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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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ath, his fame spread so rapidly that almost
ery discovery made during the next hundred
d fifty j-ears was attributed to him.
Fortunately, the uncertainty which hangs over
i system does not — as in the case of Magister
an CO — extend to his personal identity. He was
m at or near Arezzo, not long before the close of
5 loth century; and,in due time, became a Monk
the Order of S. Benedict. An annotation on
3 back of the oldest known MS. of bis ' Micro-
;us,' which he is generally believed to have
itten in, or about, the year 1024, asserts that
completed the work in the thirty-fourth year
his age — thus referring us to 990 as the
jbable year of his birth. His talent must have
sn very early developed ; for, Pope Benedict
.II., bearing that he had invented a new
ithod of teaching Music, invited him to Rome
Baronius says, in 1022 — for the purpose of
estioning him about it, and treated him with
irked consideration, during the short time that
remained in the city. Pope Benedict died
1024 ; and his successor, John XIX., after
iding three special messengers to induce Guido
return, accorded him a highly honourable
;eption, on the occasion of his second visit,
d consulted him frequently on the details of
I method. Guido brought with him, on this
:asion, an Antiphonarium, written in accord-
ce with his new system ; and the Pope was so
uck with this, that he refused to terminate
5 audience until he had himself learned to
ig from it. After completely mastering the
item, he desired to retain the learned Bene-



GUIDO D'AREZZO.



659



dictine in his service ; but Guido, urging his
delicate health as an excuse, quitted Rome
under promise of returning again during the
following winter. In the meantime, he accepted
an invitation to the Monastery of Pomposo, in
the Duchy of Ferrara, and at the request of the
Abbot remained there for some considerable
time, for the purpose of teaching his method to
the Monks and the children of the Choir. Here
he seems to have written the greater part of
his works ; among them the Micrologus, which
he dedicated to Teobaldo, Bishop of Arezzo.
Finally, we hear of him as Abbot of the Monas-
tery of Santa Croce, at Avellano, near Arezzo ;
and there he is believed to have died, about the
year 1050.

Guide's works consist of: —

1. The Micrologus ; already described in vol. ii. pp. 326. 327.

2. The Antivhonarium ; quoted by P. Martini. i under the title of
Formulffi Tonorum. In some early MSS. this is preceded, by way of
Prologue, by —

3. Epistola Guidonis ad Michaelem Monachum Pomposianum : a
letter written by Guido, during his second visit to Kome, to bis
friend, Brother Jlichael. at Pumposo,

4. De artificio novi Cantus.2

5. De Divisione Monochordi secundum BoetiQm.3

To which may be added the less clearly authen-
ticated works —

6. De sex motibus vocnm \ se invicem, et dimensione earum.

7. Quid est Jlusica.

8. Guidonis Aretini de Musica Dialogus. Quid est Musica.

9. De Constitutionibus in Musica.
10. De Tonis.

U. Quid est Musica. (Different from Nos. 7 and 8).

Early MS. copies of the ' Micrologus,' the
'Antiphonarium,' and the 'Epistola ad Mi-
chaelem ' are preserved at the Vatican, the
Paris Library, the British Museum, and in some
other large national Collections. These three
works were first printed by Gerbert von Hor-
nau,* in 1784; and the 'Micrologus' was re-
printed, at "Treves, by Hermesdorff, in 1876.
The MSS. of Nos, 4, and 5, are in the Medicean
Library, at Florence. Nos. 6, 7, and 8, are in
the Paris Library. No. 7 is also in the Library
of Balliol College, Oxford, where it is bound up
with a copy of the 'Micrologus.' No. 8, which
corresponds with the preceding, in every respect
except that of its more prolix title, is also in the
Vatican Library.^ The Oxford copy of this
tract was once falsely attributed to S. Odo of
Cluny. Nos. 9 and 10 are in the British Mu-
seum,® bound up with an incomplete copy (Cap.
i-xv) of the ' Micrologus.' No. 11, in the Vati-
can Library, is really a transcript of the * En-
chiridion' of S. Odo.

