George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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bilis' in the St. Di«^ MS.— Philip de Vitry refers
to other works by de Garlandia, of whom he
writes as 'quondam in studio Parisino exper-
tissimum atque prohatissimum.' The ' Optima
introductio in contrapunctum pro rudibus,' con-
tained in MSS. at Pisa and Einsiedeln, should
perhaps be assigned to a Johannes de Garlandia
of a rather later date ; or, if the work of the
same man, must have been written by him when
at an advanced age. Tiie same may be said of the
extracts quoted by Handlo and Hanboys. Most of
the above works are printed by de Goussemaker.
A John de Garlandia is mentioned by Roger
Bacon as eminent at Paris apparently shortly
before 1267. [A.H.-H.'j

GARRETT, De. Geoege Mursell, was born
at Winchester in June 1834. I^ 1844110 entered
the choir of New College, Oxford, where he
studied under Dr. S. Elvey until 1S48. He then
returned to Winchester and studied for six years
with Dr. S. S. Wesley, to whom he acted for
some time as assistant. In 1854 he accepted the
post of organist at the cathedral of Madras, but
returned to England in 1857 '^^ ^^^ appointment
as organist at St. John's College, Cambridge, in
which town he has since resided. Dr. Garrett
took the degree of Mus. B. in 1S57, and that
of Mus. D. in 1867. In May 1S75 he suc-
ceeded Mr. J. L. Hopkins as organist to the
University. In Nov. 1S78, by grace of the
senate, he received the degree of M.A. propter
merita, a distinction which had never been pre-
viously conferred on a musician who did not fill a
professorial chair. Dr. Garrett is also an ex-
aminer for the University, the Local Examina-
tions, and the Irish Intermediate Education
Board ; an Honorary Fellow of Trinity College,
London; and a member of the Philharmonic
Society. His compositions include a sacred can-
tata, ' The Shunammite ' (performed by the Cam-
bridge University Musical Society in 1SS2 and
at the Hereford Festival in the same year),
church music, songs, part-songs, and a few
pieces for the organ ; but it is chiefly as a com-
poser of services that he has won a well-deserved
reputation. [W.B.S.]

GASPARINI (or GUASPARINI), Fran-
cesco. Correct date of birth to March 5, 166S,
and add that it took place at Camaiore. Line 7
of article, /or 1725 read 1735 ; and in line 13,
for 1727 read 1737. These dates are given by
Certi in his ' Cenni storici dell' insegnamento
della musica in Lucca.'

GATES, Bernard. Line 10 of article, for
aged 88, read in his 88th year.



GERSTER.

GAVINlfes, Pierre. The correct place
date of birtli are probably Bordeaux and ]
26, 1726. (Paloschi.) Add that he directed
Concert Spirituel from 1773 to 1777, and ii
day of death, Sept. 9.

GAYARRlfc, Julian, bom at Pampel
first attracted attention at St. Petersburg, Vie
Rome, where he appeared in Libani's 'O
Verde, 'April 5,1873, and Milan, where he pli
Enzo on production of Ponchielli's 'Giocoi
Aprils, 1876. In 1877-81 he was engaged at
Royal Italian Opera, where he made his di
April 7. 1877, as Gennaro, and proved hin
a very serviceable tenor, though he did not i
the hopes entertained of him as Mario's succei
He played with success in the 'Huguenots,' ''
phfete,' ' Lohengrin,' ' Tannhauser,' ' Der I
schiitz,' 'Rigoletto,' 'Lucia,' etc. Since thenh(
sung abroad with great success, notably at I
1884-S6, both in the Italian and French oj
He re-appeared at Covent Garden in 1886
again in 1887, when he appeared in Glin
' Vie pour le Czar ' on July 12. \_A

GEBAUER, F. X. Omit the referenc
Spirituel Concerte.

GEMINIANI, F. Page 587b, 1. 20 1
bottom, for in 1761 read on Sent. 24, l
(' Gent. Mag.'). P. 588 a, line 8, add to tif
book, op. 9. Line 3 from end of article, \
London add date, 1743.

