George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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HERZ, Henki. Add date of death, Jan. 5,

RIG ? One of the most universally popular of
German Volkslieder, the words of which were
written about 181 2 by Joli. Rudolph Wyss, junr.,
in the dialect of Berne, and the music composed
by Joh. Ludwig Friedrich Gliick, a German
clergyman (1 793-1840). The popular ' In einem
kiihlen Grunde ' (Das zerbrochene Ringlein), is
a setting of EichendorfF's words by the same
composer. Both date from about 18 14. [M.]

HERZOGENBERG, Heineich Von, born
June 10, 1843, at Gratz in Styria, studied at the
Vienna Conservatorium from 1862-4, after wliich
his time was divided between Gratz and Vienna,
until 1872, when he went to Leipzig. From
1875 to 1S85 he was conductor of the Bach-
verein in that town, and was subsequently ap-
pointed head of the department of theory and
composition at the Hochschule at Berlin. In
the spring of 1886 he succeeded Kiel as professor,
and at the same time became head of an aca-
demical ' Meisterschule ' for composition. His
works are for the most part remarkable for
breadth, vigour, and originality. That they bear
traces of the influence of Brahms is surely no
reproach, nor is that influence so marked as to
impeach their individuality of style. The list
includes: — 'Columbus,' a cantata; 'Odysseus,'
a symphony ; ' Deutsches Liederspiel,' for soli,
chorus, anil pianoforte ; variations for two pianos,
and a second set, op. 23, on a theme by Brahms;
trio for piano and strings in C minor, op. 24 ;
two trios for strings alone, op. 27 ; choral songs
or volkslieder, op. 26, 28, 35 ; Psalm cxvi. for
chorus, op. 34 ; sonata for pianoforte and violin
in A, op. 32 (the only work by which, through
the agency of Joachim, the composer's name has
yet become known in England) ; trio in D minor
for pianoforte and strings, op. 36 ; a second
sonata for the same in E b, op. 54 ; a sonata for
pianoforteand violoncello, op. 52 ; organ fantasias
on chorales, op. 39 and 46 ; three string quartets,
op. 42 ; symphony in C minor, op. 50 ; piano
pieces and duets, op. 25, 33, 37, 49, and 53 ;
songs and vocal duets, op. 29-31, 38, 40, 41, 44,
45, 47, 48. His most recent works are ' Der
Stern des Lied's,' for chorus and orchestra, op.
45 ; and 'Die Weihe der Nacht,' for the same
with alto solo, op. 56. (Information from Dr. A.
Dorffell, etc.) [M.]

HEXACHORD. P. 734 J, 1. 12, /or sol
read la.

HEY, or HAY. The name of a figure of a
dance frequently mentioned by Elizabethan


writers. Its derivation is unknown ; tte word
may come from the Frencli haie, a hedge, the
dancers standing in two rows being compared to
Ledges. Its first occurrence is Thoinot Arbeau's
description of tlie passages at arms in the Bouf-
fons, or Matassins [see vol. ii. p. 236 S], one of
which is the Passage de la ha3'e. This was only
danced by four men, in imitation of a combat.
Mr. Chappell ('Popular Music,' p. 629) remarks
;that 'dancing a reel is but one of the ways of
i dancing the hay. . . .In the " DancingMaster" the
j hey is one of the figures of most frequent occur-
irence. In one country-dance " the women stand
I still, the men going the hey between them."
This is evidently winding in and out. In an-
! other, two men and one woman dance the hey, —
jlike a reel. In a third, three men dance this
hey, and three women at the same time, — like a
[double reel.' There is no special tune for the
hey, but in Playford's ' Musicks Hand-maid '
(1678) the following air, entitled ' The Canaries
or the Hay,' occurs : —








• ' a 1 , I

. : . ' i \ :— 1

HILDEBRAND, Zachabte (1680-1743), and
his son JoHANN Gottfeied, were eminent organ-
builders in Germany. The latter, who was the
principal workman of the Dresden Silbermann,
built the noble organ of St. Michael's, Hamburg,
in 1 762, which cost more than £4000. [V. de P.]

