George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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10. ' Fest- Buss- und Dank-lieder ' (Festal,
Penitential and Thanksgiving Hymns), for five
voices and five instruments ad libitum. (Zittau,
1658.)

11. ' Kirchen- und Tafel-Musik ' ( Church and
Chamber Music), ' darinnen i, 2, 3, Vocal- und 4,

X X 2



664



HAMMEESCHMIDT.



5,6 Instrumental-stimmen enthalten.' Contains
22 pieces. (Zittau, 1662.)

12. ' xvii Missae sacrae 5 ad 12 usque voci-
bus et instrument! s.' (Dresden, 1663.)

13. ' Fest- und Zeit-Andachten' (Festal and
Ferial Devotions). Dresden, 1671. Contains 38
settings a 6, in motet style, but with compara-
tive simplicity of contrapuntal treatment, One
piece from this work, ' SchafF in mir, Gott, eiu
reines Herz ' (Make me a clean heart, God),
Jias been reprinted in Schlesinger's ' Musica
Sacra,' No. 41. It may be added that some of
Hammerschmidt's melodies passed into later
Chorale books; among others, his melody to
' Meiiien Jesum lass ich niclit.' For interesting
remarks on Hammerschmidt's style and his in-
fluence on the development of the later Church
Cantata in Germany, see Spitta's 'Bach'
(English edition), vol. i. pp. 49, 55, 58, 60, 69,
124,302. [J.E.M.]

HANBO rS, John. The treatise by this au-
thor, mentioned in vol. i, appears to be a com-
mentary on the works of Franco, or rather the
tivo Francos, and is chiefly interesting as giving
an account of the musical notation of the time.
Hanboys divides the notes into Larga, Duplex
Longa, Longa, Brevis, Semibrevis, Minor, Semi-
minor, Minima; each of which is in its turn
subdivided into pei-fect and imperfect notes, the
former being equal in value to three of the next
denomination below it, the latter to two. Con-
sidering the Larga as equivalent to the modem
breve, the minim would be equal in value to
our semi-demi-semiquaver. Hanboys abolishes
the name crotcliets used by Franco. This MS.
cannot have been written much later than the
middle of the 15th century, though Holinshed
enumerates John Hanboys among the writers of
Edward IV. 's reign, describing him as ' an ex-
cellent musician, and for his notable cunning
therein made Doctor of Music' He also appears
to have written a book, 'Cantionum artificialium
diversi generis,' which has been lost. Hanboys
was an ecclesiastic, if we may judge from the
epithet ' reverendus,' which is given to him at
the end of his treatise. [A. H.-H.]

HANDEL, G. F. P. 649 a, 1. 22, for fifth
read sixth. Line 37, ybr King's read Queen's.
P. 651 a, 1. 2'j,for I'j^o, read 1738. Line 16
from bottom, ybr April 18 read April 13. Line
5 from bottom, /or 1749 read 1743. P. 656 J,
1. 3, /or Eev. E. Ward read Rev. A. R. Ward.
Additions to the list of works will be found under
Handel Gesellschaft, below.

Among the Handel MSS. preserved in the
Royal Library at Buckingham Palace is a
'Magnificat,' in the great Composer's own hand-
writing, for eight Voices, disposed in a Double
Choir, with accompaniments for two Violins,
Viola, Basso, two Hautboys, and Organ. Tiie
work is divided into twelve Movements, dis-
posed in the following order : —

1. ' Magnificat anima mea.' (Chorus.)

2. 'Et exultavit.' (Duet for two Trebles.)
B. 'Quia respexit.' (Chorus.)

4. ' Quia fecit mihi magna.' (Duet for two Basses.)



HANDEL.

5. ' Fecit potentiam.' (Chorus.)

6. ' Deposuit potentes.' (Alto Solo.)

7. ' Esurientes.' (Duet, Alto and Tenor.)

8. ' Suscepit Israel.' (Chorus.)

9. ' Sicut locutus est.' (Clioius.)
10. ' Gloria Patri.' {Tenor Solo.)
n. A Kitomello, for Stringed Instmments only
12. ' Sicut erat.' (Chorus.)