GERN, August, was foreman to Cavaill^
of Paris, and came over to London to erect
organ built by the latter for the Carm
Church at Kensington. Having set up or
own account in London in 1866, he has bui
organ for the French Church near Leici
Square, besides many excellent instrument:
churches and private houses. [V. d

GERNSHEIM, Feiedbich. Add to li
works a symphony in G minor, and a cai
' Salamis,' op. 13, which has recently been
lished by Novello & Co. with English words

GERSTER, Etelka, bom 1856 at Kasc
Hungary, received instruction in singing
Mme. Marchesi at Vienna, and made her c
Jan. 8, 1876, at Venice as Gilda, with j
success, and as Ophelia. She played ne; ;
Genoa and Marseilles, and in March 18; i
ElroU's Theatre, Berlin, with her sister, I
Bertha Gerster-Kauser, at an Italian S(
there under the direction of Signor I
Gardini, to whom she was married in the i
following. She made a great success t '
and subsequently at Pesth, and at the Sil
Festival at Breslau. On June 23 of the same
she made her d^but at Her Majesty's as Ai
and became an immediate favourite, rei
ing there for four seasons until 1880 inch
Her parts there included the Queen of ZS t
Elvira (' Puritani '), Linda, Dinorah, I i
Edith (' Talismano '), Margaret, Violetta. !
Gilda. A propos of the last, the ' Sati
Review' of June 29, 1878, wrote that slv
•given a fresh proof of her extraordinary



GERSTER.

i dramatic genius. The exquisite beauty of
singing has never been shown to greater
•antage, and her acting at every moment re-
,1s true art and feeling. Among fine touches
Mme. Gerster's dramatic performance, we
,y specially note her wrapping her head in
leak before she rushes in at the fatal door in
last scene, that she may at least not see the
cending knife.'

n the autumn of 1878 she went to America,
I obtained her usual success both in opera and
certs. Eetuming to England she sang with
cess at the Birmingham Festival of 1879.
J went back to America in the following year,
jing there frequently until 1883. A concert
r in the States was begun in Nov. 1S87. [A.C.]
iIBBONS, Christopher. Page 595 a, for
I from bottom read In 1638 he succeeded
omas Holmes as. Line 5 from bottom, after
bey, add He resigned his Winchester appoint-
at June 23, 1661, and was succeeded by John
ver. After him came Randal Jewett, who
d the post from 1667 to 1675.
GIBBONS, Orlando. Vol. i. p. 594 5, 1. 6
m bottom, for smallpox read apoplexy. A
it-mortem was held on him, the report of
ich is preserved in the Record Office, and was
nted in the 'Athenaeum,' Nov. 14, 1885. He
8 buried on June 6. Mr. Cummings (' Musical
;iety,' April, 1886) says he took the Mus.B.
gree at Cambridge in 1606. P. 595 a, 1. 24,
1 that the portrait referred to is a copy from
3st original once in the possession of a Mrs.
ssell. [W.B.S.]

JIGELIEA. See Stbohfiedel.
jILMORE, Patrick Saesfield, a popular
idmaster in the United States, was born
c. 25, 1829, near Dublin. While a young
n he went to Canada with an English band
which he was a member, and soon after
at across into the United States and settled
Salem, Massachusetts, where he was ap-
nted leader of a military band. In 1859
[more went to Boston and organized a band,
lied after himself, which became distin-
ished for its fine playing, the result of his
ining. During the Civil War Gilmore was a
idmaster in the Federal Army stationed at
iW Orleans, where, in 1864, he gave a festival
ih a monster orchestra made up from the
ny bands, and startled the audience with some
irelties, one of which was the firing of guns by
ctiicity, making the report come on the first
it of the bar, as though they were great
ims. This effect was reserved for the per-
mances of patriotic music. Gilmore's widest
lutation, not confined to the United States,
s earned by his success in organizing the
a inmiense music festivals in Boston — one
1869, known as the National Peace Jubilee,
th an orchestra of 1000 and a chorus of 10,000 ;
; other in 1872, called the World's Peace
bilee, with 2000 players in the band and
000 choristers. On each occasion a powerful
;an, chimes of bells, anvils and artillery were



GIOVANNINI.