HILES, Henry, born Dec. 3, 1826, at Shrews-
bury, received instruction from his brother John ;
he was organist successively at Shrewsbury, as his
brother's deputy ; at Bury in '46 ; at Bishop-
wearmouth in '47 ; St. Michael's, Wood Street,
in '59 ; at the Blind Asylum, Manchester, in '6o ;
at Bowdon in '61 ; at St. Paul's, Manchester,
1864-67. In 1852-9 he travelled round the
world on account of ill-health. He received the
degrees of Mus.B. Oxon, '62, and Mus.D. '67.
In the latter year he resigned his post of organ-
ist; in '80 he became lecturer on harmony and
composition at Owens College, and at the
Victoria University ; he was one of the pro-
moters of the National Society of Professional
Musicians in 1SS2. He has been conductor of
several musical societies, and is now editor and
proprietor of the ' Quarterly Mu'sical Review,' a
modem namesake, established 1885, of the well-
known magazine of name. His compo-
sitions include 'The Patriarclis,' oratorio, '72 ;
' War in the Household,' operetta, '85, from the

German of Castelli ('Hausliche Krieg'), origin-
ally composed by Schubert ; ' Fayre Pastorel '
and ' The Crusaders,' cantatas ; settings of
Psalms xlvi. and xcvi ; several anthems, services
and part-songs ; Prelude and Fugue in A ; Do. in
D minor, a Sonata in G minor, 6 Impromptus,
2 Sets, ' Festival March,' etc. for organ ; piano-
forte pieces and songs. He has written books
on music, ' Grammar of Music,' 2 vols., Forsyth
Bros. 1879; 'Harmony of Sounds,' 3 editions,
71, '72, '79; First Lessons in Singing, Hime
& Addison, Manchester, '81; 'Part Writing
or Modern Counterpoint,' Novello '84.

His elder brother, John, born 18 10, at Shrews-
bury, was also an organist at Shrewsbury, Ports-
mouth, Brighton, and London. He wrote piano-
forte pieces, songs, and musical works, ' A
Catechism for the Pianoforte Student,' 'Catechism
for the Organ,' 1878, 'Catechism for Harmony
and Thorough Bass,' 'Catechismfor Part Singing,'
'Dictionary of 12,500 Musical Terms,' '71, etc.
He died in London, Feb. 4, '82. [A.C.]

HILL. See London Violin Makers, vol. ii.

HILLER, Ferdinand. P. 737 i, 1. 11 from
bottom, for 1871 read 1870. Add that he con-
ducted the Philharmonic Concerts in 1852, and
that he died May 10, 1885.

HISTORIES OF MUSIC. It will be neces-
sary in this article to confine our attention almost
exclusively to Histories proper, except in cases
where there are none of the subject under treat-
ment ; so that only occasional mention will be
made of Musical Biographies, Dictionaries, Manu-
scripts, and Periodicals, or works on the Theory
of Music. Most of the works enumerated, unless
marked with an asterisk, will be found in the
library of the British Museum. The dates of the
first and latest editions are usually given. For
convenience we shall have to adopt four principal
headings, namely : — General Histories of Music,
Histories of separate Countries, of Musical In-
struments, and of a few other special subjects
arranged alphabetically ; anil most of these will
have to undergo further subdivision.

I. General Histories of Music.

(a,) Ancient Music. The earliest writings bearing at
all upon the history of music are the 'ApixoviKriq eyxet-
piSiov of Nicomaohus (see Wei bom 1, and the Trept fiov-
criKij! of Pliitarcli, edited by Eicliard Volkmann in
1356, and by Rudolf "SVestplial in IWJ"). Pausanias' 'Grse-
ciae Descriptio Accurata' also cuntains frequent allusions
to music and musicians. Otlier early works relating
partially to music are the ' Deipno-sojOiistfe ' of Athe-
nseus and tlie 'Stromata' of Titus Flavius Clemens
(Clement of Alexandria^, the latter dated A. D. 194.
From that period down to the R' naissance musical
writers appear to have been too deeply eni,Tossed in the
development of the music of their own time to bestow
much thought upon that of the past ; and it is only by
the chronological juxta|>osition :ind study of the works
of such authors as St. Augustine, Boethius, St Isidore
of Seville, Bede, Hucbald, Guido d'Arczzo, Philip de
Vitry, Odington, Dunstable. (lafbri. Glare:in, etc., that
we can obtain an adequnte history of music in the early
and middle ages. Johannes Tiuctor wrote a treatise
' De Origine Musicae ' in the I.'ith century ; Rud.
Schlickius' '*Exercitatio de mu>icoe oriiiine," publii^hed
at Spiers in 1588 was thought highly o*' in its day; the
' De Mnsica ' of F. Sjilinas, l.'i I2, is chiefly theoretic. In
10.52 appared M. Meibom's excellent work 'Antiquae
musicjE Auctoros Septem,' in 2 vo's. which was not
surpassed till the iiublioaliin in 1784 of Abb^ Martin
Gerbert's ' tjcriptores Ecclesiastic! de Musica,' in '6 vols.