Unhappily, the MS. is imperfect, an
minates with the Duet we liave indicati
No. 7. For the remaining movements, w<
indebted to another MS.,pre.served in the I
College of Music. The existence of this B6
copy — a very incorrect one, evidently p
from the separate parts by a copjnst whose'
lessness it would be difficult to exaggerate-
given ri.se to grave doubts as to the autho
of the work. It is headed ' Magnificat,
E"^. Sig''. Erba' : and, on the strength d
title, Chrysander attributes the work to a C|
Don Dionigi Erba, who flourished at Mib
the close of the 17th century. M. Schod
on the other hand, repudiates the superscrip
and considers that, in introducing some 8
seven Movements of the ' Magnificat ' into
Second Part of 'Israel in JE'^jpt,' and dim
' Sicut locutus est ' into ' Susannah,' as ' Yt
bolt,' Handel was only making a perfectly,
fiable use of his own property ; and this op
was endorsed by the late Sir G. A. Mac&
The reader will find the arguments on both
of the question stated, in externa, in the
pendix to M. Schoelcher's 'Life of Handel,
in the first volume of that by Dr. Chi-ysai
and must form his own judgment as to
validity. For ourselves, we do not hesitate to
our conviction that M. Schcelcher is u
right, in so far as the authorship is conc€
though he errs in ascribing it to the 'II
period ' on the ground that it is written on
Italian paper. The paper is of English n
facture, bearing a water-mark which, tak
conjunction with the character of the ]
writing, proves the MS. to have been writt
England about 1735-40; and, as 'Israel
written in 1736, nothing is more likely thai
Handel should have transferred passages
one work to the other. After a careful 1
ination of both the MSS., it seems to Ui
only that the external evidence, as far
goes, is in favour of this view ; but, thi
style of the Composition points, throuf
to Handel, as its undoubted author,
withstanding a few passages to which excf
has been taken, it everywhere betrays
evident traces of the Master's hand, th;
feel assured no critic would ever have dri
of questioning its authenticity, but fo
doubtful name on a MS. copy chiefly re
able for its inaccuracy. It is to be hoped
ever, that the matter will not be allowed 1
here. Some further evidence must, sooi
later, be produced, on one side or the
If Erba really wrote the 'Magnificat,'
trace of it ought to be found in Italy. -
while, it is much to be wished that some
prising publi.-^her would facilitate the disci
by issuing a cheap edition of the work, n



HANDEL.

ich has yet appeared in print. For further
lation see vol. i. p. 491 and 654, and
present writer's Life of Handel, chap.

[W.S.E,.]
.NDEL AND HAYDN SOCIETY. For
luations see Boston Musical Societies in
adix, vol. iv. p. 555.

.NDEL, COMMEMORATION OF.
8 a, as to the question of the date of the
iser's death, see p. 6515. Line 11, read
Society of Musicians,
.NDEL FESTIVAL. P. 6585, 1. 21
jnd of article, ybr six read ten, adding the
of the four latest festivals, 1880, 18S3,
^the festival of 18S6 being anticipated in
that it might coincide with the bi-centenary
composer's birth) and 1S88. Line 8 from
fter all add down to 1880, and that after
ate the festivals were conducted by Mr.
s.

;NDEL-GESELLSCHAFT. The edition
indel's entire works in score, for which this
y was formed in 1856, is now approaching
etion, so that a full list of its contents can be
! which is at the same time the most com-
|ist of the composer's works. Dr. Friedrich
ander has been sole active editor from the
encement, having for some few years at the
ling had the little more than nominal co-
;ion from Eietz, Hauptmann, and Gervinus.
ditor has paid frequent visits to England to
t Handel's original manuscripts, upon
, the edition is based throughout ; and has
■ed the scores written for the purpose of
3ting by Handel's secretary J. C. Smith,
; previously belonged to M. Schoelcher.
I-18 of this edition were issued by Breit-
•i Hartel of Leipzig ; but in the year 1864
itor terminated this arrangement, and en-
engravers and printers to work under his
liate control on his own premises at Berge-
lear Hamburg. All the volumes from
i) have been thus produced ; and with vol.
important improvement was made in the
I zinc (as a harder metal) instead of pewter
|} engraved plates.

the following list, vols. 45, 48-53, 84, 95,
lid 98-100, are not yet published. An
[■k is prefixed to those works which are
ublished for the first time, at aU events in
;3te score. Vol. 97, in a different form
jblong shape of Handel's manuscript), con-
la facsimile of ' Jephtha,' which is of espe-
[iterest as showing the composer's style of
Ig when blindness was rapidly coming on,
jiaking evident the order in which he
j— the parts of the score first written ex-
!ig his ordinary hand, while those which
[Aritten in later, when he was struggling
dinmess of sight, can be readily distin-
d by their blotched and blurred appear-