The principal inventions, and discoveries, with
which Guido has been credited, are : the Gamut ;
the Hexachords, with their several Mutations ;
Solmisation; the Stave, including the use of
Lines, and Spaces; the Clefs; Diaphonia or
Discant, Organum, and Counterpoint ; the Har-
monic Hand ; the Monochord ; and even the
Spinet (Polyplectrum). Kircher gravely men-
tions not only this last-named invention, but,
also, Polyphonia, and the modern Stave of five

1 Saggio di Contrappunto, Tom, J, p. 32.

2 Ibid. Tom. i. p. 457.

3 Ibid. Tom. i. p. 4.")7 ; where it is called De Mensura Monochordi.

4 Scriptores ecclesiastic! de Musica sacra. Tom ii.

» Ho. 1191. s No, 3199.



060



GUIDO D'AREZZO.



GUIDO D'AREZZO.



I



Lines and four Spaces ; ^ and an Italian writer
of the 17th century tells us that S. Gregory (Ob.
604) ordained that no other Gamut than that of
Guido should be used in the Church !^

If, by the ' invention of the Gamut,' we are
to understand the addition of the note, G, at the
bottom of the Scale, it is quite certain that this
note was sung ages before the time of Guido.
Aristides Quintilianus {fior. circa A.D. no)
tells us that, whenever a note was wanted before
the ■npoa\aix^avoix(vos, (A) of the Hypodorian
Mode, it was represented by the recumbent
omega ( o). S. Odo, writing in the loth cen-
tury, represents it, exactly as Guido did, by
the Greek gamma (r). And Guido himself
speaks of it as a modern addition — ' In primis
ponitur T Grjecum a modernis adjectum.'

The reconstruction of the Scale itself, on the
principle of the Hexachords, is another matter ;
and, the intimate connection of this, with the
process of Solmisation, renders it extremelj'
probable that the two methods were elaborated
hy the same bold reformer. Now, in his Epistle
to Brother Michael, Guido distinctly calls at-
tention to the use of the initial syllables of the
Hymn, ' Ut quean t laxis,' as a convenient form
oimemoria technica, and speaks of the method,
in terms which clearly lead to the inference that
he himself was its inventor : but, he does not
mention the Hexachords, in any of his known
works; and, when speaking of the substitution
of the B rotundum for the B durum, in his
'Micrologus,' he writes in the first and third
persons plural with an ambiguity which makes
it impossible to determine whether he is speak-
ing of his own inventions, or not ; using, in one
place, the expression, 'raolle dicunt,' and, in
another, ' nos ponimus.' Still, it is difficult to
read all that he has written on the subject
without arriving at the conclusion that he was
familiar with the principles of both systems ; in
which case, the first idea of both must neces-
sarily have originated with him, though it is
quite possible that the Mutations ^ by which they
were ]ierfected were invented by a later teacher.

Guido's claim to the invention of the Lines
and Spaces of the Stave, and of the Clefs {Glares
signaicB) associated with the former, is supported
by very strong evidence indeed. In his Epistle
to Brother Michael, he begins by claiming the
new system of teaching as bis own : ' Taliter
enim Deo auxiliante hoc Antiphonarium notare
disposui, ut post hac leviter aliquis sensatus et
studiosus cantum discat,' etc. etc.; and then, in
the clearest possible terms, explains the use of
the Lines and Spaces : ' Quanticumque ergo soni
in una linea, vel in uno spacio sunt, omnes
similiter sonant. Et in omui cantu quantoe-
cumque linese vel spacia unam eandemque ha-
beant literam vel eundem colorem, ita ut omnia
similiter sonant, tanquam si omnes in una linea
fuissent.' These words set forth a distinct claim
to the invention of the red and yellow lines, and
the Claves signatoe, or letters indicating the E



• Slusurgia, p. U4.