Abb^ P. J. Eoussier also wrote a ' M^moire sur la Mn-
sique des Anciens ' in 1770, which is Bpoken highly of.
In the present century we have G. W. Fink's ' Erste
"Wauderung durch die alteste Tonkimst,' 1831 ; C. vou
Winterfelds 'Gabrieli und sein Zeitalter,' 1834; C. E.
H. de Coussemaker's invaluable woi-ks ' Histoire de
I'Harmonie au Moyen Age,' 1852 ; ' Les Harmonistes des
12e et 13e Siecles,' 1864; ' Scriptorum de Musica Medii
^vi Nova Series,' 4 vols. 1864-76; 'L'Art Harmonique
au Moyen Age ' 1865 ; ' Trait^s in^dits sur la Musique
du Moyen Age,* 1865 ; Carl Engel's ' Music of the most
Ancient Nations,' 1864; Eudolf Westphal's ' Geschichte
der Alten und Mittelalterlichen Musik.' 1865; Albert
von Thimus' 'Die Harmonikale Symbolik des Alter-
thums,' 186S; F. J. Eetis' 'Histoire g^nerale de la Mu-
sique,' 5 vols., 1869-76 (unfinished); William Chappell's
'History of Music from the Earliest Records to the
Fall of the Koman Empire,' 1874 ; Er. Auguste Gevaert'a
'Histoire et Theoriede la Musique de I'Antiquit^,' 1875-
81; W. Brambach's ' Musikliteratur des Mittelalters,'
1883 ; F. X. Haberl's ' Bausteine ftir Musikgeschichte ' (a
series of musical biographies, beginning with Willem
Dufay), 1885; J. F. Rowbotham's 'History of Music'
(down to the Troubadours), 3 vols. 1885-87.

(b^ Modern Mnsic. The best histories are Abb6 G. J.
Vogler's ' Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Tonkunst im
19 Jahrhundert.' 1814; Gustav Schilling's 'Geschichte
der heutigeu Musik,' 184 1 ; A. L. Blondeau's 'Histoire
de la Musique Moderne,' 1847 ; A. B. Slarx' ' Die Musik
des 19 Jahrhunderts,' 1855; John Hullah's 'Historj^ of
Modern Music/ 1862-75, and 'Eectures on the Transition
Period of Musical History,' 1865-76.

(c) General Histories, of Ancient and Modem Music
combined. Sethus Calvisius' important work 'De initio
et progressu Musices' appeared in 1600, and a second
edition in 1611 ; this was followed shortly by Michael
Praetorius' still greater ' Syntagma Musicum,' 1615.
Other useful works of this pei-iod bearing on the subject
are Pdre M. Mersenne's ' Traite de I'Harmonie Univer-
selle,' with the Latin version 'Harmonicorum Libri
xii,' 1627-48 ; J. Albert Banuus' ' De Musices Natura,
etc., 1637; Pietro della Valle's 'Delia Musica dell' eta
nostra,' 1640, containing a good description of music in
the 15th, 16th, and early IVth centuries (see G. B.
Doni's works, vol. ii.i ; Pater Athanasius Kircher's
' Musurgia Universalis,' 1650 ; Wolfgang C. Printz's
' Historische Beschreibung der Edelen Sing- und Elling
Kunst,' 1690— this little work is interesting as the iirst
real history of music by a German; it is published in
the 1749 edition of Printz' Musical Lexicon.

