George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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duced by the Plica, added to the right side of the
Long, or the left side of the Breve : but. Franco's
remarks upon this sign are vei-y obscure.

Flica longa, ascendens Plica brevis, ascendens

et descendena. et desceudens.

1 1 .



Longs, Breves, and Semibreves, were grouped
together in certain combinations called Moods,''
of which Franco admits five only, though he says
that other Musicians used six, or even seven — a
clear sign that he did not invent them. Of these
Moods, the First consisted of Longs only; the
Second, of a Breve followed by a Long; the
Third, of a Long and two Breves ; the Fourth,
of two Breves and a Long ; and the Fifth, of a
Breve and a Semibreve. From which it fol-
lows, tliat the First Mood expressed the rhythm
of the Spondee, or Molossus ; the Second, that of
the Iambus; the Third, that of the Dactyl ; the
Fourth, that of the Anapaest ; and the Fifth,
that of the Trochee ; the entire series performing
the functions allotted to the Mood, Time, and
Prolation, of a later period.*

The Third Chapter of the MS. treats of Liga-
tures ; ^ and the Fourth Chapter, of Rests, of
which he gives some complicated examples, all
reducible, however, to the simple form shown
in our example in vol. ii. p. 471 6. In connec-
tion with these, Franco also describes the Finis
Punctorum, drawn across all the lines, and

7 We have here followed, for the sake of clearness, the plan adopted
by our early English writers, of translating the word Modns as
Mood, when it relates to rhythm, and Mode when it refers to the
Ecclesiastical Scales.

8 See Mode. Prolation, and Time, In vols. ii. iii. and iv.
3 See Li8.ilUEE, vol. ii.



642



FRANCO.



serving to divide the phrases of a Melody, pre-
cisely after tlie manner of the Bar, or Double-Bar,
of modern Music, of which it is the evident
homologue.

It is interesting to observe — though we be-
lieve no one has hitherto called attention to the
fact — that the system of Notation here described
is precisely that employed in the Reading Rota,
' Sumer is icuraen in,' in which the Melody, in
Mode XIII. transposed, is phrased in Franco's
Fifth Mood, each Breve being Perfect when
followed b)'^ anotlier Breve, and Imperfect when
followed by a Semibreve ; and each phrase of
the Melody being separated from that which
follows it by a Finis Punctorum. Moreover,
the Reading Rota is written upon a Stave
precisely similar in principle to that employed
by Franco, who always uses the exact number
of lines and spaces needed to include the entire
range of bis vocal parts."^

The ' Compendium de Discantu,' second only
in interest to the 'Ars Cantus Mensurabilis,'
describes a form of Discant immeasurably supe-
rior to the Diaphonia taught, less than half a
century earlier, by Guido d'Arezzo, in his
Micrologus.^ Unhappily, in the Oxford MS. —
first described by Burney — the examples are
lamentably incomplete ; the Staves, in many
cases, being duly prepared for their reception,
while the notes themselves are wanting. Dr.
Burney, after long and patient study of the text,
was able to restore the following passage, in a
form which he believed to be 'nearly' complete.
1




Making every allowance for the jaunty modern
air communicated to this little composition by Dr.
Burney's employment of oi'dinary i8th century
Notation, it must be admitted, that, with the
sole exception of the Unison on the eighth note,
and the Hidden Octaves between the last
Crotchet in the Tenor and the last note but two
in the Bass, as indicated by the asterisks, the
rules of Strict Counterpoint, as practised in the
i6th century, are observed in the disposition of
every note, even to the formation of the Clau-
sula vera at the end. The apparently gross
Consecutive Octaves between the two last phrases
offer no exception to the rule ; since the inter-
position of the Finis Punctorum between them
invests the first note of the concluding phrase
with the importance of a new beginning. If,
therefore, the learned historian's penetration
should ever be justified by the discovery of a more
perfect copy of the MS., we shall be furnished
with a clear proof that Magister Franco was on

1 See the facsimile, in vol. iii. p. 2fi9.

2 See Gdido d'Akezzo, App. vol. Iv. p. 659. j



FRICKENHAUS.

the high road towards the discovery of Si
Counterpoint, in its present form. It is, howc
only fair to say that Kiesewetter disputes both
correctness of Burney's example, and the exist
of the rules upon which he bases it. [W.S,

FRASCHINI, Gaetano. Add that he
at Naples, May 24, 1887.