English Oratorios, Anthems, and other
vorks, are provided with a German version,
ed by Professor Gervinus, and after his



HANDEL-GESELLSCHAFT. 665

death by the editor ; and the few German vocal
works have an English translation added.
The Italian Operas and other vocal works, and
the Latin Church Music, have no translation.
The Oratorios, Odes, Te Deums, ' Acis and Ga-
latea,' 'Parnasso in festa,' Italian duets and
terzets, and Anthems, have a PF. accompani-
ment added to the original score ; but not the
Italian Operas, nor vols. 24, 38, 39. These ac-
companiments are partly by the editor, partly by
Im. Faisst, J. Eietz, E. F, Eichter, M. A. von
Dommer and E. Prout,

Dr. Chrysander has also published the follow-
ing articles on certain works of Handel's, which
should be combined with the information con-
tained in the prefaces to make the edition com-
plete: on vol. 13 ('Saul'), in Jahrbiicher fiir
musikalische Wissenschaft, vol. i ; on vol. 16
(' Israel in Egypt '), ibid. vol. 2 ; on vol. 47
(Instrumental Music), in Vierteljahrsschrift
fiir Musikvvissenschaft for 1887. Tlie promised
article on 'Belshazzar' has not yet been pub-
lished.

The account of this edition would not be com-
plete without mention of the munificence of the
late King of Hanover, who guaranteed its suc-
cess by promising to provide funds to meet any
deficiency in those received from subscribers ; as
well as of the liberality of the Prussian govern-
ment, which took the same liability after the
absorption of the territory of Hanover.

Vol.

1. Oratorio : Susanna. 1748.

2. Pieces pour le clavecin. (1. Eight suites, 1720. 2. Nine suites,

first published 17S3. 3. Twelve pieces, some hitherto unpub-
lished. 4. Six fugues, about 1720.)

3. Masque : Acis and Galatea, about 1720.

4. Oratorio : Hercules. 1744.

5. Do. Athalia. 1733.

6. Do. L'AUegro, il Pensieroso, ed il Moderato, 1740.

7. Do. Semele, 1743.

8. Do. Theodora, 1749.

»9. Do. Passion according to St. John (German), 1704.

10. Do. Samson. 1741.

11. Funeral Anthem for Queen Caroline, 1737.

12. Ode : Alexander's Feast, 1736.

13. Oratorio : Saul, 1738.

14. Coronation Anthems (Zadok the Priest ; The king shall rejoice;

Wy heart is inditing ; Let thy hand be strengthened), 1727.
»15. Oratorio : Passion, by Brockes (German), 1716.

16. Do. Israel in Egypt, 1738.

17. Do. Joshua, 1747.

18. Musicallnteilude: Choice of Hercules, 1750.

19. Oratorio : Belshazzar, 1744.

20. Do. Triumph of Time and Truth, 1757.

21. Concertos (6 'Hautbois Concertos' ; Concerto grosso In C, 1736 ;

4 Concertos, early works ; »Sonata in Bb, about 1710).

22. Oratorio: Judas Maccabeus. 1746.

23. Ode for St. Cecilia's Day. 1739.

»24. Oratorio : 11 Trioufo del Tempo e della Verity (Italian), 170^
1737.

25. Dettingen Te Deum, 1743.

26. Oratorio : Solomon, 1748.

27. Sonate da camera (15 solo sonatas, first published about 1724 ;

6 sonatas for 2 oboes and ba-^s, earliest compositions, 1696 ;
9 sonatas for 2 violins etc. and bass ; 6 sonatas for 2 violins etc.
and bass, 1738).

28. Twelve Organ Concertos, 1738, etc.

29. Oratorio: Deborah, 1733.

30. Twelve Grand Concertos, 1739.

31. Utrecht Te Deum and Jubilate, 1713.

32. Duett! e Terzetti (22 Italian vocal duets and 2 trios, 1707—8,

1741—5, six never before printed).

33. Oratorio: Alexander Balus, 1747.

34. Anthems, vol. 1. CChandos' with 3 voice-parts, with some

now first published). 1716—18.

35. Do. vol.2. CChandos 'with 4 voice-parts.)

36. Do. vol. 3. ('0 praise the Lord ' I •Wedding Anthems, 1734;

Wedding Anthem. 1736 ; »Dettingen Anthem, 1743 ;
•Foundling Hospital Anthem. 1749.)

