George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

. (page 155 of 194)
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Ernest.

The following list completes the number of
composers who have gained the prize since the



1878. Broutin and Rousseau. ' La

Fille de Jephti!.'
1CT9. Hue. 'Mijdee.'

1880. Hillemacher{Lucien). 'Fin-

gal."

1881. No first prize.

1882. Marty and PiernS. 'Edith.'



GREATHEED. i

publication of the article in vol. i. p. 618, nti
the present time : —

1885. Vldal. ' Le Gladiateur.'
1884. Debussy. ' L'Eufaat {

digue.'
188.5. Leroui. 'Endymion."

1886. Savard. "LaVision deSal

1887. Cliarpentier. 'Didon.'

After the year 1S03 the competition for t
Grand Prix de Rome was decided by the Instit
In 1864 it was modified by a decree of Napole
III : from 1864 to 1871 the works were judg
by a special jury composed of nine meml
drawn by lot from a list chosen by the gene
superintendent of theatres. Since 1872 the '
judgment has been restored to the united
tions of the Academic des Beaux Arts ; and t|
method of procedure is as follows : — The aj
composers forming the musical section of the Bt
stitut (now represented by MM. Thomas, Gouno
Reyer, Massenet, Saint-Saens, and Delibes
assisted by three composers not belonging to tb
above-mentioned body, give a previous verdi(
which the entire Academie has to ratify or veti
The competition takes place in June, and tb
performance of the prize cantata in October, £
the annual public seance of the Academie dt
Beaux Arts. [A.J,

GRAS, Mme. J. A. DoETJS. Correct date <
birth from 1807 to Sept. 7, 1804. P. 619 a, I.
from bottom, after retirement add the tcoro
from the Grand Opera. (See Damoeeau, vol.
428 &.)

GRASSINI, JosEPHiNA. Line 5 from end <
article, for in January read Jan. 3.

GRAUN, K. H. Add that the ' Tod Jesu
was performed at an orchestral concert given b
the Royal Academy of Music on April i, 188;
under the direction of Mr. Barnby.

GRAZIANI. Add christian name, Frai
CESCO, and that he was born at Fermo, April 2(
1829. His brother, LoDOViCO, born at Fermi
August 1823, was a tenor singer of some celebrit;
He died in May 1885.

GREATHEED, Rev. Samuel Stephenso:
was born in Somersetshire on Feb. 22, 181,
He received his first instruction in harmony froi
Mr. W. Chappell Ball, organist of St. ]\Iary'
Taunton. In 1831 he entered at Trinity Co
lege, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. i
fourth wrangler in 1835, and was elected to
Fellowship in 1837. li^ May 1838 he was
dained by Bishop Allen (of Ely), and in tl
same year vacated his Fellowship by marriag
In 1838 and 1839 Mr. Greatheed spent aboi
six months in Berlin, where he studied mus
under G. W. Schwarz. In 1840 he was appoint*
to the Curacy of West Drayton, Middlesex, ai
in 1862 to the Rectory of Corringham, Esse
Mr. Greatheed began to study counterpoii
systematically in i S44. His published works a
as follows : — ' Te Deum,' composed upon tl
original melody ; ' Benedictus,' ' Magnificat,' ai
'NuncDimittis,' upon the 8th tone; ten anthem
' Enoch's Prophecy,' a short oratorio, perform*



GREATHEED.

y the Harmonic Union, June ii, 1856 ; music
1 Bishop Coxe's ' Hymn of Boyhood ' ; organ
gue in the Dorian mode ; ' Quam dilecta,'
•iried for the organ ; many harmonies to old
;hurch melodies ; a few original chants and
iy-mn tunes ; and some pieces for domestic use.
i^e is also the author of 'A sketch of the History
[■'Sacred Music from the earliest Age,' which ap-
Airedinthe Church Builder (1S76-1879), and a
I'reatise on the Science of Music ' in Stewart's
eacher's Assistant (1878-9). [W.B.S.]