2 Regole di Musica. (Rome, 1657.)
8 See vol. U. p. 439,



and C Clefs, prefixed to them; and, upon theft
the whole principle of the four-lined Stave di
pends, even though it cannot be proved to hxk\
been in use, in its complete form, until long aflU
Guido's time.*

It is impossible that Guido can have invente
either Discant, Organum, or Counterpoint, sim
he himself proposed what he believed to be a
improvement upon the form of Diaphonia i
common use at the time he wrote,^ and it wi
not until a much later period that the Fan
Bourdon was supplanted by contrapuntal forms

The Harmonic or Guidonian Hand, is a dii
gram, intended to facilitate the teaching of til
Hexachords, by indicating the order of tt
sounds, upon the finger-joints of the left hand.*




Guido himself makes no mention of thi
diagram in any of his writings ; but traditio
has ascribed it to him from time immemoria
under the name of the Guidonian Hand; ani
Sigebertus Gemblacensis (06. 1 1 1 3), writing littl
more than half a century after his death, tells u
that ' Guido affixed six letters, or syllables, to ri;
sounds,' and ' demonstrated these sounds by th
finger-joints of the left hand,' ^ thus confirmin.i
the tradition which credits him ^vith the trip!
invention of the Harmonic Hand, Solmisation
and the Hexachords. Moreover, Guido himsd
writes to Brother Michael of ' things, whid
though difficult to write about, are very easil|
explained by word of mouth ; ' and, possibl)
these may have been among them.

The INIonochord was well known in the tin
of Pythagoras : but Guido insisted upon its con
stan't use ; and, as Dr. Bumey points out, th
instrument he employed must have been :
fretted one — like those sometimes used, unde
the name of ' Intonators,' for our modern singing
classes; since the moveable bridge could no

4 Fee vol. iii. pp. 691-fiM. 5 See vol. It. pp. 612, 613.

6 Dr. HuUah's use of the left hand for an analogous purpose

familiar to everyone. '• Chron. Sigeberti, ad ann. 1026



GUIDO D'AEEZZO.



GYE.



661



! been shifted quickly enoui^h to answer the
ired purpose. It was, probably, this circura-
ce that led to the absurd belief that Guido
nted the Spinet.

3 sum up our ar2:ument. It appears certain
Guido invented the principle upon which
construction of the Stave is based, and the
id C Clefs ; but, that he did not invent the
plete four-lined Stave itself.
lere is strong reason to believe that he in-
ed the Hexachord, Solmisation, and the Har-
ic Hand ; or, at least, first set forth the prin-
s upon which these inventions were based,
naliy, it is certain that lie was not the first
:tend the Scale downwards to F ut ; that he
ler invented Diaphonia, Diseant, Organum,
Jounterpoint ; and, that to credit him with
invention of the Monochord, and the Poly-
rum, is absurd. [W.S.R.]

JGLIELMI, PiETEO. Line 2 of article, after
Id May. P. 638 h, 1. 3, for in read Nov.

CTIGNON', Jean Piebke. Line 10 of article,
and insert in 1741. Add date of death
and refer to Eoi des Violons.

CriRAUD, Ernest, has taken a more pro-
;nt place in France since the notice of him
ol. i. was written. In July 1878 he was
rated with the Legion of Honour, and in
I he was appointed professor of advanced
Dosition at the Conservatoire, replacing
or Mas>:^, elected honorary professor. In
I his ' Piccolino ' was given by Carl Eosa at

Majesty's Theatre in London. A new
a in three acts, entitled ' Galante Aventure,'
d at the Op^ra Couiique (March 23, 1882);
tie has always retained an honourable posi-
in concerts, where he has produced selections

an unpublished opera, ' Le Feu ' (Concerts
hatelet, March 9, 1879, and Nov. 7, 1880),
'verture, ' Arteveld ' (do. Jan. 15, 1882), a
for violin and orchestra, played by
sate (do. April 6, 1884), an orchestral suite
our movements (do. Dec. 27, 1S85), and
y a ' Chasse Fantaitique,' suggested by a
ige in Victor Hugo's ' Beau Pecopin' (Con-

Lamoureu.K, Feb. 6, 1887). All these works
vorth hearing, and are cleverly written for a
wser who, though thoroughly familiar with
materials, yet lacks inventive geniu^:, and who
professor shows an eclecticism and a judicious
sration worthy of all commendation. In art
us is not given to every one, and those who



have only talent are to be praised for not prose-
cuting virulent attacks upon innovators more
richly gifted than themselves. [A.J.]

GUNG'L, Joseph. Line 4 from end of article,
for in read March 5.

