St. Jean St. Fran9ois and afterwards at
Ste. Clotilde, where he was appointed maitre de
chapelle in 185 8 and organist in i860, and where
he has since remained. In 1872 his nomination
as professor of the organ at the Conservatoire in
place of his master Benoist, who had retired after
fifty years' service, gave him naturally more im-
portance and enabled him to exercise consider-
able influence over music in France. He became
the centre of a group of young composers who

2 Both these psalms had proper tunes In the Genevan Psalter, to
which Beza's versions of 09 and 117 were respectively sung. Franc
retained the Genevan melodies for the later psalms, and adapted dis-
tinct tunes to the older ones. Of these tunes, that which Franc set
to 51 was its original melody, to which Bourgeois adapted it in 1512,
but which he had replaced by another iu 1551,






tiO



FEANCK.



were anxious to study orchestral composition
•without passing through the Conservatoire, where
no attention was paid to the symphonic style,
care being only given to operatic composition.
By his sei-ious character both as a man and an
artist, and by the weight of his learning and the
lofty stj'le of his works, Franck seemed especially
fitted to hold a position then little sought after,
and thus by degrees he acquired great influence
over his disciples, initiating them into the musical
life, and encouraging them by example and advice.
This position has greatly enlarged Franck's sphere
of influence during the last fifteen years, and
the French government has recognized his ser-
vices and his merits by c<inferring upon him in
August 1S85, the title of Chevalier of the Legion
d'honneur.

Franclc's compositions, none of which have been
produced on the stage, are too many to enumerate.
His chief works are the four oratorios : ' Euth,'
composed 1845, produced 1846, recast and edited
1868, and revived at the Cirque d'et^ in 1871,
and at the Concerts du Conservatoire in Feb.
1872 ; * Redemption,' composed 1872, produced
at the Concert Spirituel at the Odeon, on Holy
Thursday, 1873; * E^becca ' and * Les Beati-
tudes,' both written in 1879, fragments of which
have been executed at various concerts. He has
also composed two operas, ' Le Valet de Ferme,'
written in 1848 for the Opera National, then
under the direction of Adolphe Adam, and
' Hulda,' finished in 1885, selections fi-om which
have been heard at concerts in Paris and Ant-
werp. The following are also worthy of mention :
' Les bolides' and 'Le Chasseur maudit' (after
Biirger's legend), both for orchestra; ' Les Djinns'
and ' Variations Symphoniques,' both for piano
and orchestra ; an important collection of organ
pieces, offertoires and chants d'^glise ; trios and
a quintet for piano and strings, a prelude,
choiale, and fugue for piano solo, a mass and
several motets, various songs, and recently a
sonata for piano and violin. Loftiness of thought,
great regard to purity of form, and natural rich-
ness of development, characterize his works ; un-
fortunately his creative power is not equal to his
scientific knowledge, and he is often wanting in
the freshness of inspiration which is found in
' Euth,' his most poetical and pleasing composi-
tion. His works are nevertheless those of one
who may be depended upon for elegance and for
interesting combinations, and who has more than
once, by force of will and learning, succeeded in
attaining the high ideal which he has always
had in view, [A.J.]

FEANCO, Magisteb (Franco de Colonia;
Franco Leodiensis ; Franco Parisiensis ; Franco
of Cologne ; Franco of Lifege ; Franco of Paris.)

Though the claim of Magister Franco to the
honour of having written the earliest known
dissertation upon Measured Music has been very
generally admitted, the confusion which prevails
with regard to his personal identity has been
increased rather than diminished by the en-
deavours of successive historians to set the ques-
tion at rest. If we are to accept the contradictory |



FEANCO.

theories that have been handed down to us, t ■
the times of Burney and Hawkins, we shall
it impossible to avoid the conclusion ; ei
that three distinct Francos flourished at
ferent epochs, in Cologne, Lifege, and Paris ;
that a certain Magister Franco held schol
appointments in those three cities, at impoa
distant dates.

The chief source of uncertainty is, the
grave doubt as to whether the writer of
famous musical tracts is, or is not, identical
a certain philosopher, named Franco, who
equally celebrated, in the nth century, foi
knowledge of Mathematics, Alchemy, Juc
Astrology, and Magic.

Sigebertus Gemblacensis,^ who died in 1
tells us that this learned writer dedicated a t
'De Quadratura Circuli,' to Herimanus, A
bishop of Cologne; and, as this Prelate die
February, 1055, the work must have been
pleted before that date. Trithemius ^ attril t
this same tract, 'De Quadratura Circuli,' togi
with another, 'De Compute Ecclesiastico, el .
plura,^ to Franco, Scholasticus Leodiensis E e
siae ; who, he says, flourished under the Emp i
Henry III, about the year 1060, though 1
is evidence, of another kind, to prove that Fi
continued in office at Liege, at least until 11
year of 10S3.

The authors of the ' Histoire Litt^ra'r? ' <
France'* assure us that this Scholastic - i
was the author of the tract ' De Musica '. 1
surabili.'