37. Three Te Deums (in D. about 1714 ; in Bb, about 1718—20 : In A.

perhaps 1727).



666 HANDEL-GESELLSCHAFT.

as. Latin Church Music, about 1702. 1707. 1718, 17S5— 45.
39 Oratorio: Kesurrezicne (Italian). 1708.

40. Do. Esther. 1st version ('Hamaa and Mordecai,' a masque).

about 1720.

41. Do. Esther, 2nd version, 1732.

42. Do. Joseph. 1743.

43. Do. Occasional. 1746.

44. Do. Jephtha. 1751.

45. Do. Messiah, 1741.

46. Birthday Ode and Alceste. ^ . „ v„„*

47. Instrumental Music for full orchestra (tConcerto in F, aDout

1715 ; Water Music, 1715 ; •Concertos in F and D ; Flreworlt
Music, 1749; Double Concerto in Bb. 1740-50 (?); .Double
Concerto In F, 1740-50 (?) ).

48. Organ and miscellaneous instrumental music.

49. German, Italian, and English songs and airs.

50. Italian Cantatas, with bass. vol. 1.

51. Do. vol.2.
!U. Italian Cantatas, with instruments, vol. 1.

53. Do. vol. 2.

54. Serenata : II Parnasso in festa, 1734.
»55. Opera: Almira (tierman), 1704.
»56. Do. Eodrigo, 1707.

57. Do. Agrippina. 1709.

»58. Do. Kinaldo. 1711.

tm. Do. II Pastor Fido, 1712.

60. Do. Teseo, 1712.

•61. Do. Silla, 1714.

♦62. Do. Amadlgi, 1715.

•63. Do. Eadamisto, 1720.

•64. Do. Murio Scevola. Act 3, 1721.

•65. Do. Floridante. 1721.

•66. Do. Ottone, 1722.

•67. Do. Flavio, 1723.

63. Do. Giulio Cesare. 1723.

•69. Do. Tamerlano, 1724.

•70. Do. Eodelinda. 1725.

•71. Do. Scipione, 1726.

•72. Do. Alessandro. 1726.

»73. Do. Admeto. 1720.

•74. Do. Eiccardo, 1727.

•75. Do. Siroe, 1728.

♦76. Do. Tolonieo. 1728.

•77. Do. Lotario. 1729.

•78. Do. Partenope. 1730.

♦79. Do. Poro, 1731.

•80. Do. Ezio, 17:i2.

81. Do. Sosarme, 17^2.

•82. Do. Orlando, 1732.

•83. Do. Arianna. 1733.

84. Do. Terpsichore and second Pastor Fido, 1731.

•85. Do. Ariodante. 1734.

•86. Do. Alcina, 1735.

•87. Do. Atalanta, 1736.

•88. Do. Giustino. 1736.

•S9. Do. Arminio, 1738.

•90. Do. Berenice. 1737.

•91. Do. Faramondo. 1737,

•92. Do. Serse, 1738.

•93. Do. Imeneo. 173='— 40.

W. Do. Deidamia, 1740.

95. Aci e Galatea (Italian), 1708 and 1732.

96. Miscellaneous Vocal pieces.

97. Oratorio: Jephtha. facsimile of Handel's MS. score.

98 and 99. Facsimiles of Handel's autographs. r-n -yr -i

100. Thematic Catalogue of Handel's works. L±x.i.t-L.j

HANOVER. This spirited tune has been
frequently ascribed to Handel, but cannot be by
him, as it is found in ' A Supplement to the
New Version of the Psalms,' 6th ed. 1708, two
years before Handel arrived in England. In
the Supplement it is given as follows : —
Psalm Lxvii.
A new Tune to the 149th Psalm of the New 'Version
and the 104th Psalm of the Old.
a 2 voc.



HARMONIOUS BLACKSMITH.





The tune is anonymous, but is not impn
by Dr. Croft, the reputed editor of the 6t «
tion of the Supplement. [G, 1

HANOVER SQUARE ROOMS. P. '
1. 9, for details of the concert see vol. ii. p. '
note I. Line 39, /or 1866 read 1869. _

HARINGTON, Henby, M.D. See I
p. 691.