GUEA, EuGEN, bom Nov. 8, 1 842, at Pressem,
near Saatz, Bohemia, was the son of a small
schoolmaster. He received a good technical
education at the Polytechnicum, Vienna, and
afterwards studied art at the Vienna Academy,
and at a School of Painting under Professor An-
schiitz (a pupil of Cornelius) at Munich. He was
finally advised to adopt a musical career, and for
that purpose studied singing at the Munich Con-
servatorium under Professor Joseph Herger, and
finally, in April, 1865, made his debut there at
the Opera as Count Liebenau in the ' Waffen-
schmied' (Lortzing), with such success that he
obtained a two years' engagement. In 1867-70
he was engaged at Breslau, and in 1870-76 at
Leipzig, where he made his reputation, both in
opera and concerts, as one of the best German
baritone singers of the day. As such in 1876 he
played both Conner and Gunther in the ' Nibe-
lungen' at Bayreuth. From 1876 to 1883 he
was engaged at Hamburg. In 1882, as a mem-
ber of that company, he sang in German at
Drury Lane in all the operas then performed,
viz. The Minister (' Fidelio ') ; Lysiart on revival
of 'Euryanthe,' June 13; 'The Flying Dutch-
man,' in which he made his d^but May 20;
Wolfram ; Telramund ; as Hans Sachs and
King Marke on the respective productions of
' Meistersinger ' and ' Tristan und Isolde,' May
30 and June 2 respectively. He made a great
impression at the time, and his Hans Sachs will
not readily be forgotten by those who saw it.
From the autumn of 1883 till the present time
he has been engaged at Munich. [A.C.]

GUTMANN, Adolph. See vol. ii. p. 732 I,
and add date of death, Oct. 27, 1882.

GYE, Frederick, born 1809, the son of a tea-
merchant in the city of London. He entered
upon his career as an operatic manager and
impresario on the secession of Costa from Co vent
Garden in 1869, and remained in possession of the
same theatre until 1877, when the management
was handed over to his son Ernest Gye, the
husband of Mme. Albani. He died Dec. 4,
1878, while staying at Dytchley, the seat of
Viscount Dillon, from the effects of a gun acci-
dent, and was buried at Norwood on the 9th of
the month. [M.]



VOL. IV. PT. 6,



Xx



H.



I



HABENECK, F. A. CoiTect date of birth to
June I.

HAESSLER, Johann Wilhelm, born
Mar. 29,1 747, at Erfurt, received his first musical
instruction from his uncle, the organist Kittel,
who had been a pupil of Sebastian Bach's. At
the age of 14 he was appointed organist of the
Barfiisserkirche. His father, who was a cap-
maker, insisted on apprenticing him to his own
trade, and on his commercial travels he became
acquainted with the great musicians of his time,
besides giving lessons and concerts. In 1 780 he
started winter concerts in Erfurt, and at the
same time gave up his business. From 1790 to
1794 he spent his time in concert tours, being
especially successful in London and St. Peters-
burg. In the former he played a concerto of
Mozart's, on May 30, 1792. In 1794 he took up
his residence in Moscow, where he died, March
25, 1822. Many compositions for pianoforte
and organ, as well as songs, are mentioned by
Gerber in his Lexicon. (Mendel's Lexicon.)

HAGUE, C. Mus.D. Add day of birth,
May 4.

HAINL, Geokges. For corrections of this
article see Altes and Garcin in Appendix.

HALE, Adam de la (Le hossu or boiteux
d' Arras), one of the most prominent figures in
the long line of Trouvferes who contributed to
the formation of the French language in the
1 2th and 13th centuries, was born at Arras
about 1240. Tradition asserts that he owed
bis surname, Le Bossu, to a personal deformity ;
but he himself writes, ' On m'appelle bochu, mais
je ne le suis mie.' His father, Maitre Henri, a
well-to-do burgher, sent him to the Abbey of
Vauxcelles, near Cambrai, to be educated for
Holy Orders ; but, falling desperately in love
with a ' jeune demoiselle ' named Marie, he
evaded the tonsure and made her his wife.
At first the lady seemed to him to unite 'all the
agr^mens of her sex ' ; but he soon regarded her
with so great aversion that he effected a separa-
tion and retired, in 1263, to Douai,* where he
appears to have resumed the ecclesiastical habit.
After this, we hear little more of him, until the
year 1282, when, by command of Philippe le
Hardi, Robert II. Comte clArtois, a ccom-
panied the Due d'Alen9on to Naples, to aid the
Due d'Anjou in taking revenge for the Vepres
Siciliennes. Adam de la Hale, having entered
Count Robert's service, accompanied him on
this expedition, and wrote some of his most
important works for the entertainment of the
French Court in the Two Sicilies. The story of
his death, at Naples, in 1285, is told by his con-
temporary, Jean Bodel d' Arras, in ' Le Gieus du