647



added to the orchestral resources, and an im-
mense shed was built for the concert-room.
Shortly after the second jubilee Gilmore went to
New York and took charge of a large military
band, with which he has travelled over the
United States and even about Europe (1878) on
concert tours. He has also had charge of large
bands at concert gardens in New York and at
summer resorts on the neighbouring coast. His
compositions of military and dance music, as well
as his arrangement of works of different kinds
for open air performance, have enjoyed a wide
popularity. [F.H.J.]

G 10 RD ANI. Line 5 of article, /on 7 6 2 read
1753; t^ey came to London with the singer
Lini. Line 16, for Baccio read Bacio. Line 31,
for Tomasso read Tommaso. Line 35, for Leoni
read Lini.

GIOVANNINI, a name interesting in musical
history solely on account of the part it plays in
the discussion concerning the song ' WiUst du
dein Herz mir schenken,' which for many years
was attributed to Sebastian Bach. The song
appears in the larger of the two music books
of Anna Magdalena Bach, written on two leaves
now loose, but evidently once belonging to the
volume, in which they occur after p. iii. The
outer page of the first leaf bears the title * Aria
di Govanuini ' {sic) the song itself appearing on
the two interior pages. Asa copy of the song
' Schlummert ein, ihr matten Augen ' is written
on the outer page of the second leaf, it has been
considered that the contents of these pages were
contemporary vdth the rest of the book, and
Zelter, into whose hands the volume came from
C. P. E. Bach, hazarded the conjecture that the
song was by Bach himself, that the Italian name
was the equivalent of the composer's first name,
and that the copy was made partly by Anna
Magdalena herself. Zelter's theory became fixed
in the public mind as a certainty, since a play
by Ernst Leistner and a novel by A. E. Brach-
vogel made the composition of the song an
incident in the love-story of Bach ; and even at
the present day the question can hardly be
taken as settled, Forkel refused from the first
to believe in its authenticity, judging it from
internal evidence, but Dr. W. Rust has adopted
Zelter's theory, and has even gone so far as to
assert that some of the bass notes are in the
composer's autograph. (Bach-Gesellschaft, vol.
XX. I. p. 15.) More recently, however, strong
evidence has been brought which may be taken
as proving the song to be the composition of an
actual Giovannini, whose name appears in Ger-
ber's Lexicon as that of an Italian violinist and
coQiposer who lived chiefly in Berlin from 1740
until his death in 1782. In the same writer's
' Neues Lexicon' (1812-1814) ^^^ additional in-
formation is given that about 1745 he went to
London, and produced, under the pseudonym of
the Count of St. Germaine, a pasticcio entitled
'L'Incostanza delusa' in which the airs were
much admired. He also published some violin
solos under the same name. Dr. Spitta, in his

Uu2



* Copyright 1889 by F. H. Jeots.



648



GIOVANNINI.



excellent resume of the question (J. S. Bacli,
vol. iii. p. 66i, etc., English edition), tells us
further that songs by Giovannini are included
in Graefe's Odensammlung (1741 and 1743) two
of which were since published in Lindner's
<Geschichte des deutschen Liedes,' etc. (1871).
These are said to show a strong resemblance to
the style of ' Willst dix dein Heiz niir schenken,'
and there seems no longer any reasonable doubt
that this Giovannini is the real composer. _ The
external evidence quite admits the possibility of
this, as the book may very probably have come
into other hands after the death of Anna Mag-
dalena Bach, and so competent a critic as Dr.
Spitta sees no reason to endorse Dr. Rust's
opinion that some of the notes are in Each's
handwriting; while from internal evidence it
might well be thought that no musician who had
even a slight acquaintance with Bach's work
could ever suspect it to be by him. [M.]

GIUGLINI, Antonio. Add place and date
of birth, Fano, 1827. (Paloschi.)