The following is a list of the principal musical his-
tories of the l8th and 19th centuries : — Jacques Bonnet's
' Histoire de la Mu-ique et de ses Effets,' 2 vols. 1715,
1716; Hon. Kuger North's 'Memoirs of Musick,' 1728
(reprinted 1S4G); Bourdelot's 'Histoire de la Musique,'

3 vols. 1743; Olivier Legiponfs 'De Musica ejusque . . .
Origine' (a well-written work, contained^ in his 'Disser-
tationes philologicse-bibliographicfe,' 174(i; F. W. Mar-
purg's ' Historisch-kritische Beytrage zur Aufnahme der
Musik,' 5 vols. 1754-78, and ' Kritische Einleitung in die
Geschichte . . . der . . . Musik,' 1759 (unfinished) ; Padre
G. B. Martini's splendid 'Storia della Musica,' 3 vols.
1757-81; Dr. Charle^Burney's ' General History of Music,'

4 vols. 1776-89; Sir John Hawkins"General History of the
Science and Pracaee of Music,' 5 vols. 1776, with reprints
in 18.53 and 1875, in 2 vols. ; J. B. de la Borde's ' Essai sur
la Musique Ancienne et Moderne,' 4 vols. 1780; J. N.
Forkel's ' AUgenieine Geschichte der Musik,' 2 vols.
1788-1801; C. Kalkbr-ennpr's 'Histoire de la Musique,'
2 vols. 1802 ; ' Musical Biography ' (1500-1800), 2 vols.
1814; Dr. T. Busby's ' General History of Music,' 2 vols.
1819; W. C. Staflord's 'History of Music,' 1826-^0 (vol.
62 of Con'tablf's Miscellanyi; Dr. W. C. MUller's '.^s-
thetisch-historische Einleitungen in die Wissenschaft
der Tonkunst,' 2 vols. 1830; F. J. F^tis' 'La Musique
mise k la porl6e de tout le monde,' 1830, with the English
version 'A History of Music, or How to understand and
enjoy its Penorniance,' ly4(j; Dr. W. Crotch's 'Lectui-es
on Music,' 1831; B. G. Kiesewetter's 'Geschichte der
Europai sell- Abend I iindischen oder unsrer heutigen Mu-
sik,' 1834-16,' translated into English as 'A History of
Modern Mu=ic in Western Europe' in 1848; George
Hogarth's 'Musical History,' 1835; C. Czemy's 'Umriss
der ganzen Musikgeschiclite,' 1851 ; F. Brendel's ' Ge-
schichte der Musik in Italien, Deutschland und Frank-
reich.' 1852-75 ; Dr. Joseph Schluter's 'Allgemeine Ge-
schichte der Musik,' 1853-63 lof which an English
translation appeared in 1865) ; Robert Schumann's
'Gesammelte Schrittenuber Musik und Musiker,' 1854-70


Lindner's ' Abhandlungen zur Tonkunst,' 1864; C. Abra-
ham MankeU's'MusikeusHistoria,'1864; A. W.Ambros'
' Geschichte der Musik,' 4 vols. 1864-78; A. Galli's 'La
Musica ed i Musicisti dal secolo X sino ai nostri giorni,'

18S0-85 (English translation, edited by Sir F. A. Gore
Ouseley i ; O. Fouque's 'Les Revolutionnaires de la Mu-
sique,' 1882; W. Langhans' ' Geschiedenis der Muziek,'
1882, etc. in Dutch; L. Nohl's 'Allgemeine Musikge-
schichte popular dargestellt,' 1882 ; Felix Clement's
' Histoire de la Musique ' (copiously illustrated i, 1885 :)
Sir G. A. Macfarren's ' Musical History,' 1885 ; W. g.
Rockstro's ' General History of Music,' 1886 ; Otto Wange-
mann's * ' Grundriss der Musikgeschichte.'

II. HiSTOKiES OF Separate Counteies.

(a> AFRICA.— M.Villoteau's ' De I'fitat actuel de I'art
musical en figypte,' 1812 : see also articles in Conte and
Jomard's 'La Description de I'figypte,' 1809-26.