1 F£tis says to Paris.



Pelerin ' : the statement in the Diet. His
Prudhomme, that he returned to France
became a monk at Vauxcelles, is therefore
correct.

Adam de la Hale's most interesting work
a Dramatic Pastoral, entitled, 'Le jeu de R
et de Marion,' written for the French Coui
Naples, and first performed in 1285. El'
personages appear in the piece, which is wri
in dialogue, divided into scenes, and interspe
— after the manner of an Opera Comique — I
airs, couplets, and duos dialogues, or pieai
which two voices sing alternately, but dJ
together. The work was first printed by'''
Soci^t^ des Bibliophiles de Paris, in 1822
copies only), from a MS. in the Paris Libr
and one of the airs is given in Kiesewet
' Schicksal und BegchafFenheit des welth
Gesanges' (Leipzig, 1841).

Adam de la Hale was a distinguished ms
of the Chanson, of which he usually wrote
the words and the music. A MS. of the
century, in the Paris Library, contains 1
his Chansons a 3, in Rondeau form ; ar
Latin Motets, written on a Canto fermo, ■
Florid Counterpoint in the other parts. Fetis
knowing that the Reading Rota was comp
twelve or fourteen years at least before Adai
la Hale was born, erroneously describes t
Chansons as the oldest known secular (
positions in more than two parts. Kiesewf
has printed one of them, and also one of
Motets a 3, in the work mentioned. [W.S

HALEVY, J. F. F. E. Add that ' No^ '
finished by Bizet.

HALLE, Charles. Line 14 of article,
that he had visited England before 1848, the •■
at which he took up his residence here. Add
in July 1 888 he received the honour of knighth
and that on July 26 of the same year he mar
Mnie. Neruda.

HALLING. The most characteristic dant
Norway, deriving its origin and name from
Hallingdal, between Christiania and Bergen,
is thus described in Frederika Bremer's ' Strii
Frid ' (' Strife and Peace ') as translated by M
Howitt : ' Perhaps there is no dance which
presses more than the Hailing the temper of
people who originated it. It begins, as it W
upon the ground, amid jogging little hops, aco
panied by movements of the arms, in which, I
were, a great strength plays negligently. I
somewhat bear-like, indolent, clumsy, half-dre
ing. But it wakes, it becomes earnest, t
the dancers rise up and dance, and display th
selves in expressions of power, in which strei
and dexterity seem to divert themselves byp
ing with indolence and clumsiness, or to o



J HALLING.

b them. The same person who just before
'led fettered to the earth, springs aloft, throws
1 lelf around in the air as though he had
is. Then, after many break-neck move-
I ;s and evolutions, before which the unaccus-
I d spectator grows dizzy, the dance suddenly
1! nes again its first quiet, careless, somewhat
; y character, closes as it begun, sunk upon
,1 arth.'

16 Hailing is generally danced by single
ers, or at most by two or three dancing in
letition. It is accompanied on the Har-
er fiddle ('Hardangerfelen '), a violin
ig with four stopped and four sympathetic
^s. The music is generally written in 2-4
in a major key, and is played allegretto or
ro moderato, but a few examples are found
pie time. Many of the most popular Hall-
iunes were composed by Maliser-Knud, a
rated performer on the Hardangerfelen
flourished about 1840. The following is a
tional and characteristic example : —

ttegro Moderato



HAMMERSCHMIDT.



663



^



■ * *:J. • •



#^^^

s



t^r*-



Tr»-*^-Tr



[W.B.S.]