GREEK PLAYS, Incidental Music to.
he great interest which has of late years been
,ken at the English Universities in the per-
rmances of Greek dramas in the original has
ven opportunity for the composition of choruses
id incidental music. As these worlis are of
ime importance in the history of English music,
list of them is here appended : —



GREGORIAN TONES,



655



le Agamemnon of Aeschylus ;
Jiford. June 1880. Mu3ic byl
Walter Parratt.

le Ajai of Sophocles ; Cam-
Dridge, Not. 28 to Dec. 2, 18«2.
Music by Sir G. A. Xlacfarren.
le Birds of Aristophanes ; Cam-
oridge. Not. 27, to Dec 1. 1883.
Husic by C. Hubert H. Parry. I



The Eumenides of Aeschylus ;
Cambridge. Dec. 1 to 5, 1885.
Music by C. V. Stanford.

The Alcestis of Euripides; Oxford,
May IS to 24, 1887. Music by C.
H. Lloyd.

The Oedipus Tyrannus of Sopho-
cles ; Cambridge. Not. 12 to 26,
1887. Music by C. V Stanford.



[M.]
GREENE, Maurice, Mus. D. Line i6, for
eath read retirement. Greene died Dec. i (coffin-
late) or Dec. 3 (Vicar-Choral Book), not Sept. i.
n May 13, 1888, Dr. Greene's body was re-
loved from St. Olave's, Jewry, and re-interred
L St. Paul's Cathedral beside that of Dr. Boyce.
5ee 'Mus. Times,' June 1888.)

GREGOIR, Jacques Mathieu Joseph, born
; Antwerp Jan. 18, 1817, made his first appear-
ice as a pianist in Dussek's B minor Concerto
hen only eight years old. After the revolu-
on of 1830 he was sent to Paris to study under
!erz, but his health obliged him to return to his
itive country after a few years. Subsequently
i went with his brother to Biberich, where he
udied with Rummel until 1837, when he re-
imed to Antwerp. His success as a performer
as very great, and some compositions other than
le numerous works written for his own instru-
ent were favourably received. A ' Lauda
ion,' a cantata, ' Eaust,' and an opera in three
:ts, 'Le Gondolier deVenise' were produced
lortly before 1848, in which year he established
imself for a time in Brussels. After a years'
ork as music-teacher in an English school at
ruges, he returned to Brussels. Many succes-
il concert-tours were undertaken by him in
ermany, Switzerland, and elsewhere. He died
1 Brussels Oct. 29, 1876. His pianoforte works
.elude a concerto, op. 100, several excellent
)oks of studies, besides fantasias and other
•awing-room pieces. He collaborated in several
lets for piano and violin with Vieuxtemps and
eonard, and in several for piano and violoncello
ith Joseph Servais.

His brother, Edouaed Georges Jacques, was
)m at Tumhout, Nov. 7, 1S22. After the
umey to Biberich mentioned above, he ap-
iared in London in 1841, with success, and in



the following year undertook a concert tour with
the sisters Milanollo ; in 1S47 and 1849 several
of his compositions were produced at Amster-
dam and in Paris, and after a short tenure of a
musical professorship at the Normal School at
Lierre, he settled down at Antwerp, where he
has since exercised a powerful influence in
musical matters. He has produced a large num-
ber of compositions in various forms, among the
most prominent of which are the following; —
' Les Croisades,' historical symphony (Antwerp,
1846); 'La Vie,' opera (Antwerp. Feb. 6,
1848); 'Le Dfluge' symphonic oratorio (Ant-
werp, Jan. 31, 1849); 'De Belgen in 1848,'
drama with overture, airs, choruses, etc. (Brus-
sels, 1 851); 'La derniere nuit du Comte
d'Egmont ' (Brussels, 1851); 'Leicester,' drama
with incidental music (Brussels, Feb. 13, 1854);
' Willein Beukels,' Flemish comic opera (Brussels,
July 21, i856\ 'La Belle Bourbonnaise,' comic
opera, and ' Marguerite,' grand opera. Two
overtures, many part-songs for male chorus,
numerous works for piano, organ and harmonium,
to the interests of which last instrument he is
particularly devoted, are also among his compo-
sitions. His contributions to musical literature
are scarcely less abundant than his musical
productions. He has taken an active part in
musical journalism, besides writing a number of
essays on historical subjects. These latter, though
containing much valuable material, are not
always reliable, as the writer is too much given
to accepting information from any quarter. A
History of the Organ, published at Brussels in
1865, is perhaps the most useful of his literary
productions. [M.]