(bi AMERICA.— G. Hood's (of Philadelphia) ' History
of Music in New England,' 1846 : N. D. Gould's ' History
of Church Music in America,' 1853; F. L. Hitter's 'Mu-
sic in America,' 1883.

(c) ASIA.

1. Music of the AnABS.— R. G. Kiesewetter's ' Die
Musik der Araber,' 1842; F. Salvator Daniel's 'La Mu-
sique Arabe,' 1879 ; J. P. N. Land's* ' Recherches sur I'his-
toire de la Gamm e Arabe ' ; Alexander Christianowitsch's
' Esquisse historique de la Musique Arabe,' 1863.

2. Chinese. — P. Amyot's 'M^moires concemant
I'histoire . . . des Chinois,' vol. vi, liSl; J. A. van Aalst's
' Chinese Music,' 1884.

3. Hebrews. — The first important work on this
subject. Salomon van Til's ' Digt, Sang, en Speel konst
. . . der Hebreen,' is written in Dutch 1 1692-1728). Other
writings are August F. Pfeiffer's ' Ueber die Musik der
alten Hebraer,' 1779, and Dr. J. Stainer's 'Music of the
Bible,' 1879.

4. HiNDOOS.-William Jones's 'On theMusical Modes
of the Hindus,' 1792; N. A. Willard's 'Treatise on the
Music of Hindostan,' 1834; S. M. Tagore's 'Hindu
Music,' 1875-82.

5. Japanese.— A. Kraus' 'La Musique au Japon,'

6. Persians.— Sir W. Ouseley's 'Persian Miscella-
nies,' 1791, and ' Oriental Collections,' 1797.


1. British Isles.

England.— We have had many writers on music, from
Thomas Morley downwards, and even historians of
music, such as Bumey, Hawkins, and in modern times
William Chappell and others, but no historians of note
have yet thought it worth while to write a history of
English Music. The following are some of the "best
works relating to it : — J. Parry and C. Williams's 'An-
cient British .Music' 1742; Joseph Ritson's 'Collection
of English Songs, with an Historical Essay on National
Song,' 3 vols. I8l3 ; Richard Hooper's ' Music and Mu-
sicians, especially English, to the days of Purcell,' 1855:
William Chappell's 'Popular Music of the Olden Time,'
2 vols. 1855-9; E. F. Rimbault's 'Early EngUsh Organ
Builders and their Works,' 18^5-71 : W. A. Barrett's
' English Glee and Madrigal Writers,' 1877, and ' English
Church Composers,' 1882 ; F. L. Hitter's ' Music in Eng-
land,' 1883. Perhaps however the best History of English
Music would be formed by collecting together Ouseley's
contributions to Naumann's ' History of Music'

Ireland.— Joseph C. Walker's • Historical Memoirs ol
the Irish Bards,' 1786 ; M. W. Hartstonge's ' Minstrelsy
of Erin,' 1812; Edward Bunting's 'Ancient Music of Ire-
land,' 1840 ; M.Conran's work ' On the National Music
of Ireland,' 1846-50.

Scotland. — Joseph Eitson's 'Historical Essay on Scot-
tish Song' (1794?); John Gunn's 'Historical Enquiry
respecting the Caledonian Harp,' 1807 ; MacdonaUl's
'Ancient Music of Caledonia,' 1820; W. Daimey's 'An-
cient Scottish Melodies . . . with an introductory . . .
History of the Music of Scotland,' 18.38; Sir J. G. Dal-
yell's 'Musical Memoirs of Scotland,' 1849.

H'afes.— There are some MSS. in the British Museum,
chiefly in Welsh, relating to Ancient British Music,
wrritten at various periods since the time of Henry VIII,
by WilUam Penllyn, John Jones. Richard and Lewis
Morris, etc. (Additional MSS. 14905, 14i39, 15<«6, etc.v
Other works on Welsh Music are R. Eastcott's ' Sketches
of the Origin ... of Music, with an account of the Bards,'


^ 1793-6 ; Edward Jones's ' Musical and Poetical Eelics
the Welsh Bards . . . with a history of the Bards and
uids,' 1794 ; John Thomas's ' Songs of "Wales . . . with
historical Bardic Introduction ' ; Ernest David's
itudes historiques sux la poesie et la mosique dans
Cambrie,' 1884.