LMMERSCHMIDT, Andreas, was born
IX in Bohemia, in 161 1. His life was very
mtful. Details as to the circumstances of
larly life and training are wanting. In
he became organist at Freiberg in Saxony,
1 1639 exchanged that post for a similar one
tau in Oberlausitz, where he remained till
leath on Oct. 29, 1675. His epitaph de-
!8 him as ' that noble swan who has ceased to
lere below, but now increases the choir of
ground God's throne : Germany's Amphion,
I's Orpheus.' Though his outward life was
ntful, his works made him renowned as a
ian over the whole of Northern Germany,
le was on terms of intimacy with many of
lost important men of his day. Of musi-
he owed most to Heinrich Schiitz, but he
jarly struck out a line of his own, which
3 him of considerable importance historically
mection with the development of German
stant Church Music up to Sebastian Bach,
leral list of his works in chronological order,
brief notes on the more important, will
to illustrate his position in musical history.
' Musikalische Andacliten ' (Musical devo-
. Part I, having the sub-title ' Geistliche
irte' (which indicates their character as
m in the Italian concerted style with Basso
quo). Contains 2 1 settings of German sacred
■, I a I, 15 a 2, 4 a 3, I a 4.
'Musikalische Andachten.' Part II, with
lb-title, ' Geistliche Madrigalien ' (this sub-



title being meant to imply that the pieces are
written in the motet-style, but with the added
intensity of expression usually associated with
the idea of the secular madrigal). Contains 12 a
4, 8 a 5, 4 OS 6.

3. 'Musikalische Andachten,' Part III, with
the sub-title 'Geistliche Symphonieen (implying
the combination of voices and instruments).
Contains 31 pieces.

These three parts of 'Musikalische Andachten'
were published at Dresden in the years 1638, '41,
'42, respectively. In these works he takes Schiitz
for his model ; and Winterfeld says of them that if
he is inferior to Schiitz in grandeur of conception,
he surpasses him in a certain elegance and grace,
and in the smoothness of his part-writing.

4. ' Dialog! oder Gesprache zwischen Gott
und einer glaubigen Seele, aus den Biblischen
Texten zusammengezogen und componirt in 2, 3,
und 4 Stimmen, nebenst dem Basso Continue'
(Dialogues or Conversations between God and
the believing Soul, etc.) 2 parts, Dresden, 1645.

This work opened a new vein in sacred com-
position. First, Bible texts are so chosen as to
give occasion to not only successive but simul-
taneous contrast of musical expression, e.ff. texts
of prayer for one voice with texts of promise for
the other, etc. Secondly, verses of chorales are
interwoven with settings of Bible texts. We are
familiar with the later use of these devices in the
Kirchen-Cantaten of Sebastian Bach. The
first part of these ' Dialogues ' contains 22 pieces,
10 a 2, 10 a 3, 2 04. The second part consists
chiefly of settings of Spitz's versified translations
from the 'Song of Songs,' 12 pieces with ac-
companiment of two violins and bass, and three
so-caUed Arias, not Arias in our modern sense,
but in the sense in which Bach used the word, as
in his motet 'Komm Jesu, Komm.'

5. ' Musikalische Andachten,' Part IV, with
the sub-title ' Geistliche Motetten und Concer-
ten ' (Freiberg, 1646), so called because instru-
ments may be used for the most part ad libitum.
Contains 40 pieces, 4 a 5, 8 a 6, 5 a 17, 15 a 8,
3 a 9, 2 a 10, 3 a 12.

6. 2 parts of 'Paduanen, Gaillarden, Ballet-
ten, etc., for instruments.' (Freiberg, 1648, '50.)

7. Latin Motets for two and three voices
with instrumental accompaniment. (Dresden,
1C49.)

S. ' Musikalische Andachten, Part V, with
the sub-title 'Chor-Musik.' (Leipzig, 1653.) Con-
tains 31 pieces a 5 and 6, 'in Madrigal-manier.'

9. ' Musikalische Gesprache uber die (Sonn-
tags und Fest-), Evangelia.' (Dresden, 1655, '56.)

This work takes up again the form of the
'Dialogi' of 1645, and makes much use of the
interweaving of chorales with BibUcal texts. It
is in two parts, containing altogetiier 59 pieces
(mostly with instrumental accompaniment).



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