HARMONIC MINOR is the name aii
to that version of the minor scale which co i.
the minor sixth together with the major se^
and in which no alteration is made in asc( '
and descending. Its introduction as a sub: 1
for the old-fashioned or ' Arbitrary ' niinoi :
was strongly advocated by Dr. Day and
[see Day, vol. i. p. 436 a], and of late y
has been very generally adopted. It iin
that its use is calculated to impress the li j
with a sense of the real characteristics ')
minor mode, but its merits are counterba
by the awkwardness arising from the augn
second between the sixth and seventh *
while it is difficult to regard it as a diatouii s
at allj in spite of its theoretical correctness J

HARMONIOUS BLACKSMITH, I

Handel's variations on the air known in Ei
as ' The Harmonious Blacksmith ' were ovh
printed in No. 5 of his first set of ' Suites de '
pour le Clavecin,' in Nov. 1720. As no n
there given to the air, and even do-wn to tli
of the late Robert Birchall it was still pul
only as 'Handel's Fifth favourite Lessoi
his first Suite de Pifeces,' it has been gei
assumed to be Handel's composition as ^
the variations. Upon this point, however,
have arisen since Handel's death, and ^
claims have been put forth, of which at lef
still remains undecided. The first claim s
' Anthologie Fran9aise, ou Chansons c s
depuis le treizifeme sifecle jusqu' k pr(5sent'
3 vols. 8vo, 1765). The editor of that wo
J. Monnet, and, according to M. Fetis, ' oe
est estim^.' In the first volume are the
ing eight lines, printed to the air, and a; ,
to Clement Marot : —

Plus ne suis que j'ai 6i4,

Et plus ne saurais jamais IStre;
Mon beau printems et men 6te,

Ont fait le saut par la fenetre :
Amour! tu as et6 mon raaltre.

Je t'ai servi sur toua les dieux:
Ah ! si je pouvais deux fois naitre,

Combien je te servirais mieuxl



HARMONIOUS BLACKSMITH.

Ithough these lines might pass for one of
extravagant love-songs of Clement Marot in
earlier years, if we allow for their being
ented in a modernized form, yet no trace of
Q is to be found in his published works, nor
ay song like them. A thorough search has
I made through the long poems as well as the
t pieces, lest these lines should prove to be
extract. The name of Clement Marot is
efore an assumed one. The air itself is not
il like music of the 1 5th century. When there-
Professor J. Ella informed his readers in the
jplement to Programme of Musical Union,'
e 6, 1865, that this melody 'was first pub-
3d in a collection of French Chansons printed
Jallaed in 1565 to words of Clement Marot,

died in 1545,' there was some misunder-
ding between his informant, M. Weckerlin,
himself. On writing recently to Mr. Wecker-
to inquire whether there was such a book
lis custody, he being Librarian to the Con-
atoire de Musique, in Paris, the writer was
rmed that nothing was known of such a
k, and that the earliest French edition known
him was in the above-named 'Anthologie
ti9aise,' not of 1565, but of 1765. Professor
k thought also that he had seen the melody
. French collection, a copy of which was sold
,he library of the late Wm. Ayrton, F.E.S.
tracing it through the sale catalogue to its
sent resting-place in the British Museum, it
ved to be ' Lot 38. Ballaed (J. B. Chr.)
Clefdes Chansonniers, ou JRecueil des Vaude-
es depuis cent cms et plus, notez et recueillis
r la premiere fois' (2 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1717)-
•e we find the name of Ballard, suggested by
fessor Ella, but not the melody in question,
'he next claim is for G. C. Wagenseil, an
nent clavecinist of Vienna, who was born
je years after Handel. The late Dr. Wm.
tch, Professor of Music at the University of
brd, informed the present writer that he had
1 the air in a piece of music for the clavecin
iposed by Wagenseil.

)r. Crotch made a similar communication to
late Richard Clark, adding that the volume
vhich he saw it was one in the possession of

Hague, who was then Professor of Music at
University of Cambridge. In 1836, Richard
rk published a book in folio, entitled ' Remi-
;ences of Handel,' and in it he referred to the
'rmation he had received from Dr. Crotch

to the liberty given to him to use it (p. 65).
rk then published a new edition of the piece,
ing to Wagenseil the credit of th* air, and to
adel that of the variations. The diSiculty in
ving priority between the two contemporaries
es from the fact that published music was,

is, undated. We know the date of Handel's
'lication only from an advertisement by his
ilisher. In Vienna music was copied, not
ited, even so late as 1772 or 1773, when Dr.
•ney visited that capital.
In his youth,' says M. Fetis, 'Wagenseil was

fashionable composer for the clavecin, and

music was much sought for long afterwards.'