2. Feaxce.

'General Mittoriet.—'Di. C. Bnmev's ' Present State of
isic in Eiance, ' etc., 1771 (a French version of the
isical Travels in France, Germany and Italy ai>-
ired in 1809) ; ' £tat actuel de la Musique du Eoi,'
'Z : G-. Desnoiresterres' ' La Jlusique frangaise au
v'Xne si^cle: Gluck et Piccinni,' ls72; C. E. Poisot's
[istoire de la Musique en France,' 186U ; H. M. Schlet-
er's 'Studien zur Geschichte der franzbsischen Musik,'
■4 : C.BellaigTie's 'Un Siecle deilusique fi"an(;aise,' 1887.
rch Music— J. L. F. Danjou's 'De l'!^tat du Chant
-lastique en France,' 1844.
. /; ' nsons, etc. F. Marion-Dumersan's ' Chants et Chan-
DspopulairesdelaFrance.'3 vols. 1843; Champfleurys
hansons populaires des Provinces de France,' IStiO;
Lespy's 'Notes pour I'Histoire de la Chanson,' 1861.
Opera and Musical l>ianiu.— Histories of this branch
Music have been very numerous in France during
e present century ; a list of the best is subjoined : — M.
.stil-Blaze's 'De I'Opera en France,' 1820; Guatave
louquet's 'Histoire de la Musique Dramatique en
■ance,' 1873 ; Jacques Hermann's • Le Drame Lyrique en
■ance,' 1878 ; E. G. J. Gregoir's ' Les Gloires de I'Opera,'
c, 3 vols. 1881; A. PouRin's 'Les vrais Createurs
: rOp^ra francais,' 1881 ; M. Dietz' ' Geschichte des
usikalischen Dramas in Frankreich,' ls8.5 ; H. M.
•hletterer's ' Yorgeschichte und erste Versuche der
anzCsischen Oper,' 188.5 ; C. Xuitter and E. Thoinan's
-iBS Origines de I'Opera framjais.' 1886. See also under
TLIIEX in Appendix, vol. iv. p. 687,
Provinces, etc.— C. E. Poisot's ' Essai sur les Musiciens
ourguignons,' 18o4; Mile. E. Chuppin de Germigny"s
3e I'Etat de la Musique en Normandie,' 1837. For
Isace and Lorraine see Geemant.


General Histories. — In spite of all the musical historians
ad writers whom the Fatlierland has produced, from
alvisius down to Forkel, there are scarcely any general
istories of German Music. The best works on the
abject are :— F. H. von der Hagen's ' Minnesinger,' etc.,
B38, 1850 ; C. E. P. AVackernagel's ' Das Deutsche Kir-
henlied bis zum Anfange des 17ten Jahrhunderts,' 1841 ;
ohannes Merkel's * ' Betrachtungen iiber die Deutsche
onkunst im 18ten Jahrhundert '; C. F. Becker's 'Die
Cauamusik in Deutschland im 16, 17, und 18 Jahrhun-
ert,' 1840 ; Emil Xaumann's ' Die deutschen Ton-
ichter,' 1871 ; A. Keissmann's ' Illustrirte Geschichte
er Deutschen Musik.' Is81 ; F. Chorley's ' Modern Ger-
lan Music,' 2 vols. 1854.

Volislied, etc. — K. von Liliencron's 'Die historische
'olkslieder der Deutschen vom 13ten bis 16ten Jahr-
undert,' 1865-9; F. M. B6hme's 'Altdeutsche Lie-
erbuch aus dem 12ten bis zum 17ten Jahrhundert,'
S76; E. O. Lindner's ' Geschichte des Deutschen Li;des
n XViil Jahrhundert,' 1871; E. Schure's 'Histoire du
Lied," ' 1868 ; ' Talvj's ' ' Ge^chichtliche Charakteristik
er Volkslieder Germanischer Nationen,' 1-4(J ; A. Eeiss-
aann's 'Gescliichte des Deutschen Liedes,' 1874; Aug.
aran's ' Eobert Franz und das Deutsche 'V^olkslied.' 1875.

Opera, etc. — E. O. Lindners 'Die erste stehende
Deutsche Oper,' 1855 ; H. M. Schletterer's ' Das Deutsche
iingspiel,' 1863.