FREISCHUTZ, DER. Line 5 from end
article, for July 22 read July 23, and add th
it was given at Astley's Theatre, with a ni\
libretto by Oxenford, April 2, 1866. ,'

FRESCOBALDI. We may supplement I
notice of this artist in vol. i. p. 563 by givi
the results of more recent enquiries with regi
to his life. An article by F. X. Haberl
Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch fiir das Js
1S87 (Eegensburg) produces documentary e
dence which shows that Frescobaldi was bom
1583 (register of his baptism in cathedral
Ferrara, Sept. 9, 1583), and that he died Mar
2, 1644. Not Alessandio Milleville, as stat
in vol. i. (who died 1580), but Luzzasco Ll
zaschi ( 1 545-1 607) organist of Ferrai-aCathedp
was Frescobaldi's teacher. Already in 1608 '.
was appointed organist of St. Peter's, Ron
where he remained in the first instance till l6s
In that year, dissatisfied apparently with I
scanty pay at Rome, he sought leave of abseiK
and accepted an invitation to Florence £pt
Ferdinand II, Grand Duke of Tuscany, w
named him his organist. Social and politii
troubles in Tuscany obliged him to lea
Florence in 1633 ; and returning to Rome,
was re-installed in his former post as organ
of St. Peter's, which he continued to hold 1
1643. Haberl's article contains a careful bibl
graphy of all the known works of Frescobal
and invites subscriptions towards a new editi
of them. It may also be added that within 1
last year Messrs. Breitkopf & Hartel, Leipz
have published in their ' Alte Meister,' edit
by Ernst Pauer (Nos. 61-66) 12 Toccatas
Frescobaldi, presumably those of 1614, but
would be well if modern reprints always stal
the source whence they are derived. [J.R.J

FRETS. P. 5635, 1. iS, for Balaika re
Balalaika. Line 26 from bottom, add tl
although the third of a tone is almost a ch
matic semitone, it does not appear that eit)
Persian or Arab lutenists have used equal thi
of a tone. The Arabic (and Egyptian) divi.?
has been proved to be a succession of tli
intervals, smaller than an equal semitone, wli
are known as ' limmas, or ' commas.' Line
from bottom, fo7' half-tones read quarter- ton
and in the line helow,for diatonic read cli
matic. [A.J.]

FREZZOLINI, Eeminia. Add that she d
in Paris, Nov. 5, 1884.

FRICKENHAUS, Fanny, was born Junt
1S49, ^t Cheltenham. Her maiden name
Evans was abandoned on her marriage with ]
Augu.stus Frickenhaus. She received instr
tion in music from Mr. George Mount, aftj



FRICKENHAUS.

lis at Brussels from M. Auguste Dupoirt, and
• from Mr. William Bohrer. Her first im-
ant engagement was on Jan. ii, 1879, ^*
of the Satm-day Evening Concerts, where
played with such success that she was en-
id for the remainder of the series. She was
; heard at the London Ballad and Promenade
lerts. Since then she has played at all the
cipal London Concerts, viz. at the Philhar-
ic March 4, 1886; at the Crystal Palace,
re she first appeared Nov. 27, 1880, in Men-
sohn's ' Serenade and Allegro giojoso,' and
■re she has been since heard in concertos of
lart, Schiitt, and Dupont, the two last for the
time in England ; at Mr. Cowen's Concerts
r. 27, 1S80, where she played the Pianoforte
certo of Goetz for the first time in London ;
the Brinsmead Concerts Dec. 19, 18S6; in
Pi'ize Concerto of Oliver King, and at the
iular Concerts, where she first appeared Jan.
18S3, and has since played with success,
hnce 1884 Mme. Frickenhaus has given
ry year, in conjunction with Mr. Joseph
iwig, a series of chamber concerts at the
nce's Hall. They have introduced several
jortant novelties — Dvorak's ' Bagatellen ' for
QO and strings, June 11, i886 ; Steinbach's
tet for piano, strings, and wind, June 17,
56 ; a sonata for piano and violin by Oliver
ag; and on May 21, 1887, ^ work entitled
he Strolling Musicians,' for piano duet, violin
1 cello, by Arnold Krug. Brahms's second
no and violin sonata (op. 100) was announced
first performance in London at one of these
icerts, but it was actually played the day
"ore at one of Mr. Halle's recitals. The most
narkable characteristics of Mme. Frickenhaus'.s
|iying are her extraordinary perfection and ease
technique. [A.C.]