GREGORIAN TONES, THE. (Lat. Toni
Gregoriani ; Toni Fsalmorum ; Fr. Les Chants
Gregoriens ; The Psalm-Tones, or Psalm-Tunes.)

The Gregorian Psalm-Tones are, beyond all
controversy, the oldest Melodies now known to
be in existence. So great is their antiquity, that
no one has ever yet succeeded, with any degree
of certainty, in tracing them to their original
source. Though the arguments advanced by
the Prince Abbot Gerbert von Hornau, Padre
Martini, P. Kircher, P. Lambilotte, Mersenne,
Rousseau, the Abbe Le Bceuf, Baini, and the
later writers M. de Coussemaker, Kiesewetter,
Gevaerts and Ambros, have thrown much valu-
able light upon the subject, not one of these
speculators can be said to have arrived at a
satisfactory conclusion. Three only of the numer-
ous theories proposed seem to rest upon any
reasonable basis — those, namely, which pretend
to trace the so-called Gregorian Melodies to a
Greek, an early Christian, or a Hebrew origin.
On one point only are all authorities agreed.
No doubt exists as to the historical fact, that the
Psalm-Tones were sung by the primitive Chris-
tians, and, through them, handed down by oral
tradition alone, until, through the eilorts of S.
Ambrose in the 4th century, and S. Gregory in
the 6th, they were collected, classified, and re-
duced to rule and order, in a form which, pro-
tected by ecclesiastical authority, has remained



656



GREGORIAN TONES.



in uninterrupted use in the Church to the pre-
sent (lay.

This fact admitted, the question arises, whence
didtlie primitive Christians obtain the venerable
Melodies they have handed down to us ?

The objections to the suggestion that they in-
vented them are very strong indeed. The Church
was too much shaken by persecution, during the
first three centuries of its existence, to afford its
members an opportunity for the introduction of
new Art-forms into Services which were of
necessity conducted with the utmost possible
secrecy and caution. There is abundant evi-
dence to prove that the Psalms were sung in the
Catacombs ; but, none whatever to show that
tliose who sang them composed the Music to
which they were adapted.

Still more extravagantly improbable is the
popular and widely-spread theory that the early
Christians derived their Music from the Greeks.
If the Psalm-Tones really came from Greece,
tliey must have been used in the worship of
Diunysos, or some other deity equally obnoxious
both to the Christians and the Jews. Is it pos-
sible to believe that men who were content to
suffer Martyrdom, rather than utter a single
word which could be construed into toleration
for heathen superstitions, would have consented
to sing the Psalms to heathen Melodies ? More-
over, though the Ecclesiastical Modes have been
universally named, since the time of Boethius,
after those of the Greek system, they are so far
from corresponding with them, that it would be
impossible to accommodate them to tiie tonality
demanded by the Pythagorean Section of the
Canon. If, therefore, they are really of Greek
origin, their constitution must have been changed
beyond all possibility of recognition — a supposi-
tion quite untenable.

There remains the theory, that the Psalm-
Tones were brought to Rome by the primitive
Christian converts, after the destruction of Jeru-
salem by Titus. And here, it must be con-
fessed, the probabilities lie entirely on the side
of the theorists. What more natural than that
the persecuted refugees should have sung the
Psalms, in the Catacombs, to the Melodies to
which they had sung them in the Temple — the
Melodies to which, beyond all doubt, the in-
spired words had originally been set ? The
theory is so enticing, that hard-headed critics
have been tempted to condemn it as empty
sentimentality ; yet, it cannot be denied that
it rests upon a foundation of plain common-
sense.

The structure of the Psalm-Tones strongly
favours this theory. They represent the only
known form of simple Melody to which it is
possible to sing the words of the Psalms, without
obscuring their sense ; adapting themselves so
closely to the parallelism of Semitic Poetry,
that, whether the Psalms be sung in the
original Hebrew, or in the form of Latin, Eng-
lish, or any other translations, the song and the
sense never fail to go together — a fact which
was so strongly felt, when the Choral Service



GREGORIAN TONES.

was restored, in our English Cathedrals, durin
the reign of King Charles II., that the Coa
posers of the School of the Restoration could fin
no other model than this to serve as the basis (
tiieir Anglican Single and Double Chants, thoug
the whole range of musical form was at thei
command.