GLADSTONE, De. Feancis Edwaed, was
born at Summertown, near Oxford, March 2,1845.
When 14 he was articled to Dr. S. S. Wesley ,with
whom he remained at Winchester for five years.
After being organist for two years at Holy Trinity
Church, Weston-super-Mare, in 1866 he obtained
the post of organist at Llandaff Cathedral. In
March 1870 Mr. Gladstone was appointed organ-
ist at Chichester Cathedral, but three years later
he moved to Brighton, where he remained until
1876, when after a short residence in London he
accepted the post of organist at Norwich Cathe-
dral, which he resigned in iSSi. Dr. Gladstone
then became organist to Christ Church, Lan-
caster Gate, London, a post which ill health
compelled him to resign in 1SS6. He took the
degree of Mus.B. Cautab. in 1876, and shortly
after was made an Honorary INIember of the
Royal Academy of Music. He took the degree
of Mus. D. in 1879, and is also a Fellow of the
College of Organists, a Member of the Board of
Musical Studies at Cambridge, and a teacher of
organ, etc., at the Royal College of Music. Having
been lately received into the Roman Catholic
Church, he has been recently appointed director
of the choir at St. Mary of the Angels, Bays water.
Dr. Gladstone, who is one of the first of living
English organists, has composed much music for
his instrument, besides services, anthems, songs, a
chorus (with orchestral accompaniment), 'A wet
sheet and a flowing sea,' an overture (MS.), a
piano trio (MS."*, and two sacred cantatas —
' Nicodemus' and ' Philippi, or, the Acts of Paul
and Silas in Macedonia,' — the latter of which
was written for the North-Eastern Choirs As-
sociation, and produced at Newcastle in July
1S83. A cantata, 'Constance of Calais,' per-
formed by the Highbury Philharmonic Society,
a mass in E minor (MS.), written for the Bromp-
ton Oratory, and a short mass in E b, are among
Dr. Gladstone's most recent works. [W.B.S.]

GLINKA, Michael Ivanovitch. Line i of
article, /or 1803 read May 20, 1804; 1. 2, for



GLOVER.

Feb. 15 read Feb. 2. Add that 'La Vie po
leCzar' was produced at Covent Garden
Italian, July 12, 1887.

GLOCKENSPIEL, a name applied to ai
instrument by means of which a series of Im
can be struck by a single performer, and 1
effect of a chime be produced with little trouB
In Germany the term includes both the smal
kinds of Cabillons, and a stop on the oij
which brings a set of small bells into connect!
with the keyboard. The istromento d'acciq
which appears in the score of the ' Zauberfl(i|
is such a set or frame of bells played by laM
of a keyboard, and represents in the orche»
the Glockenspiel played by Papageno on i
stage. The instrument used in German milita
bands is composed of inverted metal cups 1
ranged pyramidally on a support that can
held in the hand. It is somewhat similar
shape to the ' Turkish crescent' formerly used
the British army. (See vol. ii. p. 20 b). It
this form of the instrument which has be
introduced by Wagner into the orchestra ;
effective employment in the 'Feuerzauber'
' Die Walkiire ' is a familiar instance of
occurrence. The peal of four large bells, O
for the performance of Sir Arthur SuUiva
' Golden Legend ' is arranged for convenience
a somewhat similar fonn, [J/

GLOVER, Stephen, teacher and compos
was born in 1812 in London. From the y«
1840 to nearly 1870 his facile pen produc
sacred and sentimental songs, ballads, duets a
pianoforte pieces, resulting in a record of soi
twelve to fifteen hundred separate compositio:
many of them published. ' The Dream is pa!
dates probably from 1837 ; ' The Gipsy's Ter
' Echo's Song,' and ' The Merry Mill,' 184
' The Monks of old,' 1842 ; ' The Gipsy Counte
belongs to about the same period ; ' I love t
merry sunshine,' 1847; 'What are the w
waves saying?' duet, 1850; 'The Blind Girl
her Harp,' 1854 ; ' The Good-bye at the doc
1856; 'The Music of the Birds' (one of J
many duets for two ladies' voices), 1863 ; ' Beai
and the Beast,' chamber opera, 1868. !>
popular but more favourable examples of
talent are perhaps contained in a collection
(12)' Songs from the Holy Scriptures,' publisl
by Jefferys; and his setting _ of Longfello^
' Excelsior' is not without merit.