But, in direct opposition to thig, Kiesewe
brings forward evidence enough to satisfy hin
at least, that the tracts on Measured Music
neither written by the AJchemist and Mag
of Cologne, nor, by the Scholastic of Liege,
by some other Franco, who flourished not
than 130 or 150 years later — i. e. towards
close of the 12 th century. This opinior
which it is only fair to say that he is foil
by De Coussemaker, Von Winterfeld, and IM
— rests, however, upon no stronger ground in
the supposition that the period interposet e-
tween the writings of Guido d'Arezzo and Fi ')
was insufficient for the development of :'.
proved system described by the las:-:
master. Fetis, reasonably enough, j :
against a conclusion unsupported by any t'
historical, or even traditional evidence. J
wetter first stated his views in the Lt
allgem. mus. Zeitung, for 1828, Nos. 4
50. F^tis, in his Dictionary, opposed ti.
theory. Xiesewetter replied to the objc. .-i
of F^tis, in Leipziger allgem. mus. Zeitun;
1838, Nos. 24, 25. And, in the meantinx
Coussemaker, in his Histoire de I'Harmon:
moyen age (pp. 144-147), suggests, some
confidently, that the real author of the disf
tracts was another Franco, who is know '
have flourished at Dortmund, in Westpl

1 Chron. ad ann. 1047. ' De Script. Eccles. (Lut. Par. :
3 Among these was one ' Be Motu perpetuo."
* L'Hist. Litt. de la France. Tom. viii. p. 122. (Paris, 1747
c tieachicbte der £uropaiscli-AbendlSudiscbeu Musik. {,1 ]
1S46.J



FKANCO.

ut the year 1190. But, since not a particle
rustworthy evidence has ever been adduced
avour of these fanciful theories, we shall do
1, until more light can be thrown upon the
ject, to believe, with F^tis, and our own
■ney and Hawkins, that the tracts attributed
franco were really written by the philosopher
Cologne, about the year 1060.
'he musical tracts attributed to Franco are —

. Ars Magistri rranconia de Musica Mensurabili.
Magistri Franconis Musica.
Compendium de Discantu, tribus capitibus.

'he earliest known copy of the first of these
S. is said to be preserved at Lire, in Nor-
idy. The second tract — in the Bodleian Li-
ry, at Oxford^ — is an exact transcript of the
;, under a different title ; though the authors
he ' Hist. Litt. de la France ' do not appear to
e been aware of the fact. The third tract —
i in the Bodleian Library^ — contains the best
junt of Discant, immediately after the time
jruido, that we possess. Copies of the Ars
itus mensurabilis are also to be found in the
ibrosian Library at Milan, in the Paris
rary, and in the British Museum (No. 8866,
ine MS. of the 15 th century, unknown to
mey.) F^tis discovered a copy of the Com-
dium de Discantu in the Paris Library ; and
ther MS. copy was presented to the Vatican
irary by Queen Christina of Sweden. The
npendiura begins with the words, ' Ego
tnco de Colonia,' the genuineness of which
isewetter disputes.

Trance's claim to the honour of having in-
ted the Time-Table rests, partly, on the
tents of the treatise 'De Musica Mensurabili,'
1, partly, on the authority of MSS. of later
e than his own.

»Iarchetto di Padova, in his * Pomerium de
isica Mensurata,' written about 1283, bientions

as the inventor of the first four musical
racters — i.e. the Long, the Double-Long, the
ive, and the Semibreve. Joannes de Muris,
a MS. written about 1330, and bequeathed

Christina, Queen of Sweden, to the Vatican
irary^, speaks of 'Magister Franco, qui in-
it in Cantu Mensuram figurarum,' and his
.imony is particularly valuable, since he him-
' was, for a long time, very generally re-
ded as the inventor of Measured Music,
mchinus Gafurius* twice mentions Franco
the inventor of the Time-Table. Morley^
s, * This Francho is the most antient of al
se whose works of practical Muaicke haue
le to my handes ' ; after which, he proceeds
iescribe Franco's treatment of the Long, and

Breve. And Ravenscroft ^ also tells us that
mchinus {sic) de Colonia was the inventor of
' four first simple notes of Mensurable
isicke.'
)n the other hand, it is certain that Franco

lo. 842. f. 49. 2 No. 2575, 60. 4.

'ompendium Joannls de Muribus; in Bibl. Vat. No. 1146.

'ractica Musicas, Lib. ii. cap. 5.

'laiae and Easie Introd., in the Annotations at the end of the

me.

iriefe Discourse of the true Use of charactering the Degrees in

lurable Musicke, p. 1. (London, 1614.)



FEANCO.



641



cannot lay claim to all the inventions mentioned
in his * Ars Cantus Mensurabilis,' since he him-
self says, in that very tract, ' Proponimus igitur
ipsam Mensurabilem Musicam sub compendio
declarare, benedictaque aliorum non recusabi-
mus interponere, errores quoque destruere efc
fugare, et si quid novi a nobis inventum fuerit,
bonis rationibus sustinere et probare.'

The four primary characters are described in
the Second Chapter of the MS., where they are
figured thus —

Longa. Duplex longa. Brevls. Semlbrevls.

1 — ^ — ■ ■» — =:

1 1

The Perfect Long, he tells us, is equal to three
Breves, ' quia a summa Trinitate, quas vera est
et pura perfectio, nomen sumpsit.' The Imper-
fect Long, represented by the same figure, is
equal to two Breves only. The Breve was also
Perfect, or Imperfect, under the same conditions.
Two consecutive Longs, or Breves, were always
Perfect ; but, when a longer note was preceded
or followed by a shorter one, the longer note
was Imperfect, the time of the shorter one being
needed to complete its Perfection. Nevertheless,
an Imperfect Long, or Breve, could be rendered
Perfect, by means of the sign called a Tractulus,
the effect of which was precisely similar to that
of the comparatively modern Point of Augmenta-
tion. A similar effect appears to have been pro-



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