In considering the construction of the Gregc
rian Tones, we must bear in mind, that, in th
Roman Office-Books, the Psalm is both precedeij
and followed, by a special Antiphon. It is ui{
dispensable that this Antiphon should terminaf
upon the Final of the Mode ; but it is not at a
necessary that the Psalm-Tone should do s(
since its true termination is supplied by th
Antiphon, without which it would be incon
plete: and, in point of fact, very few of th
Psalm-Tones actually do terminate upon tb
Final.

The Psalm-Tones, as bequeathed to us froi
the times of S. Ambrose, and S. Gregory, ta
eight in number — one in each of the first eigb
INIodes, with the numerical order of which the
correspond. In addition to these, two irregulj
forms are in use : one, in Mode IX., called tb
Tonus Peregrinus, used only for the Psalm, • I
exitu Israel ' ; and one, in ' Mode VI. irregular
called the Tonus regius, and sung to tb
' Domine salvum fac,' in connection with tb
Prayer for the reigning Sovereign, at the end <
High Mass. Each of these Tones consists <
five distinct members : —

(i) The Intonation, consisting of two c
three notes, so disposed as to form a connectio
link between the Psalm-Tone proper, and tb
Antiphon, or portion of the Antiphon, whic
precedes it.^ The Intonation is only sung i
connection with the first verse of the Psalm.

(2) The Reciting-Note, coincident with tb
Dominant of the Mode, on which the first pai
of the first half of the verse is monotoned, wit
more or less rapidity, according to the sense (
the words.

(3) The Mediation ; a short melodic phrasf
adapted to the concluding syllables of the fin
half of the verse.

(4) The Second Reciting-Note, coincident'
like the first, with the Dominant of the Mod*
and used, in like manner, for the recitation I
the fiist part of the second half of the verse.

(5) The Ending, or Close, a short melodj
phrase, like the Mediation, and in like mannc
adapted to the concluding syllables of the secon
half of the verse.

On Ferial Days, the Intonation is usuall
omitted, and the Mediation is sung in a lei
elaborate form than that used for high Festival
Some of the tones have as many as three or foB
different Endings, which are common both f
Festal and Ferial Services. For the Introit, i
High Mass, a special form is used, in which bot
the Mediation and the Ending are still farthj
elaborated. The following example shows tb

I On Ferial Days only the first clause of the Antiphon Is no
before the Psalm, though, after It, the Antiphon is alwajs sung ;
its complete form.



GREGORIAN TONES,
rd Tone, divided into its five proper sec-
(t) (c) (d) is)



is: —



(J)



iu)



.■-.. ii "y"



The last notes of the Antiphon, as sung be-
! the Psalm. (6) The Intonation, leading to
The First Reciting-Note. (d) The Media-
u (e) The Second Reciting-Note. _(/) The
ling, {g) The first notes of the Antiphon, as
imed, after the Psalm.

'he following Table shows the Tones, with
ir various endings, in the form now formally
liorised by the Congregation of Rites. The
tal and Ferial Mediations are conxmon to all
Endings of their respective Tones.



Tome I. Festal Mediation.




Ending iii.



"J^ — m-



Ending iv.



Ending t.



=i|=iF=^=«t5i



■ ^ ■ i r



i — t-



)NE II. Festal Mediation. Ferial Mediation.



g ■



i=



Ending.



>NE III. Festal Mediation. Ferial Mediation.




Ending iii.



GREGORIAN TONES. 657

Tone V. Festal Mediation. Ferial Mediation.




Tone VII. Festal Mediation.



^



Ferial Mediation,



Ending i.



^



■*, — m-



Ending iii.




Tone VIII. Festal Mediation. Ferial Mediation.




Tone IX, Irregular. Tonus Pereqrinus. (Transposed).