Stephen Glover, who was never very robr
retired in early life to the country ; but
death took place in London (Bayswater), wl
he was 58, on Dec. 7, 1S70.

His music received that mere drawing-roi
popularity which proclaimed it worthless as
presentative of genuine national song on the (
hand, and as the effort of a pioneer of culture
the other. His success in the narrow field
his labours was enormous, and has probably i
been equalled, in the publishers' sense, by s
composer of the present day, although the presi
day also is not without its musicians who reg;
the expediency of the moment as tlieir natu



I



GLOVER.



GODAED.



649



It IS due to Stephen Glover to say,
e considering his works in this connection,

little evidence of power to do better things
ars therein. An agreeable feature in this
r writer is the healthiness and cheerful spirit
IS music. Sunshine, moonshine, and twilight
it especially sunshine — fairies, flowers, gip-

and fishermen were the subjects Stephen
^er loved to treat ; in conventional method

with supei-ficial characterization, but cor-
y in the details of the simple forms and
aonies he affected.

ach colourless music obtained the favour of
y English amateurs of the time. That the
J class of performers forty years afterwards
Id neglect it entirely and demand a coarser,
srer type of commonplace, serves to remind

musician that the modern drawing-room
■, with its pent-up agony and morbid hues,
ere long be overtaken by its inevitable mor-
y. [L.M.M.]

NECCO, Fbancesco, according to E^tis,
bom in 1769 at Genoa, became a pupil of
iani, musical director of the Sistine Chapel
of the Cathedral of Savona, and died in 1810
rlilan. According to Regli and Paloschi,
3C0 was bom in 1 780, was a pupil of Cima-
, and died in iSii at Turin. Gnecco com-
d several operas, both serious and comic,
hich two only, we believe, have ever been
>rmed out of Italy, viz. 'Carolina e Ei-
re,' 1798, at the Italian Opera in the Salle
irt, Paris, Oct. 11, 1817 (C'astil Blaze), and
Prova d'un opera seria,' opera buffa in 2
libretto by the composer, produced at Milan
i, and at the Salle Louvois, Paris, Sept. 4,
>, with Signora Canavassi and Barilli. This
opera was a great success, and enjoyed con-
:able popularity. It was thrice revived in
s, viz. in 1810, in 1831 with Malibran and
lache; on Oct. 28, of the same year, with
;a; and on Nov. 20 it was played mth the
act of ' Tancredi ' on the occasion of Mali-
I's last appearance in Paris. In 1834 it was
ced to one act. ' La Prova ' was produced
3 23, 1 831, at the King's Theatre, with
a, Curioni, Lablache, and, thanks to the
named singer, became popular. It was re-
d in one act July 3, 1854, with Lablache,
•dot-Garcia, Stigelli, and Eonconi, and was
produced on June 18 and 19, i860, at Her
esty's, for Ciampi, since which it has dis-
iared from the stage. A duet from it, ' Oh
date che figura,' was highly popular in
concert-room when sung by Viardot and
burini, and on one occasion the former
e it a vehicle for imitation of the latter's
nerisms, which the gentleman by no means
in good part. (' Musical EecoUections,' Eev.
• Cox.) [A.C]

3DARD, Benjamin Louis Paul, bom in
3. Aug. 18, 1849, first studied the violin
sr Richard Hammer, and entered the Con-
itoire in 1863, where he studied harmony
!r Reber : he competed twice for the Prix