HARMONY.



667



Wagenseil's op. i, 2, 3 and 4 are all sets of six
pieces for tbat instrument, like Handel's two
sets. But the circulation of Wagenseil's music
was limited to manuscripts from the copyists of
Vienna until he was fifty-two years old. His
op. I was then first printed — not in Vienna, but
at Bamberg — in 1740, when the copyright had
probably expired. He wrote five other sets for
the clavecin, of which manuscript copies were in
the hands of Breitkopf & Hartel of Leipzig at the
end of the last century. We know very little
of Wagenseil in England — for Handel eclipsed
all competitors — but he was highly esteemed on
the continent.

As to the question of priority it is far more
probable that Handel copied from Wagenseil
than vice versd, because Handel borrowed .sys-
tematically from other authors, dead and living,
whenever he found anything to suit his purpose.
Dr. Crotch was an enthusiastic admirer of
Handel, and yet he published a list of twenty-
nine of the best composers from whom Handel
' quoted or copied,' with an et ceteris to indicate
that he had named only the principal sources
(Lectures on Music, 8vo, 1831, p. 122, in note).

The story of Handel's having heard the air
sung by a blacksmith at Edgware, while beating
time to it upon his anvil, and that Handel there-
fore entitled it ' The Harmonious Blacksmith,' is
refuted by the fact that it was never so named
during Handel's life. The late Richard Clark
was the propagator, if not also the inventor, of
this fable. In Clark's edition of the lesson he
has gone so far as to print an accompaniment for
the anvil, as he imagined Handel to have heard
the beats. He states that the blacksmith was
also the parish clerk at Whitchurch. A few
months after Clark's publication the writer saw
the late J. W. Winsor, Esq., of Bath, a great
admirer of Handel, and one who knew all
his published works. He told the writer that
the story of the Blacksmith at Edgware was
pure imagination, that the original publisher of
Handel's lesson under that name was a music-
seller at Bath, named Lintem, whom he knew
personally from buying music at his shop, that he
had asked Lintem the reason for this new name,
and he had told him that it was a nickname
given to himself because he had been brought
up as a blacksmith, although he had afterwards
turned to music, and that this was the piece he
was constantly asked to play. He printed the
movement in a detached form, because he could
sell a sufficient number of copies to make a profit,
and the whole set was too expensive. It is
worth mentioning that Beethoven has taken the
theme, whether consciously or unconsciously, for
the subject of a two-part organ fugue published
in the supplementary volume of his works issued
in 1888. [W.C]

HARMONY. The inference suggested on
p. 681 a has been happily verified by Mr. H. E.
Wooldridge, who found the two forms of the
seventh on the subdominant in a succession
which strongly points to their common origin, in
the following passage by Stradella : —



66S



HARMONY.




ill which the minor seventh, arrived at in the
manner usual at that time, is seen at (a) ; and
the modified seventh in which the bass is
sharpened so as to produce a diminished seventh
appears at (b). [C.H.H.P.]

HAROLD EN ITALIE. The last sentence
but one is to be corrected, as the first performance
of the work in England took place at Drury
Lane Theatre in tlie winter of 1S47-48, when
Berlioz conducted and Hill played the viola part.

HARP. P. 6S6a, 1.30-34. The Lamont harp
cai-ried 32 strings. The Queen Mary harp had
originally 29, and a later addition made 30 in all.

Add the following notice of an innovation in
harp manufacture : — The difficulties attending
performance of the harp, the constant tuning
necessitated by the use of catgut strings, and the
absence of any means of damping the sounds,
have induced M. Dietz, of Brussels, to invent a
harp-like instrument with a chromatic keyboard,
which he has named the Claviharp. It has been
introduced into England through the advocacy
of Mr. W. H. Cummings, but the introduction
(1888) is too recent to admit of a just compari-
son being made between this instrument and
the ordinary double-action harp. It is sufiicient
to say that the action of the Claviharp is highly
ingenious, the strings being excited mechanically
much in the same way as the strings of the harp
are excited by the player's fingers. There are
two pedals — one being like the pianoforte damper
pedal and the other producing the harmonics of
the octave. The Claviharp is of pleasing appear-
ance. [A.J.H.]



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