FEOHLICH. The following corrections and
ditions appear in the later editions : For
te of birth of No. i read Sept. 19, 1793.
ir date of birth of No. 2 reac? August 30, 1797,



GAFORL



643



and of No. 3, Dec. 12, 1803. Five lines lower,
f»r 1825 read 1821-22. At end of paragraph add
date of death, May 7, 1878. The date of birth of
No. 4 should be June 10, 1800, and that of her
death March 3, 1879.

FUPvSTENAU. Line 19 of article,/or brother
read father.

FULDA, Adam de, a Franconian Monk,
born about the year 1450, is chiefly celebrated
for a famous Tract on Music, written in 1490, and
printed by Gerbert von Hornan, in his ' Scrlptores
eccles. de Mus. Sacr.' vol. ii. p. 329. In this
work, Guilielmus Dufay is eulogised as the first
Composer who wrote in regular form ; and men-
tion is made of the fact that he overstepped the
r ut, and e e la, of Guido, by three degrees,
below and above. The Dodecachordon of Glare-
anus contains a Motet a 4, by Adam de Fulda,
of very advanced character for the period ; and
an 'Enchiridion,' published at Magdeburg,' in
1673, contains a Motet ' Ach hiilp my Leidt und
senlich Klag.' [W.S.R.]

FUMAGALLI, Adolfo, born Oct. 19, 1828,
at Inzago in the province of Milan, received in-
struction in music and the pianoforte from Ange-
lesi at the Conservatorio, Milan, and in 1848
made his d^but in that town as a pianist. He
made a great success afterwards as a brilliant
fantasia player at Turin, Paris, and Belgium,
and in 1854 returned to Italj. He died at
Florence May 3, 1856, quite suddenly, after a
three days' illness, having played at a concert
there on the 1st. His compositions include fan-
tasias on 'Puritani,' 'Lucia,* and 'Norma,'
capriccios and other light drawing-room pieces,
among which 'Les Clochettes,' op. 21, was popu-
lar at the time. His brothers, Disma, Polibio,
and LuCA were also pianists : of these the best
known is Luca, born May 29, 1837. 1^ i860 he
played in Paris. In 1875 an opera of his,
' Luigi XL,' was produced at the Pergola,
Florence. [A.C.]



G.



■^ ADE, N. W. Line 3 of article, foT Oct.
T read Feb. To his compositions must be
added the following : — An eighth sym-
lony in B minor, op. 47 ; ' Novelletten ' for or-
estra, op. 53 ; two concertos for violin and
shestra ; ' Psyche,' a cantata produced at the
rmingham Festival of 1882, op. 60; and a
nata for violin and piano, in B b, op. 62.

GADSBY, Henry. Line 3 of article, omit
e words at the same time with Dr. Stainer.
> the list of his works add the cantata ' The
)rd of the Isles,' produced at Brighton, Feb.
, 1879; and 'Columbus,' a cantata for male
ices.

GAFORI. The following is a short list of



the various editions of the valuable works of
this writer : —

A. ' Theoricum opus musicae discipline.' Franciscus
de Dine: Naples, 1480. 4to. 115 leaves.

Gerbei" aud Becker quote another work, 'De Effecti-
bus . . . Musicae,' as published in this year. The mistake
arose from the title of the first chapter being taken aa
that of the whole work.

B. 'Theorica Musice.' Philippus Mantegatius : Milan,
1492. fol. 64 leaves.

The 2nd edition of A.

C. ' Practica Musice.' Guillermus Signerre : Jlilan,
1406. fol. Ill leaves.

Becker states that an Italian tr.inslation of this
work was published by Gotardus de Ponte in 1500, but
no copy is known. It is probably a mistake arising from
a confusion with H, which is written in Italian.

D. 'Musice utriusque Cantus practica.' Angelus Bri-
tannicus : Brescia, 1497. fol. Ill leaves.

The 2nd edition of C.