The above forms, believed to approach more
nearly to the primitive purity of the Psalm-
Tones than any other version now known to be
in existence, differ considerably, both from those
given in the Mechlin Office-Books, which are, for
the most part, more elaborate, and from those
found in the Sarum Psalter, and adapted to the
English 'Psalter Noted,' by theRev.T.Helmore,
some few of which are a little less complex.
For many centuries, most of the great Dioceses
on the Continent vaunted a special ' Use ' of their
own ; and in France, especially, the practice of
Machicotage' led to the indefinite multiplication
of forms peculiarly ornate and impure, yet none
the less, in certain cases, extremely beautiful.
Some of these, vulgarly known in England as
' Parisian Gregorians,' though more frequently
taken from the ' Use ' of Rouen, are extremely
popular in London Churches ; they are all, how-
ever, more or less corrupt, and differ materially
in style from the true Gregorian Tones.'^

1 See Macicotaticum.

2 For a large coUection of these, including as many as sixteen
different endings toth^ First Tone, see 'The Ferial Fsalter.' by the
Rev. T. Kaveushaw, and W. S. Kockstro. (Xondon, Masters and Co.J



658



GREGORIAN TONES.



The more elaborate forms, used for the In-
troits, at High Mass, will be found in the Gra-
duals printed within the last fifteen years, at
Batisbon, and Mechlin. [W.S.R.]

GRELL, Eddard August, born Nov. 6,
1800, the son of the organist of the Parochial-
kirche in Berlin, received his musical education
from his fatlier, J. C. Kaufniann, Ritschl, and
finally from Zelter, on whose recommendation he
received the appointment of organist of the
Nicolaikirche at the age of 16. In 1S17 he
entered the Singakademie, with which institution
he was connected in one way or another for
nearly sixty years. In 1832 he became its vice-
director, under Rungeiihagen, after whose death
he was in 1853 appointed director, a post which
he held until 1876. In 1S41 he was made a
member of the musical section of the Royal
Academy of Arts, with which institution he was
connected until 1881. In 1858 he received the
title of professor, and in 1864 the order ^owr le
merite. He died Aug. 10, 1886. Although his
scholastic functions ab.sorbed so large a propor-
tion of his time, he yet found opportunity for
the composition of many works of large extent
and of the most elaborate structure. He was
one of the most learned contrapuntists of liis day
in Germany, and his works show him to have
been not only an ingenious theorist, but a richly
gifted artist. His opus magnum is a mass
in 16 parts a capella, besides which he pro-
duced psalms in 8 and 11 parts, a Te Deum,
motets, cantatas, an oratorio entitled ' Die
Israeliten in der Wiiste,' and many songs and
duets. [M.]

gresham musical professor-
ship. Line \6 from end of article, add date
of Theodore Aylwaid's appointment, I'J'Ji.

GR^TRY, a. E. M. p. 628 a, 1. 16, for Le
Vendemmiante read La Vendemiatrice. L. 43
of same column, for duet read quartet. Add
that a complete edition of Gretry's works has
recently been undertaken by the firm of Bieit-
kopf & Hjirtel. Seven volumes have already
appeared (1887).

GRIEG, Edvakd. The following additions
are to be made to the catalogue of his works : —



Op.

•il. 4 Songs.

•li. 'Sigurd Jorsalfar.' PF.4 hands.

23. 'PeerGjrnt.' incidental music.

PF. 4 hands.

24. Ballade. FF. solo.
2.1. 5 Sungs.
2fi. 4 Songs.

27. Quartet for Strings In G minor.
2ii. Albumbiatter. PF. solo.

29. Improvisata on 2 Norwegian

Songs. PF. solo.

30. Album for male chorus,

31. ' Landkennuug.* Male chorus.
S2. 'DerBergentrucltte.' Baritone 1 13.

and Orchestra.
ai. 12 Songs. 1 44.

34.2 Melodies for stringed or- 43. 3rd Sonata in C minor for PF.

chestra. ' and Violin.

All the songs, with the exception of op. 2 and
lo, are included in the five volumes of Peters'
' Grieg- Album.'

Add that the composer vi.sited London in iSSS,
playing his A minor Concerto and conducting



35. Norwegian dances. PF. 2 or

4 hands.

36. Sonata for PF. and Violon-

cello.

37. Walzer-Capricen. PF. 2 or 4

hands.
33. Neue lyrische Stuckchen. PF.
solo.

39. 5 Songs.

40. "Aus Holberg's Zelt." PF.

Suite.

41. PF. transcriptions of his own

songs.

Lvrische Stuckchen.' Book 3.
PF. solo.