de Rome, but without success. He then left
the institution and joined several societies for
chamber music, in the capacity of viola-player,
at the same time devoting himself to composition
with an ardour and a fertility which time has
only served to increase. He wrote numerous
songs, of which several are most charming, a
number of pieces for piano, some very pretty ;
he also orchestrated with much delicacy Schu-
mann's ' Kinderscenen ' (produced in this form
at the Concerts du Chatelet in 1876), for at
the beginning of his career he seemed to be
specially inspired by this master both in the
concentrated expression of his songs and in the
elegant forms of his piano pieces. He next
produced more fully developed compositions:
two violin concertos, the second of which, entitled
Concerto Romantique, was played at the Concerts
Populaires by Mile. M. Tayau in 1876, and
repeated several times both by her and M. Paul
Viardot ; a trio for piano and strings ; a string
quartet and a piano concerto played by G. Lewita
at the Concerts Populaires in 1878. In this
year Benjamin Godard, bracketed with Th.
IDubois, carried off the prize at the musical com-
petition instituted by the municipality of Paris,
and his prize composition ' Tasso ' was performed
with much success at the Concerts du Cliitelet
(Dec. 18, 22, and 29, 1878). This dramatic
symphony, written on a poem by Grandmougin,
both the words and music of which are inspired
by the ' Damnation de Faust,'stillremains G odard's
chief work, and that upon which his growing
reputation is most firmly founded. The com-
poser here shows a real talent and a rare instinct
for orchestration, though at times his rhythms
are apt to become too bizarre and his employ-
ment of excessive sonority too frequent. He
also possesses unusual feeling for the pictur-
esque in music, and is able at will to strike
the poetic note and to impart a vigorous dramatic
accent. With all this we have to notice an
inconsistent mixture of Italian forms and of
totally opposite styles, which proves that the
composer has not set before himself an ideal
resulting from serious reflection. There is also
a tendency to employ far too freely the whole
strength of the orchestra, and an unfortunate
habit of contenting himself with the first idea
that occurs to him without duly considering it in
order to enrich it in orchestration ; andlastly — and
this is the composer's chief fault — a too rapid pro-
ductiveness and a too great leniency in judging
his own works. Since the exaggerated success
of this very interesting and promising work, M.
Godard, intoxicated by praise, has only produced
compositions the good qualities of which have
often been obscured by too hasty workmanship.
The most important are 'Scfenes Po^tiques' (Con-
certs du Chatelet, Nov. 30, 1879); ^ symphony
(do. Dec. 26, 18S0); 'Diane, pofeme dramatique'
(Concerts Populaires, April 4, 1880); 'Sym-
phonie-ballet ' (do. Jan. 15, 1882); ' Ouverture
dramatique' (do. Jan. 21, 1883); ' Symphonie
Gothique ' of no interest (do. Nov. ii, 1883);
' Symphonie Orientale,' five descriptive pieces on



^50



GODAHD.



poems by Leconte de Lisle, Aug. de Chatillon, '
Victor Hugo, and Godard (for he is himself a poet
at times), the most remarkable of which is the
piece called ' Les Elephants,' cleverly contrived to
give the effect of ponderous weight (do. Feb. 24,
1884); and lastly a 'Symphonic L^gendaire,'
written partly for orchestra alone, partly for solo
vocalists, and partly for chorus and orchestra.
The libretto is by various poets, of whom Godard
is one, and forms on the whole a somewhat
heterogeneous production, embracing all kinds of
fantastic paraphernalia, through which the com-
poser can revel in descriptive music to his heart's
content (Concerts du Chatelet, Dec. 19, 1886).
After the retirement of Pasdeloup, who was a
firm admirer of Godard's works, and generally al-
lowed him to conduct them himself, the latter
formed the idea of reviving the Concerts Popu-
laires under the name of Concerts Modernes,
but the undertaking proved impracticable, lasting
with great difficulty till the end of its first season
(OctiS85-Aprili8S6). On Jan. 31,1884, Godard,
who has not succeeded in producing any work on
the French stage, brought out at Antwerp a
grand opera, ' Pedro de Zalamea,' written on a
libretto by Silvestre and De'troyat, but without
success. Some selections from it, performed at
concerts in Paris, had no better fate. He has
lately written three orchestral incidental pieces
for ' Much Ado about Nothing,' produced at
the Odeon, Dec. 8, 1887. On Feb. 25, 1888, his
opera ' Jocelyn ' was produced at Brussels with
moderate success. He has ready for perform-
ance two grand operas, ' Les Guelfes ' and ' Kuy
Bias ' ; it is to be hoped that they will soon
be produced, for Godard has undoubted talent,
and would have had much more success had he
known how to impose a stricter discipline upon
his natural gifts, and to judge his own compo-
sitions more severely, without thinking that all
the productions of his facile pen merit the at-



Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 153 of 194)