644



GAFOEI.



E. 'Practica Musicse ntriusque Cantus.' Bemadinus
Misinta de Papia : Brescia, 15U2. fol. Ill leaves.

The 3rd edition of C.

F. 'Practica Musicse ntriusque Cantus.' Aujfustinus
de Zannis de Portesio : Yenice, 1512. fol. S2 leaves.

The 4th edition of C.

[G. ' Practica MusicsB,' etc. Venice, If 22. fol.]
Mentioned in Brunet's Manuel as the 5th edition
of C, but otherwise unknown.

H. 'AngeUcum ac divinum Opus Musice.' Gotar-
dus de Ponte : MUan, 1508. fol. iS leaves.

Brunet states that an edition of this appeared in
1500, but no copy was known to Petis, nor has been
discovered since, so Brunet's statement is probably a
mistake.

I. ' De Harmonia Musicorum Instmmentormn.' Go-
tardus Pontanus : Milan, 1518, fol. 106 leaves.

Draudius, followed by Walther, Gerber, and Becker,
mentions a work called ' Practica Musica ' as published
in 1518 : but Fetis points out that this arises from a
misdescription of I.

K. ' Apologia Franchini Gafuri . . . adversus Joannem
Spatarium.' A. de Vicomercato : Turin, 1520. 10 leaves.

Copies of all these editions (with the excep-
tion of G, the existence of which is doubtful)
are to be found in the British Museum. Copies
of B, C, F, H and I are in Anderson's College,
Glasgow, and of C and I in the Eoyal College of
Music. [W.B.S.]

GALILEI, ViNCENZO. Among the little
group of philosophic dilettanti who were ac-
customed to meet in the Palace of Giovanni
Bardi at Florence, during the closing years of
the i6th century, no figure stands forth with
greater prominence than that of Vincenzo Ga-
lilei, the father of Galileo Galilei, the great
Astronomer. This enthusiastic apostle of artis-
tic progress — or retrogression ? — was born, at
Florence, circa 1535 ; and, after studying Llusic,
at Venice, under Zarlino, attained, in later life,
considerable reputation as a Lutenist. We shall,
however, do him no injustice if we describe him
as a literary savant of high general culture, but
a very imperfectly-educated Musician.

When the great question of the resuscitation
of the Classical Drama, on the principles adopted
by the Greek Tragedians, was debated at the
Palazzo Bardi, Galilei took an active part in
the discussion ; * and, according to Giov. Batt.
Doni, was the first who composed Melodies for
a single voice — i. e. after the manner of the then
nascent Monodic School. His first attempt was
a Cantata, entitled 'II Conte Ugolino,' which
he himself sang, very sweetly, to the accompani-
ment of a Viol. This essay pleased very much,
though some laughed at it — notwithstanding
which, Galilei followed it up by setting a portion
of the Lamentations of Jeremiah, in the same
style. Quadrio also speaks of his Intermezzi;
but no trace of these, or of the Monodic Can-
tata, can now be discovered.

Vincenzo Galilei's writings on subjects con-
nected with Art are, however, of great interest.
One of these — a Dialogue, entitled ' II Fron-
imo' (Venice, 1583) — is especially valuable,
as throwing considerable light on the form of
Tablature employed by the Italian Lutenists,
and their method of tuning the instrument, in
the latter half of the i6th century. Another
important work, entitled ' Discorao intorno alle

1 See vol. il. p: 498.



GALLI-MARlfi.