GUDEHUS.

his op. 34, at the Philharmonic Concert of Ma'
He and Mme. Grieg gave a recital on the i
of the month. []

GRIMM, J. G. Line 3 of article, for Sax-
read Livonia.

GRISI, GiULiA. Line 7 of article, add dat
death of her sister Giuditta, May i, 1840.
6336, last line but one, /or Nov. 25, reacZ Nov.
(Corrected on authority of Mendel and Paloei
Pougin and Riemann agree with the text.)

GROUND BASS. P. 634 1, add to title.
Basso ostinato. Also among the citations (
See an example of a ground bass of four min
only, accompanying a canon 7 in i, by Bach
Spitta's Life, iii. 404.

GRUND, Friedrich "Wilhelm, born at Hi
burg Oct. 7, 1 791, at first studied the violonc
and pianoforte with the intention of becomir
public performer on both instruments, but a
a few successful appearances in his 17th y«
his right hand became crippled, and he 1
obliged to abandon his public career. He t
took a keen interest in the musical affairs of
native town, where in 18 19 he was instrumei
in founding the Singakademie ; he remai
director until 1862, when he also retired fi
the direction of tlie Philharmoni.sche Conct
with which he had been coimected since 1828.
1867 he took an active part with Gradener in
formation of the Hamburger Tonktinstlerver
He died Nov. 24, 1874. His numerous wc
include two operas, 'Mathikie' and ' Die B
Falken.stein,' a cantata ' Die Auferstehung '
Himmelfahrt Christi,' an eight-part mass, c
phonies, overtures, and much chamber musicjl

GRUPPO, GRUPETTO, the Italian ns
for our TuRX, which see. Sebastien de Bros
(Dictionnaire de Musique) says that the tur
called Groppo (or Gruppo) ascendmte
Groppo descendente, according as the last not
the group rises or falls. The two examples g
under Trill represent the two kinds. |
also vol. iii. p. 598 b, note 4.] [

GUDEHUS, Heinbich, bom at Celle, 1
Hanover, the son of a schoolmaster there,
was taught singing, first at Brunswick \>y "j
wina Schnorr von Carolsfeld, widow of the t
singer, and in 1870 at Berlin by Gustav Ei
On Jan. 7, 1 871, he first appeared on the s
at Berlin as Nadori in a revival of ' Jessoi
and subsequently as Tamino, and was wel
ceived, but feeling the necessity of further st
retired for a time and studied under Frai
Louise Resse of Berlin from 1872 to 1875, In
he re-appeared at Riga, and sang there durin:
season 187,5-76, and afterwards was engaz'
Liibeck, Freiburg, Bremen, and in i8Sc : I
den, where he is at present. During t .
years Herr Gudehus has played in maii
of ^lozart, Weber, ^Meyerbeer, Wagnei
(' Masaniello ' and ' Fra Diavolo '), Me'i
seph'), Bellini ('Norma'), Boieldieu
Blanche '), Verdi, etc. On leave of abien c
Dresden he has sung with success at Vii



GUDEHUS.

juikfort, and Bayreuth, where he made his
(utation on July 28, 1882, at the second per-
tmance of 'Parsifal,' and in 1884 at the Ger-
j.n Opera, Covent Garden, where he made his
out June 4 as Walther (' Meistersinger '). He
[s very successful in this part, and subsequently

Max, Lohengrin, Tannhauser, and Tristan.

Nov. 10 and 15 of the same year he sang at
i Albert Hall at the concert performances of
arsifal,' then introduced into England for the
;t time in its entirety by the Albert Hall
oral Society tmder the direction of Mr. Barn by.
! played Parsifal and Tristan at Bayreuth in
S6. [A.C.]

3U]£DE0N", Piekee. See vol. iii. p. 593 h,

5UID0 D'APvEZZO (Guide Aretinus; Era
dttone ; Guy of Arezzo). Though this name
more frequently quoted by musical historians
in that of any other writer of equal antiquity,
would be difiBcult to point to a teacher whose
(thod has been more commonly misrepresented,
whose claim to originality of invention has
en more keenly contested. The doubts which
ve been expressed with regard to the true
ture of his contributions to musical science,
ly be partly accounted for by the ambiguity
his own language and partly by the retire-
snt of his monastic life, which afforded him
t little opportunity for making his learning
own to the world at large ; though, after bis



Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 155 of 194)