Provinces, etc. — J. P. Lobstein's 'Eeitrage zur Ge-
chichte der Musik in Elsass.' 1840; A. Jacquot's 'La
ilusiqne en Lorraine.^ 1882; Christian Kitter d'Elvert's
Geschichte der Musik in Miiliren und Oeslerr-Schlesien,'
873; D. Mettenleiter's 'Musikgeschichte der Oherpfalz,''
867; G. DOring's ' Zur Geschichte der Musik in Preus-
en,' 18.52 ; M. Ftirstenau's ' Zur Geschichte der Musik
lea Theaters am Hofe von Sachsen,' 1861; Franz Hoff-
nann's 'Die TonkUnstler Sclilesiens,' 1830 (see also
I'El vert's work).

4. Greece.

In the absence of Musical Histories of this country by
iarly Greek writers, we may mention, as works usefiJ
:o the student, A. Boeckh's edition of Pindar, 3 vols.
1811-21, and Plutarch's work already alluded to, which

s interesting as the only sui"viving work of that time on
:he history of Greek Music. Other works on this subject
ire:— F. L. Feme's ' Exposition de la Semeiographie, ou
Notation Musicale des Grees,' 1815; F. von Drieberg's

Die Musik der Griechen,' 1n19 : Friedrich Bellermann's
^Die Tonleiten und Musiknoten der Griechen,' 1847 ;
oarl Fortlage's ' Das musikalische System der Griechen,'
1847; A. J. H. "Vincent's 'De la Musique des Anciens



Grecs,' 1854 ; C. F. "Weitzmann's ' Geschichte der Griech-
ischen Musik,' 1855; Oscar Paul's 'Die Absolute Har-
monik der Griechen,' 1866; Johannes Tzetzes' 'Ueberdie
altgriechische Musik,' 1874; Eudolf Westphal's 'Die
Musik des Griechischen Alterthums,' 1883 ; E. G. Kiese-
wetter's ' Ueber die Musik der neueren Griechen,' etc
18:^8-38. ^


F. Liszt's 'Die Zigeuner nnd ihre Musik in TJngam,'
1883. See also appendix to K. Abranyi'a ' Altalinos
ZenetSrtenet,' 1886.

6. Italy.

General Histories.— The excellent writings of Pietro
della Valle and Padre Martini were not confined to the
music of their own country. Some of the principal
works on Italian Music are :— Peter J. Grosley's ' Nou-
veaux m^moires . . . sur I'ltalie,' 1764-74, which was
thought so highly of that a German edition appeared at
Leipzig in 1766 ; G. V. Orlov's ' Traite de Musique,— Essai
sur I'Histoire de la Musique en Italie,' 2 vols. 1822
(Italian and German versions in 1823-41 ; Emil Nan-
mann's 'Die ItaUenischen Tondichter,' 1874-6; C. Bur-
ney's 'Present State of Music in Italy,' etc., 1771; G. A.
Perotti's ' Sullo stato attuale della Musica Italiana,'
1812 ; Chevalier X. van Elewyck's ' De I'fitat actuel de
la Musique en Italie,' 1875 ; Giov. Masutto's ' Maestri di
Musica Italiani del nostro secolo,' 1880 i2nd edition).

Opera, etc. — L. Eiccoboni's 'Histoire du Theatre Ita-
lien,' etc., 2 vols. 1728-31 ; Stef. Arteaga's well- written
work 'La Eivoluzinne del Teatro Musicale ItaUano,'
3 vols, 1783-8 (French edition, 1802.)

Separate Toicns, etc. — BOLOGNA. Gaet. Gaspari's 'La
Musica in Bologna' (19th centuryj. LucCA. There is
a work by an anonymous writer, 'Delia Musica in Lucca'
1871. N.\ples. ilarchese di Villarosa's 'Memorie del
Compositor! di Musica di Napoli,' 1840; Cavaliers F.
Florimo's 'La Scuola Musicale di Napoli,' etc., 4 vols.
1871-82 ; M. Scherillo's ' Storia letteraria dell' Opera
Buffa Napolitana,' 1883. EuME. ' Die Papstliche Sanger-

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