opera di messer Gioseffe Zarlino di Cliiogj •;
(Florence, 1581) was produced by some rems ^
made by Zarlino, in his ' Istitutioni armonic ',
(Venice, 1558), and ' Dimostrationi armonic ;
(Venice, 157 1). concerning the Syntonous I
tonic Scale of Claudius Ptolomy, which he ]
ferred to all other Sections of the Canon, i
which Galilei rejected, in favour of the Pyt
gorean immutable system. It is impossible
believe that Galilei ever really tuned his 1
on the Pythagorean system, which was equi
incompatible with the character of the insl
ment and the characteristics of the Monc
School. Moreover, Zarlino himself prefer
that the lute should be tuned with twe
equal semitones to the octave. But Gali
whose prejudices were strong enough to overthi
his reason, followed up this attack by anotl
entitled ' Dialogo della musica e della anticai
derna' (Florence, 1589), and a second editior
the same, bearing the additional words 'ini
difFesa contro Josefib Zerlino' (Florence, i6c
In these works, he argues the subject with gr
acrimony : but, the Scale advocated by Zarl
represents the only form of Just Intonation n
adopted by any European theorist ; and
Scale he advocated for the lute is the only 1
now used for the pianoforte, the organ, and U
pered instruments of every kind. The ' Dialo|
contains, however, much interesting matter, 1
very slightly connected with the controve
with Zarlino ; for instance, the text and musi
notation of the three apocryphal Greek Hym
to Apollo, Calliope, and Nemesis, which hj
since given rise to so much speculation, and
many contradictory theories.

Vincenzo Galilei died at Florence towa
the close of the i6th century, or beginning
the 17th. [W.S.:

GALIN. See CHEtr^ in App. vol. iv. p. 5J
GALLIAED, John Eknest. After line
of article, add that in 1713 he was playing
the orchestra at the opera, having a solo part
the accompaniment of the last air in the first
of Handel's ' Teseo.' P. 579 a, 1. 3, after vie
insert violoncello.

G ALLI-MAEIlfe, Celestine, bomNov.i84C
Paris, was taught singing by her father, M^cJ
Marie de I'lsle, foi-merly a singer at the Pa
Opera imder the name Mari6. In 1859 t
made her debut at Strasburg, and next sang
Italian at Lisbon. About this time she marr:
a sculptor named Galli, who died soon after
1S61. In April 1862, on the production
France of the 'Bohemian Girl,' she attract
the attention of the late fimile Perrin byl
performance of the Gipsy Queen, and obtair
from him an engagement at the Opera Comiqi
of which he was then director. Here she ma
her ddbut Aug. 12 in 'La Serva Padrona,' :
vived for the first time for a himdred yea
She made a great success in this, and in a revii
of Grisar's ' Les Amours du Diable' (186
since which time she has remained at tl
theatre to the present time, with the excepti



GALLI-MAKlfi.

agements in the provinces, in Italy, Bel-
and elsewhere. Among the operas in which
IS appeared may be named : — ^larch 24,
'Lara' (Maillart); Dec. 29, 1864, ' Capi-
Henriot ' (Gevaert) ; Feb. 5, Masse's ' Fior
a,' and Nov. 17, 1866, 'Mignon'; Nov. 23,
Robinson Crusoe,' and Jan. 18, 1872, 'Fan-
(OfFenbach) ; April 24, 1872, Paladilhe's
int,' at Chollet's farewell benefit ; Nov. 30,
Massenet's 'Don Cesar'; March 3, 1875,
len ' ; April 11,1876, Guiraud's ' Piccolino ' ;
1, 1877, Poise's ' Surprise de 1' Amour,' etc.,
revivals of Herold's ' Marie,' Grisar's
Porcherons,' ' Mireille,' singing the parts of
and Andrelun, and as the heroine Rose
at in MaiUart's ' Dragons de Villars.' As
jn and Carmen she has earned for herself
•wide celebrity. In 18S6 she played with
Qch company for a few nights at Her Ma-
3 Theatre as Cannen, in which she made
5but Nov. 8, and as the Gipsy in 'Rigoletto.'
^as well received, but would doubtless have
ired to greater advantage with the support
)etter company.

.me. Galli-Mari(^ should take rank with those
irous artists who, although endowed only
no great voice, have for a century past
Ted to this theatre services made remark-
by their talent for acting and their incon-
ble worth from a dramatic point of view,
qually capable of exciting laughter or of
jking tears, endowed with an artistic tem-
nent of great originality . . . which has per-
d of her making out of parts confided to
distinct types ... in which she has repre-
)d personages whose nature and charac-
tics are essentially opposed one to the
' (Pougin). [A.C.]

A.LUPPI. Correct date of birth to Oct, 6,
that of death to Jan. 3, 1784.

AlNZ. CoiTect date of birth of Moritz Ganz
3pt 13, 1806, and add date of death, Jan. 22,
Correct date of biith of Leopold Ganz to
28, 1810. At end of article add that
Jam (more correctly Wilhelm) Ganz was Con-
or of the New Philharmonic Concerts during
last season of 1879, after which they were
ied on till June 17, 1882, as 'Ganz's Or-
tral Concerts.'

ARCIN, Jules Auguste (real name Salo-
), violinist and conductor, born at Bourges,
'II, 1830. Hecame of a family of artists, and
cousin to the famous actress Rose Ch^i'i, their
emal grandfather, Joseph Garcin, being direc-
)f a travelling company which performed opera
ique in the central and southern provinces of
Qce for nearly twenty years with great success.
j}he age of thirteen Garcin entered the Paris
jservatoire, where he studied the violin under
vel and AJard ; he gained the first prize in
,3, and in 1856 became a member of the opera
lestra, and after a cotnj.etitive examination
i appointed (1871) first solo violin and third
ductor. In 1878 he was also appointed second
ductor at the concerts of the Universal Ex-
OL. IV. PT. 6.



GARLANDIA.



645



hibition. Since i860 he has been a member of
the orchestra of the Concerts du Conservatoire,
first as solo violin, and then as second conductor
in place of Altfes (1881), who had become first
conductor at the opera at the end of 1S79. At
that time the first conductor of the Society des
Concerts was Deldevez, who had replaced Hainl
in 1872, not after his death in 1873. [SeeHAlNL,
Deldevez, Coxceet Spieituel, in vol. i. and
Altes, vol. iv. p. 521 &.] In 18S5, Deldevez
having retired on account of his health, Garcin
was elected conductor of the Soci^te des Concerts
with a majority of 26 votes over Guiraud.

Garcin, who was a pupil of Bazin for harmony,
and of Adam and Ambroise Thomas for com-
position, has written a number of works for
violin and orchestra or piano, the most prominent
of which is a concerto played by himself at the
Conservatoire, and at the Concerts Populaires
in 1 868, and by Maurin at the Concerts Popu-
laires in 1878. M. Garcin is an experienced and
conscientious artist, without the exaggerated
gestures and manner which too often deceive
the public. [A.J.]

GARDONI, Italo. Add date of death, March
30, 1882.

GARLANDIA, Johannes de. The works
on music which appeared under this name were
formerly ascribed to a Gerlandus who, owing to
some confusion of dates, was said to have flour-
ished in 1041, but who was afterwards identified
with the mathematician Gerlandus, canon of the
abbey of St. Paul at Besan9on in the middle of
the 1 2th century. It appears, however, more
probable that the writer on music, Johannes de
Garlandia, was identical with the grammarian
and poet of that name who flourished nearly a
century later. Of the life of this latter we
gather several particulars from his great work
'De triumphis Ecclesise' (finished in 1252), of
which the British Museum possesses an almost
contemporary copy (Claudius A. X.), which has
been printed by Mr. Thomas Wright. Bom in
England late in the 12th century, Johannes de
Garlandia studied first at Oxford, and afterwards
at Paris. Here he opened a school in the Clos
de Garlande, since known as the Rue Gallande,
from which he is supposed to have derived his
name de Garlandia, or, as one early writer spells
it, de Gallandia. It was probably about this
time that he wrote his treatise on music. In
1 2 18 we find him present at the siege of Tou-
louse, apparently himself taking part in the
crusade against the Albigenses. It was to this
place also that he was invited in 1229 to assist
in the formation of the newly-founded Univer-
sity ; and here he remained till 1232, when he
and his colleagues were forced to leave owing to
the persecution to which they were subjected at
the hands of tlie Dominicans and others. They
escaped after many dangers to Paris, where John
de Garlandia was still residing in 1245. Here
no doubt were written most of his poems on
historical and theological subjects, and his gram-
matical treatises. The titles of his musical works

Uu



648



GARLANDIA.



wliich have come down to us are two frasrments,
' De fistulis' and 'De nolis,' printed by Gerbert
from a MS. at Vienna ; — ' De musica mensurabili
positio,' of which there are MSS. at Paris and
Home; in this work the author figures as a
composer, giving, among many other examples of
his own, one in double counterpoint; — a trea-
tise, 'De cantu piano,' to which he himself refers
in the last-mentioned work ; this may be the
'Introductio musice plane et etiam mensura-



Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 152 of 194)